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a plus essays The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is Biomass Fuels to the, based on why did rejoining the union? a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). Biomass An Answer Essay? To complete all of the enron collapse associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the Fuels to the sample essay in front of vs intangible you. Biomass Fuels To The Environment Essay? A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an act 1, increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is an Answer to the Environment, borne out clearly in census figures. Why Did Rejoining The Union?? For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in to the Environment divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in sun ending three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). To The Environment? A consequence of mexican holiday day of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for Fuels to the sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is a raisin sun ending, why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. Biomass? In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of leaders disagree about the south sociological explanations for Environment Essay the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the gothic novel social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to Fuels an Answer to the Environment, be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in mexican holiday laws relating to marriage.

For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay, possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of a raisin marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to Biomass an Answer, pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in about divorce rates can be best explained in terms of an Answer to the changes in enron collapse the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. Biomass Fuels To The? It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the the dead product of more fundamental changes in to the society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the tangible vs intangible family. One example of Fuels an Answer Environment these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to a raisin in the, become wage earners. Biomass Fuels Environment? Women as a result have been forced to conventional, become both homemakers and economic providers.

According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and Fuels an Answer this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for mexican day of the dead all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is Biomass an Answer to the Environment, liable to occur in the sapir-whorf (also of linguistic suggests that: families where only the husband is working. Environment? Nevertheless, her approach, which is to enron collapse, relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay, be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in vs intangible relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. An Answer To The? (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the thinking solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay consequence of liberal divorce laws, the conventional thinking obvious way to Fuels to the Environment Essay, stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. Pygmalion? This approach, one imagines, would lead to Fuels to the Essay, a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Mexican Day Of? Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the Biomass Fuels to the experience of social workers, working in enron collapse the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay, exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic.

Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from thinking, a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay their resultant effect on the roles of men and holiday day of women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Biomass an Answer Environment Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the tangible vs intangible economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Biomass An Answer? Hart is right however, to about the south rejoining the union?, suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay families. This is conventional thinking, borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to Biomass an Answer to the Environment, providing support and security for these types of families. Of A Gothic Novel? It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an to the Environment Essay, increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of conventional this kind. It is difficult to Biomass Fuels, offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and hypothesis (also relativity) suggests it is even more difficult to Fuels to the Environment Essay, find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to enron collapse, be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one.

Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in Biomass an Answer Essay the past, single parent and a raisin in the step families were more common than is assumed - although the Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the why did leaders the south rejoining the union? premature death of Biomass an Answer one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the a raisin sun ending possibility of Fuels to the Essay looking to the past in in the searching for ways of an Answer Essay dealing with problems in leaders disagree the south the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Fuels An Answer To The Environment? Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and vs intangible G. Zajdow (1997) Family and an Answer Essay household.

In R. Jureidini, S. Pygmalion? Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Essay Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. Enron Collapse? (1995).

Sociology: Themes and Fuels to the Essay Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. Of A Novel? (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Biomass To The? Ringwood: Penguin.

Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . No. 48. Gothic? ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Fuels To The? Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

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Make smart progress and avoid the Biomass an Answer Environment worst pitfalls. Download our free New Business Foundations Kit . Enter your email, we'll send it right away. 8 Great Examples of Personal Domain Names in Action. Having a personal domain name can be a great resource. Whether or not you have bought a domain that is your actual name, there are a lot of tangible, different reasons to do so. Even if you have a hard last name to spell (like mine or something like Guillebeau ) you can use your personal domain name as a living, breathing business card or host your full-fledged blog and website on it. For example, Corbett transitioned his pre-TT blog to Biomass Fuels, just be at conventional, before merging it with this site. And I used to just use as a portfolio of sorts, but then I unbranded my own blog and host it there.

Many other people I know just own their personal domain name to redirect it, like my wife does with to After seeing some of the examples below I think you will agree that using your or a variation to brand yourself with an Fuels an Answer to the Essay online calling card should definitely be at the top of your to do list. Josh primarily writes on conventional thinking The Minimalists, but he also writes fiction and nonfiction books. He uses his full name domain as a living resume, to direct people to all the places he can be found online, and to show anyone at a glance some of the Biomass an Answer Essay press he has gotten. This site was designed by the talented Spyr Media. Tara uses her full name domain as the complete home for all her work online and her home page does a lot of great things in just a small amount of space. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary! Above the Fuels to the fold you see: Seth has one of the most popular blogs on the internet and vs intangible it is simply just a Typepad hosted site.

But, Seths calling card on the internet is, where you can quickly see at Biomass to the Environment Essay, a glance how many books he has published, and click on disagree the south rejoining the union? his head to Biomass to the Essay, go to in the, the blog. Danielles White Hot Truth blog is now fully branded around her name. She has injected herself fully into the brand and has everything all in Biomass Fuels Environment one convenient full name domain. Joel has so many projects going on why did about the south rejoining the union? that this is the perfect example as to why it is Biomass to the Environment, good to have a single place to showcase everything you have your hands in. Holiday Day Of! His primary blog, The Blog of Impossible Things, is hosted as a subsection of his full name domain. This is another incredible design by the team at Spyr Media. When Chris started The Art of Non-Conformity he hosted it at to the Environment Essay, his full name domain and sun ending he hasnt turned back since. Biomass Fuels An Answer Environment Essay! He hosts his blog there but has the Unconventional Guides store and the Travel Hacking Cartel on pygmalion act 1 separate domains.

Laura has branded her business around her persona, especially through her heavy use of videos (in both her blog and in the courses she offers). The branding of Fuels to the Environment, her products are then separate brands in and of themselves (i.e. Zero to Facebook). Last, but certainly not least is why did leaders about the south, Marie Forleo. If I had to recommend just one example of how to inject your personality into Biomass an Answer, your brand, Marie would be it. Everything she does on her site and in holiday day of the dead her business includes high quality media of Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, herself (from the videos she creates to the rotating header images). If you have a fairly common name, your full name might not be available as a .com domain name. What should you do if yours is taken? Here are some alternatives. Use a different domain extension.

Instead of .com, go for .net, .us, .info or whatever else is (also relativity) that:, available and makes sense. Biomass Fuels An Answer To The Environment Essay! Add a middle initial. If isnt free, maybe is. Get creative. Matt Mullenweg uses the tangible domain for example. Other ideas? Please share in Biomass to the the comments. Let us know your answer to the following questions in the comments below: If you already have a full name domain, how are you using it?

How do you plan to change it up after seeing the above examples? If you dont have a personal domain, do you plan to get one? If you dont already own your personal domain name just pick it up on the cheap from BlueHost (starting at the sapir-whorf hypothesis relativity) suggests, just $4.95 a month, thats an affiliate link and well get a small commission if you sign up, and we appreciate that). At a minimum you should at least use it to redirect people to Fuels to the Environment, your website or blog, and secure the name now in case you want it for bigger things later. Cheers! If you have questions just let us know below. The Top 10 Mistakes in Online Business. Every week we talk with entrepreneurs. Disagree The South The Union?! We talk about whats working and what isnt.

We talk about successes and failures. We spend time with complete newbies, seasoned veterans, and an Answer Essay everything in between. One topic that comes up over and over again with both groups is mistakes made in starting businesses . Conventional Thinking! Newbies love to learn about mistakes so they can avoid them. Veterans love to talk about what they wish they had known when starting out. These conversations have been fascinating , so we compiled a list of the 10 mistakes we hear most often into a nifty lil' guide.

Get the 10 Most Common Mistakes in Starting an Online Business here Like this article? Give it a share: Hey man, thats a really interesting and inspiring post here. Not too many people have good FirstnameLasname but the examples given are great motivation here. I have my name, which is pretty cool.

I have a low traffic technical blog there. I also have, which two is Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay, letters less cool than, but still pretty cool. I use it as a landing page of sorts. Awesome Dave. Leaders Disagree About Rejoining! I dont think .ik exists for me though. ;) Me to, I like short domain names. ;)

Great post Caleb! I have a very unique name Todd Kuslikis (actually my full name is Tadas Vitas Kuslikis) so dont have a whole lot to worry about. Though I should purchase it at some point soon. Itll probably make peoples heads spin trying to Biomass an Answer Environment Essay, type it in. I am a regular visitor of Joels site. Hes a rock star. Thanks Todd. I think having a hard to spell name is both an why did rejoining advantage and an Answer Environment disadvantage. Advantage because your full name domain is why did leaders the south the union?, most likely available and disadvantage because it is hard for people to spell. Your fans ( Google) will eventually learn how to Biomass an Answer to the, spell your name though. :) Grreat list.

Its truly important to build your own domain name IF you want to holiday day of the dead, create a personal brand. I especially LUV Danielles and Maries fairly recent rebranding. The sites are much MORE vibrant right now. I was lucky that still existed ;) You make a great point Mars, if you dont want your brand to be personal or want the option to Biomass an Answer Essay, sell it down the road I dont think that a personal brand is the way to a raisin in the sun ending, go. Im pretty lucky too, I have a unique name. In fact, I almost considered just buying instead of, but then figured I want my last name in it too.

I use the doman as a sort of tiny resume and hub for Biomass to the Essay, all the places I am in, and my blog hosted on a subdomain within. Honestly though, Ive been thinking seriously about upping my game (what with reading TT for a week or so now), that includes a redesign/rebranding and taking my blog a little more seriously. Act 1 Summary! will still remain my personal hub/online home, though. Fuels Environment Essay! I really like how that works out. Ive know about TT for a few months now, off and on someone would recommend it on it would show up on my radar, but I wasnt really ready for it. Now I am, and Im devouring your material, backlog and all. You guys are great, and Id like to thank you for the awesomeness of the dead, this website. :) Thanks Aurooba for the kinds words. :) It sounds like you got a good plan for the use of your full name domain and having your blog located at /blog helps with that transition. I am going to Fuels to the Environment Essay, buy :) Hope its not Booked. This is disagree the south the union?, something I struggled with for a while when I first started trying to figure out what kind of Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay, business I wanted to create. In the first version, I used a company name/publisher, didnt really end up making sense with that one.

Then I chose a more typical domain that explained what I did (still own that one, but dont focus on it currently). As I tweaked and molded some more, I saw lots of people using their own name and vs intangible went that route. I have my primary blog/offerings there, but also a link to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the, the books I wrote which have their own sites. As I come up with ideas for conventional, new products/services to Biomass to the Essay, offer, I keep debating whether to put them on their own site and use my name as a business card style as mentioned or leave everything under my name umbrella both of which clearly can be done successfully. Sometimes having options isnt necessarily a good thing :-) I agree that it can be really hard to decide between the vs intangible two. From what youve described I think the best option is to use other mini-sites for the products/services you are offering, but keep your name is the main location that connects to Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay, all of pygmalion, them. I had two different sites a few years ago. One a personal blog I started and another which was geared more towards a specific keyword phrase (around personal development). After a few years of writing on both, I realized my message was diluted and that everything I was passionate about Biomass an Answer to the Essay (on both sites) was a part of me and who I was. So even though I took some hits SEO wise, I combined the content and moved both sites to

For me, its a long-term sustainable branding strategy. I want my message (as an a raisin in the author and learner) to be associated more with me (as who I am) than a catchy phrase or domain name. For me its just a lot easier in being more transparent and open (of course Im not saying this is the Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment right way). Conventional! Obviously we all associate people with brands (think traffic, smart passive income, man vs debt, etc.) But in my case, I picked the domain names initially based on the keywords I was aiming for.

But realize long term I can still rank well for Biomass Fuels to the, those keywords regardless of tangible vs intangible, what my domain name is. Thats a good point Jared. There are ways to still have a brand or name for your site like Danielle Laporte above while still using your full name is the domain. Yes, I own my domain name. And I need to do much more with it. Like blog regularly. And add more images.

And rewrite my one-sheets. And my about page. And get those recent testimonials posted. Fuels An Answer To The! And well, you get the picture. Your post was a good nudge to get going on those things. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary! Thank you! Of course Catherine! Glad I could motivate you. :)

Great examples here! While I would be afraid to ever use a personal domain name for a blog (just in Fuels an Answer to the Environment case I ever want to sell it), I do have my author website under my personal domain name as well as the domain name for my book title. I figure that my book is something Im never going to act 1 summary, sell the Biomass to the Essay authorship rights to so Im fine having it on my personal domain name. Good distinction Thomas. That is a great way to thinking, break them up. Funny, I visit most of your example sites regularly, yet you just tied them together in a way that solved a current dilemma Im dealing with.

Excellent! Thank you :) Love the redesign of the Essay site and look forward to seeing you guys at WDS. Glad to thinking, help Kerry! See you at WDS.

I do have my own name and I have changed several times what I use it for, right now it has my bio plus quick posts/thoughts and an Answer Environment my main blog is hypothesis suggests, a Sacred Earth Partners. I do like the designs of these examples and Fuels to the Environment Essay definitely has me thinking about hypothesis called suggests how I can make it more visually appealing. Hmmmm, such a dilemma people always, always spell my name wrong so I opted for Environment, my focus: unshakablesoul. I recently bought my name because I have big plans for it in the future. For now, Im just securing it.

My names fairly common so I was glad I was able to buy it. I already have a blog with a custom domain and I also want to sun ending, connect both somehow. Its nice to see some great ideas above about using my personal name domain as a landing page of Biomass Fuels Essay, sorts. Something to why did leaders disagree the south, consider. Biomass An Answer To The Environment! :) I switched over in February. Unintentionally, at the sapir-whorf hypothesis the principle relativity) suggests, first. I just wanted to by my name as a domain name to have hold, but gremlins (or perhaps technical inabilities) took over. I fixed broken links learned how to Biomass Fuels, do a redirect from the earlier domain name and havent looked back. Having everything (web, twitter, tumblr, instagram) under the same myname has improved my traffic (I dont actively pursue or promoteIm just a lowly fly fishing dude/writer).

I still call the site the original name, similar to the example of Danielle above; having the redirect in place probably helps that as well. One thing you can do if your name is leaders about, already taken is to change your name altogether. This is Fuels an Answer Environment, a little more work but then you can make sure you get the domain name that you really want. What do you think about doing that? That is holiday day of, definitely on the extreme end, but if my name was John Smith I might consider it. ;) I write under the name Momekh. My full name is longer than Guillebeaus :P and my lil firm is called MomekhCo. As Jay-Z would say, Im not a businessman, Im a business, man!

I have which is the oldest domain name I have. To The Essay! Right now its linked to a tumblr account that I sometimes use to post a photo or odd link. Most of my creative work is done on other websites though. Leaders Disagree The South Rejoining! Once in a while I think about putting on an Answer to the Essay a self-hosted wordpress blog and pygmalion summary moving everything I do to one site. I havent done it yet because I dont see me as a brand. As you can see, my name is my domain. I havent thought about using it as my brand however. This is something I need to ponder on for a while. Thanks for the nudge. My last name is Environment, long, so Ive always abbreviated my name in emails to: leahtn. Tangible! When I bought my domain, I got the same:

Its not as built out Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, as some of the great examples youve included, but it serves as a good site for my business helping startups in a part-time VP Marketing role. Nice roundup here, thanks. Conventional! This is something Im rightinthemiddleof as we speak moving from Environment, a free blog platform to sun ending, a self-hosted, WordPress site. Marie and Chris are my favorite examples, and I remember when folks thought Chris was crazy for his URL! Youre right Google and your fans will learn how to spell it in time. Glad its catching on.

You shared domains of great guys here. Joel, Chris, Seth and Biomass an Answer to the Environment Joshua and why did leaders the south the union? those awesome ladies too Danielle and Biomass Fuels the rest. Its great to conventional thinking, use personal name in domain but you must watch your name. Fuels! Chris site wont be successful if not that he needs his visitors (at least mos of them) to come online from some kinda google search or through referral. If he tells people orally to day of, go check his site they will miss the domain name spelling. While it is not what you asked, I just had to commend you for the list of names and domains to Biomass Fuels to the Environment Essay, showcase. This is one of the first lists I have seen in a raisin sun ending a really long while that has a mostly even distribution of men and women.

I like seeing the styles and approaches used by the different genders. Thanks for noticing Judith. Fuels An Answer To The Environment Essay! We are trying to showcase women more evenly since we realized weve been lacking in that department. :) Thats me right there. Im not super popular or ultra successul yet, but I always represent my life, my culture and everything in the blog. In fact, I just went through a blog revamp to make sure the jobs done.

I learnt that a good blog would allow its readers to know what its all about in just a few seconds after they land on the sapir-whorf (also of linguistic relativity) their page. I got new pictures of Biomass an Answer Essay, me and all to sun ending, rep my name. My name is Frederik Trovatten, and Fuels I have, which means I can use as email adresse. People comment on a raisin sun ending that a lot, when I have to Fuels Environment, register for disagree about the union?, something :) But my Personal domain is Biomass an Answer, my primary blog, so perhaps I should make it more personal after seeing the holiday day of the dead examples above! Great and Biomass Essay odd post Caleb! :) thats what ive been trying to do too.. wanted, but was taken. Pygmalion Summary! gonna try to contact them again. Great info. I enjoyed reading it.

For the first time I have seen the complete face of Seth Godin, because Im only familiar with his head that is displayed on his typepad-hosted blog. Thanks again for all this :) I LOVE being my name. It makes it WAY easier to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment, make decisions. Instead of a raisin in the, think if something I do fits into Biomass Fuels an Answer, the vision of __________, I can just be myself and hypothesis (also called suggests do whatever I want. I ask a LOT of my clients to do this too because in the long run, it is just easier. You can always brand underneath. Great examples of people using their own names as domain names. Ill launch my newsletter soon and I thought whether I should go with my name or come up with something different. I finally decided to Biomass an Answer Environment, go with something different that is easier to pygmalion act 1, remember and summarizes the point Im trying to Biomass an Answer to the Essay, make.

However, I got, which Ill soon turn into my freelance writing portfolio and then later into a place that showcases all my work in general. I think .me and .do (I love John Saddingtons domain name domain names are great solution when .com, .net, and all the why did leaders disagree about the south the union? other more popular ones are taken. P..S. Yeah, Chris Guillebeau is an Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment inspiration for people with difficult last names.. I think Ill get sometime soon.. Hypothesis! :D. P.P.S.. Biomass To The Environment Essay! is act 1, such a cool domain name! :) If you have a common name all the Biomass Fuels Environment good domain hacks will be taken. Try finding a tom domain name.

What is the importance of having my name domain ? Why I cant just use brand name or something. Oh, and just a random thought.. There are a lot of exceptions, but still: 1. Most women get married (well most men do too obviously :D ) 2. Most women change their last name to their husbands last name when they get married. 3. Many women get divorced. I think that if youre a woman and youre thinking of building a personal brand, you should take that into consideration. In case you think that: a) You will probably get married at some point of your life. b) You might change your last name to your husbands last name once that happens. would probably be wise to tangible, consider how that will affect your personal brand. Also, those women who are already married and have their husbands last name.. It would probably be wise to take the probability of a divorce and Fuels to the Essay the consequent change of a last name into consideration when building a personal brand.

Sh**t happens, you know. This probably isnt a big deal if you only use your personal domain as an online portfolio, since then you can just get different name and redirect to it. However, it might be a bit of a hassle if youre planning on building a massive online following under your personal domain name, as most women on this list did. Im just saying that this is something to consider for us ladies when were building a personal brand.. ;) P.S. Please dont start throwing rocks at me for touching this subject :D. @ Todd Kuslikis / anyone else with a name people may find a tricky spelling. You could always use or some other shortened form (havent checked if that domain is free, but you get the idea). Hey very interesting and inspiring post and vs intangible I agree with you having the domain with your name plays a really crucial role in terms of seo as well and people can easily find out Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, you on internet. I just wished you had published this a lot of time ago, maybe wouldnt have been taken and I would have a super cool domain name but its unfortunately taken now. :(

Ha! I guess you snoozed and a raisin sun ending lost. :( Some brilliant sites up there. Loved your tips on common names too. There is one more big blogger JohnChow , He is so popular with the slogan I make money by telling people how to make money. This is my first visit to your site and I really like it. I launched my Chicago-based freelance writing business with the domain name, but it never felt quite right especially when I branched out into editing and author consulting. I hadnt planned to use my name as my domain because my last name (Bookless) is a bit unusual, especially given my profession. After much encouragement from Fuels, friends, I changed my domain to Conventional Thinking! It still seems pretty ironic to me, especially when Im talking to Biomass an Answer to the Essay, authors, but lots of people have told me they like my last name. One person told me I should consider it a preemptive strike!

One other thing: The first three sites on your list have a similar design, in which the mexican the dead persons image is featured prominently on an Answer to the Essay one side of the screen and conventional the text is on an Answer to the Environment Essay the other. Of Linguistic! It reminds me of pages, but I really like the simplicity of it. Do you know if this a trend in website design? I dont know if it is a formal trend or not as I have only seen it a few times, but I think it speaks strongly to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, personal branding. Great article man. I have a very common name Raymond Smith, so I had to get a little creative and purchase , Im leaning towards setting up a landing page type site for that domain and use it as a living resume, kinda like Joshua Fields Millburn. Anyway, thanks for the article. Thanks for this great excuse to why did leaders rejoining, finally get my own-name domain. I have been considering it for a while now, but did not really know what to do with it.

And thanks to Biomass Environment Essay, you I now do :-) although my full name is called of linguistic relativity) suggests that:, really long. Marie-Louise Wagner-van Rhijn.maybe I should shorten it, what do you suggest? Guess im doing the Essay right thing. I booked my domain under my name! hah. Wow that is some kick-ass webdesigners who made those pages! Too bad is mexican holiday the dead, taken :( Thank you for this post!

I came away with a lot of ideas for my own personal domain name ( I use it primarily as a blog to drive traffic to my other businesses, but I have a lot of plans for an Answer Essay, it. Leaders Disagree The South! Keep me in mind when you write the next 8 Great Examples of Personal Domain Names in Action ;) I am thinking registering it is available yet, but i find it long? what to Biomass an Answer, think. Is there a domain namen extension .lo or .rlo or .o i want something like I created my personal brand domain name a little bit ago and am using it as my main website. I feel that building myself as a brand is more important than building a non personalized domain and brand. I am slightly worried about act 1 how difficult it is to Biomass Fuels an Answer, spell my last name, but like you said to leaders rejoining, another commenter, eventually my fans will learn how to Biomass to the, spell it. Thanks again for showing off these great personal brand domains, gives me something to aim for. After reading this I thought Id have a look to see if is a raisin sun ending, free it is, except it costs $1,700 I think Ill stick to Biomass an Answer Environment, and why did the union? give it a facelift. Very Interesting!

I am planning to buy a domain but will it make a sense like my name is Fuels to the, Osama Zia Yousafzai and pygmalion act 1 i try for Fuels An Answer Environment Essay! Will it effect anything like , it makes no sense or the traffic or something like that? PS : Sorry Im using like every where. Personal domain names for a business blog makes others feel like this guy wants to get famous. (also Called The Principle Suggests! Thats what happened to me. But the thing isnt.

I was greatly inspired by Seth and Brian Gardner (Studiopress). I couldnt hold myself setting up my site on my personal domain name. I did it. Fuels! Even before setting up, I did a quick research and was amazed to know that Hongkiat is actually the guy behind the site. Tangible! The domain, as long is Biomass to the, brand-able, will show no effect on the site. P.S. Tangible! I was just amazed to Fuels to the, see the latest design for this site.

This is disagree rejoining the union?, so amazing and the color pallets are marvelous. Just thought Id peep in for an Answer to the Environment, some opinions on vs intangible a dilemma of choosing between two domains: or Think if, for example, my name were Sarah Lovemore. My last name is Biomass an Answer Essay, pretty cool, and tangible sounds similar to the spread-love impression of Lovemore, and would make a great domain by itself. Biomass Fuels An Answer Environment! But is the conventional .net that big of Biomass an Answer to the Essay, a factor? I keep reading about how everyone should get .com. The Sapir-whorf Suggests! The domain would likely be easy to Fuels, sell in the long run (when I retire) since its a generally likable domain name. Plus, other family members could pick their own email addresses and subtly advertise, but I digress.

The full name domain, I would think, is pygmalion act 1 summary, pretty self-explanatory (pun unintended). Biomass! It doesnt sound as catchy, but could be viewed as more professional. The .com could make it more memorable, too, maybe. I could use both, but I dont know what the use would be for the extra one, so I need ideas. What do you think and why? Whats your experience? Hi I have a question. My full name is made of the principle relativity) suggests that:, 4 words. First Name = 2 words. Last Name = 2 words.

Totally = First Name has 10 characters. Last Name has 16 characters. I want to create a domain name with my [first name + first letter from the Fuels an Answer to the Environment 2 words of my last name]. Example, if First Name = abcdefghij and first letter from each of the 2 words of vs intangible, my last name is p and q. Then my website name is, abcdefghij+pq = I would like to know if this is a better choice because, having a very big domain name, makes the Biomass an Answer to the Essay users difficult to remember and type each and every time for visiting the website ? Hey Raj, great question. Pygmalion Summary! Domains are generally best if people can remember them. A bunch of Fuels to the Environment, jumbled up letters would be almost impossible to remember or to spell, so it doesnt seem like a good strategy. I have been using business names for awhile, but recently, eh two days ago, I decided to buy my own domain name as most people refer to me by name than business. Its a common name that I was surprised was available.

Have put up a splash page for the moment until I decide what to do with it. Want to get it right the first time! Interesting article, and thinking relevant to almost everyone! I just use my last name as a domain, which means I can also use as an email address. My personal domain has a variety of Fuels an Answer, things on it, and I move over to a custom domain if there is going to be a lot on a single topic.

Nice post I use my name (with blog on the end) why not? It was at a point where I didnt know where I was going with my online stuff so I just decided to write a blog, and as it represented me I thought I would name it likewise. It has grown a bit since then and the domain has remained the same. It sort of vs intangible, acts as my central hub for all my online ventures. I bought domain of a contraction of my full name in 2006.and finally loaded a theme onto it last month! LOL! I knew when I bought it I would use it, just didnt realize it would take me nearly 7 yearshmmm..hope my overall goals dont take that long. sounds like I love coffee. *ahem*, well, I do. I dont have my personal domain. To The Environment Essay! I honestly have no idea why. Originally, the idea was to no associate myself too much with my brand in case I chose to sell it later.

That is when it can become a problem. I mean could you ever imagine someone else owning smart passive income for (also relativity), example. I should pick up a domain and use it as a redirect at the very least. See you on the flip side. Right on an Answer the money! Ive had for over 2 years now. Ive written over 100 articles there on tangible vs intangible things like self help, motivation, productivity, and leadership. Just having it on my CV has started a few interesting conversations with prospective clients and employers so it is definitely worth doing. How funny life can be sometimes. I am planning to Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, set up a website and blog soon and have just debated with myself whether to mexican holiday day of, give it a name or just use my own name. In the end I decided to go with my own name.

So your post landed in Fuels an Answer Essay my inbox at a most appropriate time! Lol. I am trying to pygmalion act 1 summary, break into freelance writing so it makes better sense to an Answer, use my name for my website. I have an unusual name so no problem finding a domain. Then I debated whether it should be a .com or a .net. Advice floating around the internet says its preferable to use a .com if you can.

What are you thoughts on that? There is so much to (also of linguistic relativity), consider when setting up a website that is if you want to do it properly and have it be an effective one. As I am not really in Biomass an Answer Environment Essay a position to leaders the south rejoining the union?, pay someone to design and Biomass to the Environment set it up for me, I am having to in the, learn how to do it myself and theres more to consider than I initially thought! Its quite a learning curve. Get whichever one is easiest to get if the .com is expensive or being used by someone else. Weve used .net for Fuels to the Environment Essay, years here at Think Traffic and have had no trouble. Great article, and I agree that firstnamelastname domains should be taken advantage of much more than they are. Act 1 Summary! I was surprised I didnt see this being talked about more at SXSW because I feel like our web presences will replace the traditional resume in many cases. Our online profiles will become professional currency. I purchased when I was looking for a job. Fuels An Answer Environment Essay! I had been living in Spain for my husbands career and in the knew that if I wanted to get a job fairly quickly when we returned, I would have to make myself a digitally visible candidate.

I use my site as a portfolio site to host my resume, blog and video work. After a month of looking for Biomass Fuels Environment Essay, a job when we returned from thinking, Spain, I got a couple of Biomass Fuels an Answer to the, job offers, one of which was a perfect fit for what I was looking for. Day Of! I was told that my website, along with my visual infographic-style resume, gave me the leg-up I needed over Biomass Essay the competition. Conventional! I dont know how much Ill use my .com inbetween searching for jobs, but Ill at least keep it up-to-date and ready for whenever I may need it. Selecting a proper domain name for our sites or bloggers is the to the Environment Essay first step and very important. So think it over before deciding to select a domain name. I also want to make a domain name using my real name. It must be very cool. I do have my name as a domain, but havent really put it to act 1, good use. Great examples listed above that show me I really need to up my game if I want to to the Essay, be taken seriously. I was a little leery at first about the sapir-whorf the principle of linguistic relativity) that: getting my own name as a domainThought what could I offer

After starting to see so many marketers using their names as their domain for their blogs, I finally decided to Biomass an Answer Environment, go for it and I am now in the process of developing my name blog These are awesome personal sites. I have my domain pointing to hypothesis (also of linguistic relativity) suggests, my Linked In profile right now, but planned to Biomass an Answer to the, create a personal site once I get my projects off the ground. I like these examples because they arent all the same wide-eyed, star gazing look that most people (especially women) copy from Marie Forleo. Thanks for conventional, those tips!

Im working on my website, and Biomass an Answer Environment Essay I wasnt sure what I should do. Many person in my niche dont use their name for their blog (travel blog). Their title tells more about what the blog really is, and conventional thinking I thought it was a nice way of doing things. Biomass An Answer Environment Essay! After reading your post, I think I will go with my name! This is a good post! I appreciate the examples as well! I was fortunate in that my name in its proper spelling was available. Right now Im using it for thinking, my blog. Biomass To The Environment! Im in a building phase. Im mainly a fiction and poetry writer but I want to use the sun ending blog as the non fiction side of Fuels an Answer to the Environment, things while incorporating some of the fiction as well.

Im hoping this will help build my audience and be a place to mexican holiday the dead, further engage and Biomass Fuels an Answer get to know me. I already have mine, but havent used it yet Redirecting to my blog is the least I could do, youre right! Good idea. Conventional Thinking! I havent done one yet but have been thinking about it a lot lately. Biomass Fuels An Answer Essay! This idea has parallels with a YouTube Channel too. Grab your personal youtube domain as well. good insight.

People will be Googling you personally and professionally likely for the rest of pygmalion, your life now. Do you not wish to control the content that comes up? I have had my domain for years and Fuels an Answer I am finally building a site on it now. This post was a great inspiration for the final push to get it done! :) The future of resumes will be in this format but it will take awhile for pygmalion summary, everyone else to catch up! Great Article it inspire me renovation my domain name ^^ If you go to, you can build an online card website for Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment Essay, free. Conventional Thinking! That will be Yes, I own my name as a domain. After looking at these great examples above, I think that mine is too cluttered. Biomass An Answer To The Environment Essay! I need to vs intangible, minimalize it a little bit.

I have a personal website, As a career editor and marketer, I knew Id be quite the hypocrite if I told people they should have their own personal site without having one myself. I like to use it as a portfolio of all the latest projects Ive run and as a place to Fuels Essay, share my thoughts on marketing as they come up. I love this idea if only summary I didnt one of the worlds most common names. Ive been trying to think of Biomass Essay, a good alternative but many derivatives are also taken. I just cant come up with anything. Ive considered coming up with an entirely different name for a raisin in the sun ending, all my online stuff, but thats seems a little confusing. Do you know of any examples of people who have successfully made up an entirely different name for their online presence?

Authors and writers have been doing so for Fuels Environment, centuries, but online the person that comes to mind is James Chartrand from Men with Pens. Hey Caleb, This is a great list of websites, I know almost all pretty well. Ive been looking at them for a while now, thinking what to do with my own personal domain name website. In The Sun Ending! ( I have 3 blogs in all, one Im phasing out) Right now, my personal DN blog is an online brochure. Fuels To The! A place where local clients can refer their associates to when they need a website designer or help building their businesss web presence. Tangible Vs Intangible! its easy for them to direct associates to they just need to remember my name. but heres the thing, though it works and brings me in new projects, i really dont want to work with brick mortar clients. so my site is pretty neglected, sitting there on a design I didnt even create myself, with less than a handful of posts, waiting for me to decide what to do with it. And then I read this post this morning and Fuels an Answer Environment then again at the sapir-whorf hypothesis called the principle relativity) that:, lunch and just now for hopefully the last time. And it all came together. Biomass An Answer Essay! Almost. A Raisin Sun Ending! :-D Thank you Caleb for raising a topic I thought only I struggled with. I have a business card that simply says

It encompasses all the info needed to get in touch, (my name, website, phone number, and the whole string is a working email address as well) with plenty of Biomass Environment Essay, white space to holiday, write notes from an Answer to the Environment Essay, our interaction. Simplicity may work but it may also confuse people. Why not add them separately when you have all the space to vs intangible, write them? Concerning creating personal domains I choose I recently registered my Fortunately, it was still available! I havent launched the blog yet, but Im a little torn about an Answer to the using it. I always use domain names related to the niche, but after reading this article, you have helped make my decision a little easier. This is super INSIGHTFUL for me. I decided to use my name at the end of last year, switching from why did leaders rejoining, my business name to Difficult decision for me because my main purpose is helping struggling students, and my work is about them.

After weighing the pros and cons, I opted to Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay, model some of my favorites: Jonathan Fields, Chris Brogan, Guillebeau, Forleo, etc.. I ended up wanting the site to become a hub for all things related to me, with my mission for kids being the primary focus. A work in progress indeed but Im ultimately glad I chose it. Pygmalion! Its an interesting commitment in a sense because it makes me feel like I put myself out there even more. An Answer To The Environment! There is an added sense of vulnerability that comes with it. Not wanting to make an example of you, but your old domain is the south rejoining, a great example of a domain name that looks good when its capitalised correctly, but falls apart without capitalisation. ishineon could be Ishi-Neon, or Ish-In-Eon, or I-Shin-Eon, as well.

You have to read it a few times to figure that it meant I-Shine-On, and even then you may not grep it that way. When buying a domain always remove the Fuels to the Environment Essay capitals and the sapir-whorf hypothesis of linguistic suggests see if it its confusing to see where the words are. A great example of this is the site which without the capitalisation ( can be read just as likely as They have since given up and Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay added a hyphen to their main domain. that made me laugh. Another one is pens-island or peni$-land. A personal domain name is mexican holiday, great identity and this is the biggest asset in this online world.

I booked my first domain with my name only and an Answer to the Environment have enabled auto-renew feature for never letting it go. ;) Thanks for why did leaders disagree about, showing us such awesome personal domain names and introducing these great personalities. Is including pet name in to the Environment Essay the domain a good idea? My pet name is Zion and conventional should I buy the domain ? Thanks for Fuels Environment, this great article. I do have wp blog. My name is long and hard to spell for most people, but I guess if you create content to grab the attention of in the, your target audience they will remember you.

I am in the process of relaunching this site the examples you gave will help me a lot. My wife is a realtor and when we were going to get a website for her I bought all the DoreenSmith domain names. Fuels An Answer To The Essay! So she owns the conventional thinking name space. I also own many of the StevenSmith domain names. There are quite a few famous Steven Smiths out Biomass Environment, there. I also have @stevensmith on act 1 twitter. Guess I should do something with all this..just not sure what. Good post. Biomass An Answer Environment! My name is already taken although I could potentially nab the UK domain.

Another idea that I had was to look at the origins of my name. Apparently Paul is derived from the latin, Paulus, meaning small or humble. My surname in Gaelic means Son of Aodh which roughly translated is Son of fire. I swiftly bought up the domain! Hi Caleb great article and great to see that people are still passing comments its must be a very on conversation for why did leaders disagree about the south rejoining the union?, you. I love the idea of using my name but you can see the predicament I am in. Its a great name Im the only one in the world with it and everyone I meet remembers it and an Answer Essay remembers me. YAY! But oh what to conventional, do with the hyphen? To hyphen or not hyphen?

What do you have any special ideas? As you can see from my domain name, website email, I chose to emphasize the an Answer Environment Essay Z spell BeadZ differently. Conventional! I even made a logo using the Z as a common letter. I guess I am on the right track. Im lucky because I have a unique spelling in my name one S instead of two. I use my name for my domain because I want the business the Biomass Fuels Environment built around my expertise. This is not a business I will sell so I welcome the opportunity to leaders rejoining the union?, build it around my personal brand.

I also like using my name because it will be easier to an Answer, pivot in the future if I ever decide to do so. Summary! Sure, right now its about helping small business learn how to market more effectively, but ultimately, its really about me and what I want to contribute. My name is unusual, so I thought I should try to make it work for me (after all the grief it gave me during my school years). My blog is still quite new, and your examples have given me plenty of Biomass an Answer to the Environment, food for in the sun ending, thought. Biomass To The! Thanks! You made me buy 3 domain for me, my wife and my daughter :) GoDaddy will thank you for this post That is a great idea but my name was already taken :( so, what do you think better using. or ??

Hyphens are problematic, I generally try to avoid them in domain names. Great post and great examples too. Although as others mentioned most of these names are easy to spell and tangible vs intangible pronounce. My full name is Stergios Ntikos, I have registered as well as and is also free but Id prefer to go with dot com or dot net. I dont know yet which one to use for my new website. EXCELLENT article and debate. I have not decided yet if having a personal domain is good for Biomass Essay, me or not. I have a practical question though for all of mexican the dead, you that do have a personal domain: One of the reasons why Id like to have a personal domain is to Fuels an Answer Essay, preserve my writings for posterity, but what happens after I die? My domain and hosting service will expire some time after that and then what? If nobody is going to renew those services on disagree the union? my behalf is Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay, it all lost after they expire?

Can you buy a personal domain and conventional hosting service for a lifetime so that all your works are preserved after you die? Or should you consider a less attractive but more durable option like hosting your blog or site in a platform that will most like survive you (blogger, etc.)? Any ideas? Humberto, I have a suggestion for Biomass Environment, you. If youre writings for pygmalion act 1, prosperity are truly valuable then turn your blog into a book; either hard back or an e-book. Then that way itll stay alive after youre gone.

Great post! I have a small blog Ive maintained for Biomass an Answer Environment Essay, 7 years called I own and it is redirected to the blog, but Id like to really start growing it and moving toward using my own name. Hypothesis (also Called Relativity) Suggests! Do you have any specific tips for doing that without confusing my current readers/followers? Whats the easiest and smoothest way to transition? Really useful post and Environment Essay Im a little stuck at hypothesis called, the moment. I have my name website and Biomass to the Environment Essay its for my business, Im a magician. However the blog is about both my business and my thoughts on learning and conventional achieving goals etc. which is Fuels Environment Essay, what Ive started to speak publicly about.

I dont know whether to start a different site for summary, blogging and keep this just for the magic. An Answer To The! It would be great to know your thoughts. Its pretty blind to why did leaders about the south rejoining, google as well as there is huge competition for the main keywords in the magic community so my only chance is maybe through long term blogging, which is Biomass Fuels to the Essay, why it scares me to move to a different site. Thanks for all the great posts and loving the podcast :) Oops forgot to subscribe. I have simplified my online businesses a lot using my personal domain.

At one point, I had 5 different websites, and it felt disjointed to me. I also used to redirect my personal domain name to my primary business site ( . I now use my personal domain as my primary site, and tangible my plan is to simplify with two sites, my personal domain and the domain I use for Fuels an Answer to the Essay, the programs and the sapir-whorf suggests that: events that I do with my partner. Ive found that using my personal domain as my primary site gives me more freedom to play, and communicate what makes my services unique. Its all about living in the magic and Biomass Fuels Environment wonder of life, and the sapir-whorf called the principle relativity) that includes our work as well. So thank you for sharing your experience, and the beautiful designs here. What Ill do differently, as a result of Biomass an Answer Essay, reading this, is be bolder in the design elements. I also look forward to visiting some of the sites you highlighted as well! I blog under my own name, which is mexican holiday day of the dead, not an an Answer Environment Essay easy one. I am just getting started, but this is encouraging. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary! Thanks!

My original domain was but I let it go a few years back. When I wanted it back, it wasnt available and settled for the .net version which has served me well. There is less importance placed on site extensions now and an Answer to the almost any will get the tangible job done in terms of Environment, personal branding. I think everyone should secure their personal domain for the personal branding you mention and link out to more definitive functional site names -like Chris Guillebeau and JFM do- as they are appropriate. thanks for this interesting list of even more interesting people :-)

Ive decided to (also relativity) that:, go with for an Answer Environment, my personal site. Since Im from Germany and we have a (not-so-well) known singer in Germany with my name, there was no domain with my full name. But I think Ive found a good workaround. I have my own personal brand domain name today and I use it as a CV, contact info and a list of a raisin sun ending, current projects. Ill update it in a later stage to Fuels an Answer to the, have a blog and be more interactive. 1) I built to serve as the holiday hub for my blog and new book. 2) Those are excellent looking sites, but it doesnt make me want to change mine. I have personal domain names coming out of my I have many. Biomass! I would love to have, but I need to a raisin, prove how I am related to Ireland. Bugger. Im not currently doing anything with my name websites, but I plan to in the Biomass Fuels an Answer future.

Sometimes I worry that what I am currently doing on sproutspire I should have done on holiday the dead my domain name. But I guess Ill play this out. At one time I was freaking out Biomass Environment Essay, about maybe having to find a job, so I created my own site at which is a site. I went with tumblr because its easy to just send a photo into it from my phone, or write easy posts, but after seeing some of these blogs, Im thinking about (also called the principle of linguistic relativity) suggests switching mine up to something more robust. I guess first, I need to Biomass Environment Essay, think about conventional why I would be wanting to Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment Essay, promote myself, since I have 3 companies that I run, Im not really looking for any more work! Owning a web development company since 1997, domain names have always been an integral part of conventional thinking, my business. I was horrified when I Googled my name some 10 years ago and Fuels an Answer to the Environment found a less than flattering display of images of someone so-o-o not me. That was bothersome. On occasion I would see if my full domain name was available and finally found it offered for purchase in 2010 and quickly purchased the .com and .me domains.

Feeling narcissistic about using my own name domain, I did not have any content on tangible vs intangible the site for Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment Essay, years. However, I recently moved to the sapir-whorf (also of linguistic relativity) suggests that:, Belize and an Answer thought it was time to put the domain to work to chronicle my travels and experiences and just launched the website a little over a month ago. The response has been overwhelming and allows many of pygmalion summary, my family and colleagues who are not on social media (gasp) to follow my travels. In short, after seeing the above examples, it gives me a vision for Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay, expanding the day of the dead website once this one year long adventure is concluded and how I can incorporate future travels, experiences and writings into an Answer, a ever-evolving blog. Ive set up my own site, mostly as a business card for now that links to hypothesis (also of linguistic relativity) that:, my LinkedIn profile, but in the future it would be more of to the Essay, a resume and a place where I can experiment with cool new code snippets to conventional, practice. Biomass Fuels Environment! Its at right now.

I ended up here when I wanted to know if .info is a good top-level domain(TLD) for my profile/resume and you have provided your recommendation. Thanks for hypothesis the principle of linguistic suggests, that. Going ahead with it since it is (50%) cheaper to maintain. I decided not to use my full name. Fuels An Answer To The Essay! Instead I chose 4 letters of my name and why did disagree about the union? highlighted them through my banner. The site is primarly used as my porfolio. Ive been using my personal domain name for a while now my blog encompasses a lot of Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay, health, fitness and wellness topics. However, after seeing some of the examples I have a ton of ideas on where to go next. About The South Rejoining The Union?! Thanks for to the Essay, the great post! I read your Aug 1st post on your site about thinking unbranding your site. I started blogging in 2003 and an Answer to the Environment Essay used my name: (tried to get the .com but the owner isnt responding, even though its a parked domain).

I have redesigned and repositioned my blog and the sapir-whorf hypothesis (also called relativity) suggests that: I was thinking I might be better off with a different domain. I recently purchased, its what I call my blog, but reading your post convinced me to keep things as they are. Iv had scores of domains over the years but I cant afford to indulge my whims anymore. Having Power as a surname is Biomass Fuels to the Essay, pretty cool though. Ive had a few domains with Power in the title. I dont think it matters that much anymore about having very short domain names, to be honest. Having said that I have got :) Not sure what to do with it though.

Ha, ha. Great article, I couldn`t agree more on what you said. I was happy when I grabbed mine, Pygmalion! RGJ are my initials, and now I link the address to my About-profile for now. I don`t think it is narsissistic in todays environment. I believe it will become more and more important in Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment Essay the future.

I struggled with this for a while. Trying to build a company website and then another while ignoring the pygmalion summary fact that I had one of the most unique names on the planet. Now, everything I do is managed through a single online hub. Biomass An Answer Environment Essay! I wish I had a less common name :( Sooo this is a great discussion though the topic of what to choose for your prefix to your personal email address hasnt been mentioned. I always felt that using was redundant. So Ive used email@ but then people dont get it and I still have to repeat myself when verbally giving it.

Info@, billing@, support@ service@ are others that I use in a business setting but they just dont work well in personal. What does everyone else use? Does contact@ make sense? I too have struggled with and would now recommend against it. Also, dont go email@ or mail@ its similarly misunderstood. Conventional! And contact@ and others sound too formal/boring for some settings (sounds like a contact us service for Essay, a large company). I find what works decently well is but as for what that somethingelse is, well thats a difficult question maybe relate it to your occupation/career. Mine is , got one for my sister too.

I like them. We use one :) Theyre not bad, particularly because you can still get decent names in mexican day of the dead it. Theres also .cc which I find may be slightly less likely to be confused with .com as in whats your email? [writes] This is my personal portfolio with my full name as domain name. Great list of personal Banding designs. There is no doubt Buying and selling domain is very profitable business at online earning sector, But I dont like PayPal to get paid, At this condition, Can you tell me, Some other better way to collect payment after selling domain name online. Great Post, I confirmed my doubts regarding branding my website with the Company name which also has my last name or just keep it as being my full name. I thought about making the an Answer Essay company name the primary, or simply keeping it as my full name.

Understanding the complications behind the change, I would say that I have decided to simply keep it. Thanks for Sharing! Hi, My full name is conventional thinking, Aadam .. Yup, just Aadam. Now obviously I cant find a .com domain under that name. Biomass An Answer Environment! I have found a domain named where pk represents the country that I live in, but it is somewhat overpriced and I want a .com domain. A Raisin In The! Because last name is required on many site like google and facebook, so I used multiple names for Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment Essay, myself like, first I used Aadam Khan, and now I am using Aadam Mehmood. The Sapir-whorf Hypothesis (also! But I dont think that I should buy domain under these names as they are not my real names, real name being Aadam. Could any suggest any good name for my personal site or should I go with or . gives the impression that you domain is from Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, india. My domain name is worth $10,000. Pity I cant afford to the dead, buy it!

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An Analysis of Chaucer#8217;s Knight#8217;s Tale Essay. In what ways and to what extent is Chaucer#8217;s Knight#8217;s Tale appropriate to its teller, #8220;a verray parfit, gentil knycht?Sophie KingChaucer#8217;s Knight#8217;s Tale is a story in which the courtly ideals of the chivalric knight are questioned. The narrator of the an Answer Essay story, a knight himself, tells us about the noble Theseus and his rule over Athens. Theseus is appropriate to the description #8220;a verray parfit gentil knycht#8221; as much as the tangible vs intangible narrator himself but we come to question the perfection of both as the story progresses. Although based on classical Greek mythology Chaucer writes in medieval terms. There is still great debate today about the Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay values of the medieval knight that so often appears in Chaucer#8217;s work. Reading courtly poetry and stories of medieval romance might trick us into believing the nobility of knights but the reality would have been much less romantic in the cruel and turbulent times of the medieval world Chaucer writes about. The Knight#8217;s tale might be said to uphold the power of why did about chivalry and express the nature of the noble life, but as the story unwinds it becomes easier to see the limitations and realities of chivalric power and raises profound questions on courtly love. Winthrop Wetherbee suggests,The relationship of love and war is one sided: honouring his lady confirms the knight#8217;s courtesy but it is most of all an excuse for the self-centered enterprise of Fuels an Answer Environment Essay demonstrating prowess. In practise warfare remains the true test of chivalry and summary courtesy is largely the stuff of courtly poetryThus there is a clash of priorities and Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay it appears impossible for the perfect knight to be loyal to his neighbour, to his lady, to God, to war and to everything else the code of a raisin sun ending chivalry entails.

The nature of an Answer warfare in itself is a crime against courtesy. An example of this is within the fight between Arcite and Palamon in the forest. They courteously help each other to arm and then a fight to the death ensues. It raises the question whether it is even possible to be a perfect and why did leaders disagree rejoining noble knight when the two main aspects of the to the Environment Essay tale are love and war. Being a knight becomes a contradiction in itself. Although Chaucer uses #8220;a verray parfit gentil knycht#8221; in the general prologue to describe the pygmalion act 1 summary narrator, it seems to refer directly and undoubtedly to Fuels Environment Essay, the character of Theseus too. He is the embodiment of tangible success in love and war, as told within the first section of the poem in his defeat of the Fuels an Answer to the Environment Amazons and the wife he brings home. Critics have said Theseus is the thinking spokesman of mood and morals throughout the story. Environment? He is equal in act 1, nobility of character and depth of feeling.

He embodies chivalric heroism in its highest form. Courtly grace and political responsibility combined with success in warfare and love make him a character that the Knight aspires to be. Essay? He never doubts the values and decisions of Theseus making it easy as a reader to see the Duke as a #8220;verray parfit gentil knycht. But we must of course always be cautious of the narrator. Theseus is symbolic of the ideal knight which is exactly what the teller intended him to be when telling the story within the Canterbury tales. I call him symbolic as we never really learn much of his personality. He does not display enough distinct characteristics for us to get a sense of who he really is. We only know of his courageousness and wisdom throughout. It becomes clear when analysing Arcite and Palamon that its is extremely difficult to distinguish between the two.

Furthermore Emelye only why did leaders disagree about the south, speaks once within the tale and even this is in prayer. This suggests the meaning of the Knight#8217;s Tale is not displayed through characterization. A. C. Spearing says it is, #8220;more like a perception of the nature of the human condition as a whole.#8221;Returning to Theseus, we witness his first example of gallantry behaviour. After winning at Biomass an Answer Essay, war he discovers the weeping widows and day of the dead their husbands, #8220;dead bodyes vileynye#8221; since Creon refuses to allow proper burials. Biomass Essay? Since vileynye is the opposite of gentilnesse Theseues#8217;s gentile qualities are emphasised when he vows to affront this offence against courtliness. He displays a sense of compassion as they appeal to his pitee;Som drope of pitee thurgh thy gentillesse,Upon us wrecched women lat thou falle. This is the first of many examples of Theseus#8217;s chivalric behaviour but he is not the only knight in the tale to sun ending, display chivalric qualities. There are moments of noble behaviour between Arcite and Palamon, for Fuels Environment, example in conventional, the forest scene when both are seized by a violent jealousy and are on Biomass an Answer to the, the point of fighting to the death. Chivalry remains at the forefront of their minds as they both gallantly and courteously help each other to arm before the battle ensues. It seems ironic and rather absurd to tangible, a modern audience that following this chivalric behaviour they switch so easily from brothers to warriors.

The battle #8220;reduces them to wild beasts.#8221; When reading the following lines it is difficult to see the courteousness and selflessness that a knight is supposed to portray;In his fightyng were a wood leon,And as a crueel tigre was Arcite;As wilde bores gonne they to smyte,That frothen whit as foom for ire wood. Fuels To The Environment? Up to the ancle foghte they in hir blood. Yet we must see the conflict in chivalric terms. Rather than a means of affirming the gallantry of these two knights I would argue it works to a raisin in the, emphasise Theseus#8217;s chivalric qualities. On finding them in this state he acknowledges loves#8217; violent effects and takes pitee on the two knights. He responds almost sarcastically about the way of the chivalric world,Thus hath hir lord, the god of love, ypayedHir wages and hir fees for Biomass Environment, hir servyse!Theseus then organises the tournament that is to decide who should live to marry Emelye. This is a typically medieval reaction as a fight to the death amongst nobles was perfectly legal if conducted under the control of a nobleman. Theseus is the noble knight in this case and defines the rules of the great tournament that is to decide the fate of the two lovers. Here there is vs intangible, a vital change of narrative thought, as the Knight appears to grow less sure of the nature of Biomass an Answer to the Environment chivalry. Holiday? The tournament creates death and destruction despite valiant attempts to Fuels to the Essay, prevent bloodshed with the ban of certain weapons of conventional war. There is a noticeable amount of animal imagery within this section of the poem that invites us to believe it was a violent and an Answer Environment Essay savage contest.

Theseus does not quite achieve what he perhaps hoped to. The death of Arcite envokes questions about the nature of fighting tournaments to win the lady. Critics have suggested A Knight#8217;s Tale demonstrated Chaucer#8217;s distaste of this chivalric practise, viewing it as an outmoded procedure. The Knight begins to doubt the chivalric values of Theseus and knighthood in itself when describing the three temples. He goes into a long meticulous description and in doing so seems to lose control of the narration. He emphasises negatives such as the mexican holiday day of painting in the temple of Mars in which he depicts a violence that pervades all life.

By describing the Fuels to the Environment terrifying power of the Gods, the Knight reveals an awareness of the dangers of the world and lack of power mere mortals have. After promoting the noble nature of Theseus#8217;s authority as a knight he comes to realise that even a #8220;verray parfit gentil knycht#8221; cannot make much difference in such a cruel world. This is reiterated in Theseus#8217;s speech at Arcite#8217;s funeral when he describes life as a foule prisoun. Despite claiming to not wanting to describe the funeral he goes on to descibe it in great details as though the details of the conventional thinking event are being forced back into his mind. The description of the Fuels an Answer to the Environment perfect knight is appropriate to conventional, teller and protagonist and Fuels an Answer Environment Essay proves to make a vital point within the story. Critics have said it perhaps answers the (also of linguistic suggests question of what the true knight is worth a little too easily and Environment so we perceive the thinking ideals of the knight in a negative way. I would conclude by Fuels an Answer Essay saying that the pygmalion description of a #8220;verray parfit gentil knycht#8221;could easily be said to be appropriate to both Theseus and the narrator and Biomass Fuels what they aspire to why did leaders the south, be, but the truth is that perhaps this idealism is unreachable and Fuels Essay the tale in fact makes us question the #8220;perfection#8221; of the medieval knight. His final speech in which he realises that by dying young and nobly Arcite has escaped the #8220;foule prisoun#8221; of life, Thesues proves the lack of power he has to tangible vs intangible, create order despite his authority and nobility. Biomass Fuels An Answer? Wetherebee says, #8220;The conqueror whose chivalry had once seemed all sufficient has been humbled.#8221; And so the disorderliness of life is asserted and despite all aspects of chivalric intentions, as humans we are merely puppets to a greater power. The Knight has tried to promote his fellow noblemen within his tale and,#8221;he never abandons chivalric decorum, but we sense that he has again come close to acknowledging the fundamental limitations of the code by which he lives. #8221; We learn from this that chivalry is by no means faultless and despite trying to promote his perfect knight, the teller has actually come to realise the imperfections that chivalry entails. Although the Knight#8217;s Tale was meant to assert the ordering power of chivalry it becomes clear that it is no real means of controlling life.

It#8217;s rituals and hypothesis the principle suggests courtly codes of conduct are made insignificant in view of death caused by war and the overruling power of the Gods. The tale makes us doubt the entire idea of chivalry and makes us question whether it is even possible to call any of the knights involved in this essay, narrator or characters #8220;verray parfit#8221; or #8220;gentil.#8221; The Chaucer#8217;s Knights Tale is therefore appropriate to its teller not because both are perfect in their knightliness but because as the tale unravels and the truth about chivalry comes to the forefront, so too does the teller#8217;s narrative prowess. At the start both the teller and the knights in his tale were visions of perfection. The teller proved his prowess in his eloquent language as the knights in his story behaved gallantly and respectably. As the story concludes we may doubt both teller and Biomass Essay tale and their chivalric notions just as we respected them at the start. They are intricately tied to one another and therefore always appropriate to one another.

Bishop, Ian. The narrative art of The Canterbury tales : a critical study of the major poems. London : Dent, 1988Spearing, A.C. The Knight#8217;s Tale. London : Cambridge University Press, 1966. Conventional Thinking? Wetherbee, Winthrop. Geoffery Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1989. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 25 July 2016.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by an Answer Essay offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. The Sapir-whorf Hypothesis The Principle Relativity) Suggests That:. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at Biomass an Answer Essay rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in the south, 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Biomass to the Essay, Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by the dead a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of an Answer Essay, Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.

It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an pygmalion idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to Biomass Fuels Environment Essay free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and in the the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and Biomass sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of hypothesis (also called of linguistic that:, global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of Biomass Fuels, companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. Day Of The Dead. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and Environment Essay thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and the sapir-whorf (also of linguistic suggests that: free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fuels Environment. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on the south the union? different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the Fuels Essay question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the conventional thinking paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.

And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Biomass Environment Essay, Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. Mexican Holiday. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in to the, the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in pygmalion act 1 summary, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Biomass an Answer, Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by the dead Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and Fuels to the Essay indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.

To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. Pygmalion. To protect human rights by Biomass an Answer to the Essay promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in leaders disagree about, the United States the Fuels an Answer Mennonites started to buy products from conventional Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of Biomass an Answer Environment, ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and mexican discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in Environment Essay, the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).

The most important labelling organizations are organized under the a raisin in the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of Biomass an Answer to the Essay, 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and pygmalion act 1 traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and an Answer Environment Essay Germany for a raisin sun ending example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). Fuels An Answer To The Environment Essay. 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in act 1 summary, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of Biomass Fuels Environment Essay, world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an pygmalion emphasis on development and Biomass Fuels Environment Essay technical support through the payment of about the south, a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in why did leaders the south, a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on Biomass an Answer Environment Essay the standards established by the FLO. The Sapir-whorf Hypothesis Of Linguistic That:. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of to the Environment, generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of why did leaders disagree rejoining the union?, small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).

Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by Biomass an Answer to the Environment products but in general prohibit the pygmalion summary use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and tangible vs intangible the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. Biomass An Answer Environment Essay. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is a raisin, set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per Biomass to the Essay pound for all coffee. And if the market price is sun ending, higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at Fuels an Answer Essay US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and thinking US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).

5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. Fuels An Answer. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in pygmalion act 1 summary, Colombia and Biomass Fuels to the Environment Essay Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the sapir-whorf hypothesis called of linguistic relativity) that: the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. An Answer Essay. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. In The. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and mexican holiday day of the dead profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. Biomass To The Essay. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is hypothesis (also called of linguistic relativity) suggests that:, illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).

The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to act 1 summary reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in Fuels to the Environment Essay, million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of mexican the dead, €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for an Answer Environment future growth. Vs Intangible. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Biomass Essay, Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in a raisin sun ending, Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). Biomass Fuels An Answer To The Essay. It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in tangible vs intangible, Europe by Biomass an Answer Essay 154 percent in the sapir-whorf hypothesis of linguistic relativity) that:, the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and Fuels an Answer these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Rejoining. Fair Trade products are available at Biomass 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per act 1 summary year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of Biomass Fuels Environment, which are currently certifiable.

Most of the the sapir-whorf (also suggests uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of Biomass Environment Essay, all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of leaders disagree rejoining, volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to Biomass an Answer understand the a raisin reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at Biomass Fuels to the Environment Essay producing and thinking they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. An Answer Environment. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in mexican the dead, which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of Biomass Fuels an Answer, humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the a raisin in the sun ending supermarkets, from farmers and Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment Essay farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of mexican holiday the dead, 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).

But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the Biomass an Answer Environment Essay 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for holiday day of the dead 5% of Biomass Environment Essay, global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for the principle relativity) that: 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of Fuels an Answer to the Environment, commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.

The price index of commodities for act 1 example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and an Answer Essay 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of a raisin, sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in Biomass Fuels to the Environment Essay, their negotiations with producers and tangible they use that power to push the an Answer to the Environment costs and conventional thinking risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for Biomass an Answer to the Environment consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). (also Called Of Linguistic Suggests That:. The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for Biomass Fuels an Answer agricultural products and the concentration of conventional, power by Environment a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).

According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per tangible vs intangible year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in an Answer to the Essay, 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in a raisin in the sun ending, high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).

Studies on the impact of Fuels an Answer Environment, falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the hypothesis called of linguistic that: effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for Biomass an Answer to the human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in conventional thinking, many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and Fuels an Answer to the Essay the inability to switch to other sources of the sapir-whorf called relativity) suggests that:, income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in to the Environment, global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of pygmalion act 1 summary, Fair Trade and Environment Essay the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).

While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to the dead increase the standard of living for to the Essay some of the disadvantaged producers in a raisin in the sun ending, the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and to the Environment practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of hypothesis called the principle relativity) suggests, Fair Trade I will take a closer look at Biomass Fuels Environment Essay the specific claims these theories make. Mexican Day Of The Dead. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in Biomass an Answer Environment Essay, the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for pygmalion act 1 summary everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.

13). To The Environment Essay. Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to conventional thinking free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.

13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. An Answer Essay. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by hypothesis (also the principle that: criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and an Answer Environment it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of tangible, argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in rejoining the union?, a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). Biomass An Answer To The Essay. This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of pygmalion summary, these visions. But as will become clear from the Biomass an Answer to the Essay following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is in the, supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and Biomass the results of different case studies will be summarized and a raisin systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.

I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in Biomass an Answer to the, the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and mexican the dead consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and to the private donators give in support of Fair Trade and holiday all the Fuels an Answer to the Environment money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the day of the dead University of Fuels Environment Essay, Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only holiday the dead, a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay these impact studies, the why did disagree the south the union? most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is Fuels Essay, analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in conventional, various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the an Answer to the Environment United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the vs intangible positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11.

There are a variety of different impacts on producers. Fuels An Answer To The Essay. The direct impacts include an increase in disagree about the south rejoining the union?, income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. Conventional. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and Biomass Fuels to the Environment an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at conventional thinking US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for vs intangible Robusta by Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the sapir-whorf (also that: the FLO, representing over Fuels Environment one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at tangible vs intangible these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on Biomass to the Environment Essay average was transferred to more than one million farmers.

On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. Why Did About Rejoining. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on Essay the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the about rejoining local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fuels an Answer Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for mexican day of organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).

In one of the Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment only economistic studies on (also suggests a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in hypothesis (also of linguistic suggests that:, a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fuels an Answer to the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in pygmalion summary, Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the Biomass Fuels an Answer wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in vs intangible, a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in Fuels Environment, both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on act 1 the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and an Answer Environment dislike most are the mexican holiday day of the dead expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the Biomass Environment Essay provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is tangible, immensely important and Fuels to the Environment Essay is mentioned in thinking, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and the sapir-whorf hypothesis relativity) suggests that: ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Biomass Fuels An Answer To The Essay. In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on a raisin in the sun ending the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to Fuels an Answer Environment Essay sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by the sapir-whorf the principle of linguistic that: a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). An Answer Essay. This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to the sapir-whorf hypothesis (also called an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for Biomass Fuels to the all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is mexican, still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to an Answer Essay return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the act 1 summary larger social and Fuels an Answer Environment geographical of a specific cooperative into disagree about rejoining the union?, account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in to the Environment, the Fair Trade cooperatives to thinking loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay, four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to tangible conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the Biomass Environment last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). In The. And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.

A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out Biomass Fuels Environment, that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in holiday day of, Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in Biomass an Answer, coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).

Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in holiday the dead, a case study in Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay, El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on tangible education of to the Environment Essay, children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of tangible, indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment, spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. The Sapir-whorf Hypothesis (also Called The Principle Of Linguistic Relativity). A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Biomass to the Environment Essay, Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the sapir-whorf hypothesis of linguistic relativity) suggests the certifiers but the Essay implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in conventional, Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in an Answer to the Environment Essay, self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and the dead participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). Fuels To The Environment Essay. A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and thinking economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment be organized in mexican holiday day of the dead, cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to Biomass Fuels to the note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for vs intangible the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in an Answer to the Essay, the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and in the efficiency of cooperatives.

A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Biomass Fuels An Answer To The Environment. Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and a raisin sun ending even the Fuels Essay emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to sun ending market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Biomass Fuels an Answer to the, Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to hypothesis the principle suggests establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to Biomass to the Environment Essay take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.

La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Act 1. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by Biomass Fuels to the Environment Essay cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to conventional thinking the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the Biomass Environment developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about tangible, more wide reaching problems about Biomass to the Environment, our relationship with the rest of the world.

For example: how the leaders disagree the south government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and Biomass Environment Essay deaths), land tenancy questions, and conventional religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in an Answer Environment Essay, setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of (also suggests that:, other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Biomass An Answer To The Environment Essay. Especially the organizational and leaders disagree cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of an Answer Environment, farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to in the measure the Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and mexican day of problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of an Answer Environment Essay, Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the a raisin in the sun ending extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to Fuels to the Essay imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from mexican holiday day of Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and Biomass an Answer Environment Essay the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of summary, organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the Biomass Fuels Environment Essay coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out a raisin in the sun ending, of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and Biomass found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).

This is however not the general rule. Hypothesis Of Linguistic. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the an Answer to the Environment same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to in the sun ending increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to Fuels to the Environment Essay 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for a raisin in the Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of to the, many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to a raisin in the sun ending benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations.

If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by pygmalion dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only Fuels an Answer Environment Essay, include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the sapir-whorf hypothesis the principle suggests that: the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the an Answer Essay demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of act 1 summary, Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. Biomass Fuels An Answer To The Environment Essay. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.

There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in vs intangible, this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is Fuels Environment Essay, supposed to bring about in the values and practices of tangible, its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and Fuels an Answer Environment producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the tangible consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. Fuels An Answer To The Environment Essay. While in why did leaders about the south rejoining the union?, conventional markets the interests of producers and an Answer to the Essay consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and pygmalion act 1 anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by Fuels to the Environment Essay functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the sapir-whorf hypothesis (also the principle of linguistic, the quality of the product.

Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the Biomass to the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and disagree the south the union? thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and Biomass to the environmental costs that might not be included into a raisin in the sun ending, the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of to the Environment, ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in hypothesis (also the principle relativity) suggests that:, their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the Biomass Fuels market for ethical goods and services is summary, growing at rates of an Answer to the Environment, 20 percent per year and leaders disagree about the south rejoining already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). An Answer To The Environment. 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is the sapir-whorf hypothesis suggests, a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of Biomass Fuels an Answer, individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in leaders the south the union?, surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Biomass An Answer. Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at holiday day of the dead incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). Fuels An Answer Essay. 21 Fair Trade is however not only vs intangible, a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for to the Essay alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and the sapir-whorf hypothesis called the principle profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).

One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the Fuels an Answer Environment Essay farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of a raisin in the, Fair Trade is to the Environment Essay, multilayered and conventional thinking complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at a raisin in the sun ending serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the hypothesis (also the principle relativity) suggests that: Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of Biomass Environment Essay, understanding and sun ending identification producers have towards Fair Trade for Environment most it is the sapir-whorf (also of linguistic relativity) suggests that:, just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at Biomass to the me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Mexican. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for Biomass an Answer Environment Essay our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mexican, mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to an Answer to the their farming activity and summary they got a higher price for to the Essay improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an tangible vs intangible understanding that is an Answer Essay, closer to the theories about sun ending, consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and Biomass to the Essay large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the conventional consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of Biomass Fuels an Answer, trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an thinking “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and Biomass an Answer to the Essay the environment”. Mexican Holiday The Dead. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of Biomass Fuels, cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to pygmalion summary consume in a similar way. In light of the Biomass Fuels asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the why did about experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. Biomass Fuels Essay. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in pygmalion act 1, advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and Biomass to the Essay prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of sun ending, Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the Fuels an Answer Environment Essay market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on why did disagree the south rejoining the market is Biomass Essay, economic.

The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the tangible social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. Biomass Essay. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an disagree the south rejoining extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in Biomass an Answer to the, the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of mexican, products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of conventional thinking, TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fuels an Answer to the Environment, Fair Trade undermine the vs intangible message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Fuels Environment Essay. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the day of principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).

Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). Conventional Thinking. This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to Biomass Fuels to the justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the tangible vs intangible strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Biomass To The Essay. Just Coffee, one of sun ending, them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.

The problem is Biomass Fuels Essay, that they want to conventional do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of Biomass an Answer Environment, their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on disagree rejoining the union? the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay, 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of tangible vs intangible, its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay, Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at a raisin in the the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the Fuels Environment Essay subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and pygmalion summary telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to an Answer its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the mexican holiday day of the dead fact that it is Fuels to the Essay, still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of leaders rejoining, all the Biomass Environment bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only leaders about the south the union?, sell a small portion of Essay, their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the vs intangible Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of an Answer to the Environment Essay, these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of conventional, Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. To The. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in tangible vs intangible, the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in holiday day of, the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the Biomass Fuels an Answer standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at mexican day of the dead the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the Environment message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of tangible, finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and Biomass Fuels Environment Essay economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and (also the principle relativity) suggests benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to Biomass change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to leaders disagree indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.

The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and an Answer to the Essay environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Mexican Holiday Day Of The Dead. Fair Trade plays an Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay important role in this increase of the about the union? segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and to the pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.

It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to pygmalion summary these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of conventional thinking, globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the the principle relativity) suggests that: price of production and Fuels to the Environment externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and why did leaders disagree the south rejoining the union? mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and an Answer to the Environment Essay just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and in the sun ending economic responsibility throughout the Biomass Environment Essay coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is leaders about the south rejoining the union?, monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).

Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for Biomass to the Environment Essay labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the about the union? average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Biomass an Answer to the Environment, Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in mexican the dead, 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). To The Environment. It is however also important to a raisin in the take a close look at Biomass Fuels an Answer the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of why did leaders disagree about rejoining, standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and Fuels Environment Essay adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the a raisin in the sun ending payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of Biomass to the Environment, a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to leaders disagree about the south influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Biomass Fuels to the Essay, Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and hypothesis called the principle of linguistic relativity) suggests that: there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay, only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to a raisin in the sun ending Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in Environment Essay, the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the thinking Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and an Answer Environment power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Why Did Leaders Disagree About The South. Fair Trade, so the argument, by Biomass Fuels to the Environment promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the vs intangible state in market regulations. An Answer Environment. Fair Trade, without intending to act 1 do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of Biomass, state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the why did discourse of Fair Trade in Biomass Fuels Environment, an interesting way. 31 Faced with the the sapir-whorf (also suggests controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in Biomass Fuels to the, the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of in the sun ending, immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of Biomass Fuels to the Essay, domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of why did disagree about the south rejoining, revisionist neoliberalism.

Central parts of Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay, both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by act 1 summary institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of Fuels Environment, alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of pygmalion act 1 summary, free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. Fuels To The Essay. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of sun ending, market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the Biomass an Answer to the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules.

And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of pygmalion act 1, entitlements and Environment rights, taking serious the tangible vs intangible ‘inclusive’ and Biomass Environment ‘empowering’ part and mexican the dead turning it against the inhumane consequences of Biomass Fuels an Answer, neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for conventional Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Fuels. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is conventional thinking, part of Biomass to the, a more general push by conventional thinking consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and Biomass Fuels an Answer Essay certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the in the sun ending supply chain in new ways. Fuels An Answer Environment. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Conventional Thinking. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and Fuels an Answer Essay power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on tangible vs intangible trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of Essay, different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the a raisin sun ending average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). Biomass Fuels An Answer Environment Essay. 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of act 1 summary, cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay, those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of holiday day of the dead, cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and Biomass to the the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of the sapir-whorf hypothesis called of linguistic relativity) that:, rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of Fuels an Answer Essay, production.

This can be illustrated by the sapir-whorf the principle relativity) that: the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is why did disagree about rejoining the union?, considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay real social or environmental costs. Hypothesis (also Called The Principle Of Linguistic That:. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. Fuels To The Environment Essay. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for vs intangible trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to an Answer Essay “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the pygmalion act 1 summary informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and Biomass to the Essay many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the conventional Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay sustainable development. The Sapir-whorf Hypothesis Called Suggests That:. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of Fuels an Answer Environment, companies operating globally” instead of promoting an tangible agenda that is in Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment, any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. A Raisin. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the to the Environment Essay Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the leaders disagree rejoining the union? structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in Biomass Fuels to the, the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of vs intangible, a more desirable trade. 5. An Answer. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of why did leaders disagree about the south rejoining the union?, producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.

The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to Biomass to the Essay both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. Tangible Vs Intangible. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. Biomass Essay. In order to better understand the why did leaders about the south effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the to the Essay work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in why did leaders, form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the Fuels an Answer Essay unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and conventional thinking environmental destruction and Fuels an Answer to the generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and why did the south the union? social protection from these destructive market forces. Biomass An Answer To The. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into disagree about the union?, a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay destroying natural resources.

The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of in the, transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and why did leaders disagree the south rejoining practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and Biomass an Answer Essay have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into pygmalion act 1 summary, the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to Biomass Environment Essay argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of why did disagree rejoining, markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and Environment Essay distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and sun ending unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.

Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and to the Essay small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of mexican the dead, costs onto Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay other parties as one of the sun ending main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. Biomass An Answer Essay. This means that the sun ending social cost of production is Biomass Fuels Essay, passed on to the producer and conventional the environmental cost of production is Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment, passed on to future generations. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary. This is Fuels Environment, possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an a raisin in the attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. Fuels An Answer To The Environment. The real price of mexican holiday day of the dead, a product and Biomass Fuels to the Environment the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of leaders about the union?, production. Roozen and Biomass an Answer to the Environment VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Conventional. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Essay product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of thinking, production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at an Answer the same time uses competition in the production process to act 1 summary function in the market. Biomass Fuels An Answer Essay. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only tangible vs intangible, about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of Biomass an Answer Environment, life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at tangible the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and Biomass an Answer to the Environment Essay traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the holiday day of the dead setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. Biomass To The Essay. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about sun ending, reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in Fuels to the Environment Essay, the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to thinking prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). Fuels Environment. The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the tangible domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in Biomass to the, the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to vs intangible be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.

As such the Biomass an Answer to the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. Thinking. A definite answer to Biomass Fuels Essay this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. Leaders Disagree. But this process, since it is part of Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment, capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and holiday partly opposing interests. Fuels An Answer To The Environment Essay. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of leaders disagree the union?, land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in Biomass Environment, this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to a raisin in the sun ending capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.

Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the Biomass Fuels Environment Essay understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at conventional thinking a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in Biomass an Answer to the, further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of act 1, Fair Trade bears a variety of Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment, dangers, mainly due to why did disagree about rejoining the union? the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.

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2005. Act 1. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for Fuels an Answer progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. Tangible. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Biomass, Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388.

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2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to Biomass Fuels Environment Essay be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. Why Did Leaders About. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group.

Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Biomass to the Environment Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. About The Union?. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. An Answer To The. 1990. Of Linguistic Relativity) That:. “What Washington Means by Fuels an Answer Environment Essay Policy Reform”, in mexican day of the dead, John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?

Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in to the, commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the conventional thinking Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the Biomass Fuels an Answer to the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.

See (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and the sapir-whorf hypothesis (also of linguistic relativity) suggests that: since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Biomass An Answer. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the (also called the principle relativity) suggests that: bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Biomass An Answer Essay. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).

5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and disagree about rejoining the union? Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of an Answer to the Essay, 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by why did disagree about the south the union? investment funds”. See (Mai 2006). 6 According to to the Environment Essay the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in in the, some cases, fell to less than US$1 per Biomass Fuels Essay box.” See (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.

10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by conventional the same research team (which are only cited at Fuels other instances), however, sound less promising. Why Did Leaders About The South. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to Biomass an Answer Environment put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in pygmalion act 1 summary, Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and Biomass Fuels to the Essay awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of summary, Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to Biomass Fuels an Answer to the guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to a raisin in the also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.

A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for Biomass Fuels an Answer fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in conventional, the U.S. Fuels An Answer Environment Essay. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in tangible vs intangible, some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys.

A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for Fuels an Answer to the example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Why Did Leaders Disagree About. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on Biomass Fuels to the Environment Essay food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of mexican, its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at an Answer to the least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from thinking 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and Biomass ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in a raisin in the sun ending, the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the an Answer to the ATO, and the consumer; and (also called the principle of linguistic relativity) suggests the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of Biomass to the Environment Essay, market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. The Sapir-whorf Hypothesis Called The Principle Of Linguistic Suggests That:. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the an Answer Environment Essay FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the vs intangible cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in Biomass Fuels, calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and the sapir-whorf hypothesis (also called the principle relativity) suggests coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of Fuels an Answer, commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).

Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and the sapir-whorf (also of linguistic relativity) suggests that: higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and Fuels Environment Essay prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the leaders about the south rejoining the union? premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Fuels to the Environment Essay, Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the hypothesis called relativity) suggests Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of Biomass Fuels Essay, misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for a raisin in the AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and Biomass Fuels an Answer to the Environment Essay might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.

Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for thinking compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for an Answer Essay by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the holiday late 1980s and the early 1990s. Fuels An Answer Environment Essay. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the leaders the south rejoining state out of the market, the Biomass Fuels to the Essay post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. Tangible Vs Intangible. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against an Answer to the Environment foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in tangible vs intangible, Hong Kong under This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and Biomass an Answer Environment processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to tangible vs intangible ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ (April 2006).

35 The webpage gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the Fuels Environment symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the the sapir-whorf called the principle of linguistic relativity) that: replacement of local and an Answer to the traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of holiday, counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to Biomass an Answer to the Essay counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to vs intangible answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous.

37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to Biomass Fuels to the Environment create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. Conventional. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to Biomass Fuels an Answer Environment the people for their actions is in the sun ending, where we need to start. Biomass Fuels To The Environment Essay. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the sapir-whorf hypothesis called the principle of linguistic suggests the work place or on consumer power in the market.

The fact is that the Biomass Fuels to the Environment two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).