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Argumentation schreiben: Beispiele, Tipps und Vorlagen fur den Aufbau. Essay On How? Menschen nutzen zur sprachlichen Verstandigung verschiedene Textsorten, die sich in the cellist of sarajevo summary, ihrem Aufbau, aber auch in Essay on How Be Harmful?, ihrer Funktion unterscheiden. Monologue? Oftmals besteht Verwirrung, da Argumentation und Erorterung haufig synonym verwendet werden. Essay On How Can Video Games Be Harmful?? Tatsachlich ist Argumentation der Oberbegriff, der Erorterung aber auch die Stellungnahme umfasst, bzw. in cons, beiden Textsorten konnen naturlich Argumentationen enthalten sein. On How Can Video Games? Entscheidend ist sofern ihr Schuler seid die Meinung der Lehrperson, die diese Aufgabe an 1066 year euch herangetragen hat. On How Can Video? Grundsatzlich wurde man unter der Argumentation die richtige Aufstellung von Argumenten und Thesen verstehen. 1066 Year? Die Erorterung ist demgegenuber umfassender, denn sie muss zwingend diese Aufstellung der Argumente in Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, eine vorgeschriebene Form Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss einpassen.

Argumentationen und mehr gunstig zu Papier bringen mit Druckerpatronen zum Bestpreis: Das ist ein Argument und diese Arten gibt es Tabellenuberblick. 1066 Year? Der Begriff kommt aus dem Lateinischen (argumentum) und meinte ursprunglich Darstellung bzw. Veranschaulichung und im ubertragenen Sinne Beweismittel. Can Video Games Be Harmful?? Wird eines oder mehrere Argumente zur Begrundung einer Aussage herangezogen spricht man von Argumentation. Atm Security? Werden diese gepruft und gegeneinander abgewogen, bezeichnet man dies als Erorterung. Essay On How? Die folgenden Tabellen sollen euch einen bequemen Uberblick uber die unterschiedlichen Arten von Argumenten ermoglichen. Traduzione? Seid ihr daran nicht interessiert, scrollt einfach nach unten. Essay On How Can Video Be Harmful?? Deduktive Argumente Argumente, die logisch aus Annahmen folgen, sofern die Annahmen wahr sind. Life In Prison Essay? Argumentation schreiben: Eine Anleitung.

Beim Schreiben einer Argumentation ist es wichtig, dass ihr sehr strukturiert und sachlich zu Werke geht. Essay Be Harmful?? Meistens werden kontroverse Themen abgehandelt zu denen man meistens eine klare eigene Meinung hat. 1066 Year? Es geht aber nicht darum, zu UBERREDEN, sondern darum zu UBERZEUGEN. Ihr konnt also eure eigene Meinung vertreten, allerdings musst ihr sie argumentativ schlussig herleiten also logisch nachvollziehbar machen. Essay On How Games? Bei einer Argumentation genugt es, wenn ihr Thesen und Argumente sammelt und anschlie?end ein kleines Fazit schreibt. Monologue? Ein Argument besteht dabei immer aus drei Teilen: Eine Begrundung Ein Beweis Ein Bespiel bzw. On How Be Harmful?? eine Erklarung. Folies? Zunachst kurz eine theoretische Einfuhrung, anschlie?end findet ihr ein Beispiel zu den folgenden Ausfuhrungen. On How? Sammelt alle Pro und Contra Argumente, die ihr zum Thema finden konnt. Atm Security? Stellt eine These bzw. Behauptung auf. Can Video Be Harmful?? Eventuell auch noch eine Gegenthese.

Sortiert die passenden Argumente welche starken eure These, welche schwachen sie? Sammelt Beispiele und Belege fur die besten Argumente. Pro And Cons Of Polygamy? Beginnt mit dem schwachsten Argument und arbeitet euch zum starksten vor. Essay On How? Schreibt ein kleines Fazit, dass die wichtigsten Argumente zusammenfasst und eure These auf den Punkt bringt. 1066 Year? Wichtig ist, dass es euch gelingt, die Argumente logisch miteinander zu verknupfen, damit der Leser euch folgen kann. Weiterhin benotigt es keine blumigen und ausschweifenden Satze, sondern klare und pragnante Formulierungen. On How? Argumente kennen wir aus der Rhetorik und der Logik. Macbeth Monologue? Die Rhetorik versucht zu uberreden wie ihr es z.B. Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?? haufig bei Politikern beobachten konnt, wahrend die Logik sachlich uberzeugt, weil die Thesen wahr sind.

Naturlich kann man beides verbinden, der Schwerpunkt sollte aber bei der Argumentation in behaviorism vs cognitivism, den sachlich richtigen Argumenten liegen. On How? Ein Beispiel fur eine Argumentation zum Thema: Schwangerschaftsabbruch Ja oder Nein. Concentric? These 1 : Schwangerschaftsabbruch sollte bedingungslos erlaubt sein, denn es ist ein unzumutbarer Eingriff in Can Video Games Be Harmful?, die Autonomie der Frau dies zu verbieten. Life In Prison Essay? Begrundung : Kinder, die von ihrer Mutter gegen deren Willen ausgetragen wurden, werden unter Mangel an Games Zuwendung und Liebe leiden. Vs Cognitivism? Beweis : dies zeigen viele wissenschaftliche Langzeitstudien. Essay On How Can Video Games? Beispiel : Ich habe mir als Kind auch oft gewunscht, man hatte mich abgetrieben. Begrundung : Die Idee, dass der Staat das Recht hat, Geburten zu kontrollieren, ist erst im Rahmen der Hexenverbrennung, also in folies bergere, der fruhen Neuzeit aufgekommen. On How? In der restlichen Menschheitsgeschichte war es ganz alleine eine autonome Entscheidung der Frau, ob sie Kinder wollte oder nicht. Castles? Abtreibung und Verhutung waren noch im Mittelalter sehr ublich gerade in on How Be Harmful?, armen Familien. Folies? Beweis : Dies kann man sehr genau mit vielen Belegen in Games Be Harmful?, der wissenschaftlichen Studie Die Vernichtung der weisen Frauen * nachlesen. Pro And Cons? Beispiel : Noch heute kann man in on How Games, den sogenannten nicht-zivilisierten Kulturen eine hohe Zahl an folies bergere Verhutungsmoglichkeiten und straffreier Abtreibung und sogar Kindstotung beobachten.

Ein weiteres Indiz, dass der Schutz ungeborenen Lebens ideologisch und kulturell bestimmt wird. On How Can Video Games? Fazit: Diese Argumente zeigen, dass es zwar schon klingt, das ungeborene Leben zu schutzen und Frauen, die abtreiben Mord vorzuwerfen, dennoch ist dies vor allem dem Wunsch nach staatlicher Geburtenkontrolle geschuldet und weniger den moralischen Vorstellungen. Atm Security? Denn die Kinder, die ungewollt auf die Welt kommen, erhalten wenig oder gar keine Hilfe und sind alleine ihrem oftmals schwerem Schicksal ausgesetzt. Von Abtreibung als Mord zu sprechen, setzt die Frauen unter einen erheblichen moralischen Druck, dem viele nicht standhalten. Essay On How Be Harmful?? Das ware ein KURZES Beispiel, wie der Aufbau sein konnte. Behaviorism? In diesem Fall ohne Einbindung der Gegenargumente, die aber nach diesem Muster leicht zu erstellen sind. On How? Wir wollten ja nicht eure Hausaufgaben machen! Online-Shopping oder doch lieber ganz klassisch durch die Stadt bummeln, sich die Sachen anschauen und im Geschaft einkaufen? Was ist euer Favorit, wenn ihr euch neue Sachen holt? Teilt uns eure Meinung in of polygamy, unserer Umfrage zum Thema mit! Ich freue mich sehr uber Kommentare, ob diese Anleitung hilfreich war, denn dementsprechend wurde ich sie gerne noch verbessern.

Denn, wenn sie nicht hilft, ist sie nutzlos! Wunsche euch gute Noten und viel Erfolg!

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okapi essay By KEAY DAVIDSON. John Wiley Sons, Inc. All his life, Carl Sagan was troubled by grand dichotomies#151;between reason and irrationalism, between wonder and skepticism. The dichotomies clashed within him.

He yearned to believe in marvelous things#151;in flying saucers, in Martians, in glistening civilizations across the Essay on How Can Video Milky Way. Yet reason usually brought him back to atm security, Earth. Usually; not always. A visionary dreams of a better world than this one. He refuses to think that modern society and Can Video its trappings#151;money, marriage, children, a nine-to-five career, and obeisance to a waving flag and an inscrutable God#151;are all there is. Pro And Cons. Sagan was blinded, but not by Essay on How Games Be Harmful? these. He was blinded by cons the sheer glory of the new cosmos that was unveiled by science during the first two decades of Can Video Be Harmful?, his life. This cosmos was an ever-expanding, unbounded wonderland of billions of galaxies. And across the light-years, Sagan dreamed, random molecular jigglings had perhaps spawned creeping, crawling, thinking creatures on behaviorism vs cognitivism alien landscapes bathed in the glow of alien suns. This vision blinded Sagan, sometimes, to the needs of the people around him.

These included friends who worshiped him, although he hurt them; wives who were entranced by his passions, although they were enraged by his absenteeism and Can Video Games Be Harmful? often illogical logic; sons who were enthralled by his example, even as they struggled to concentric castles, escape his shadow; and colleagues who envied and honored him, even while they scorned his wilder notions and mocked his pomposities. Hardly anyone who knew Carl Sagan intimately has an unmixed opinion of him. In the final analysis, he was the dichotomy: the prophet and the hard-boiled skeptic, the boyish fantasist and the ultrarigorous analyst, the warm companion and the brusque colleague, the oracle whose smooth exterior concealed inner fissures, which, in Essay Can Video Games, the end, only one woman could heal. Sagan's inner war stemmed, in part, from castles his childhood relations with his parents. Rachel and Essay Games Sam's marriage epitomized a great philosophical principle: Opposites attract. Sagan later traced his analytical urges to Rachel, a cunning, acid-tongued neurotic who had known extreme poverty and been abandoned by her family. Her intellectual ambitions had been thwarted by the grand irrationalisms of her time#151;by societal bigotries against the poor, against traduzione Jews, against women (and wives in particular).

She worshiped her only son, Carl. He would fulfill her unfulfilled dreams. And Carl's sense of wonder came from Sam, a quiet, soft-hearted escapee from the czar. On How Can Video Games Be Harmful?. Sam gave apples to the poor and soothed labor-management tensions in New York's tumultuous garment industry. He was awed by the young Carl's brilliance, his boyish chatter about stars and dinosaurs#151;but not overawed. Sam would have adored his son had he been just another Jewish kid in wartime Brooklyn who played kickball in bergere, the streets while Nazi subs haunted the coastline. Posterity's judgment of Essay on How Can Video, Rachel Molly Gruber Sagan (1907-1982) is wildly contradictory. Vivacious, a witch, brilliant, very perky, very bright, insane#151;very paranoid, you knew she was coming from a mile away, completely loving, a waif . who needed all the behaviorism affection she could get#151;so say those who enjoyed or endured her. Her education was meager, her looks unlovely.

Neglected by her family, she grew up almost homeless in New York City during World War I and Games Be Harmful? the 1920s. Life. Yet she had flash and charisma, a feisty sense of fashion, and a rapid, eloquent tongue. She made (and dumped) friends fast, and boyfriends faster. Essay On How Games. She wrote well, too. Her first child, Carl, would inherit her literary skill. Her prose style might be described as Take no prisoners. Shortly before her death, unmellowed by pro and cons of polygamy age, she gleefully wrote to Essay on How Be Harmful?, two married friends about Carl and his third wife Ann Druyan's new Ithaca mansion, describing it as. a weirdo of pro and of polygamy, a house, most of it underground (great protection from a nuclear blast) . the result of a lurid nightmare of the architect. Because I was aghast and against it, they don't speak to me. Essay On How Be Harmful?. [Carl] must and will have installed a sophisticated burglar alarm#151;there are threats against vs cognitivism him by some crazy people who claim he appears in Essay on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, their dreams and pro and cons keeps them from on How Can Video Games sleeping. Atm Security. One such was apprehended.

Rachel's bilious prose camouflaged her pride. On How Can Video Games. How far she had come from her rotten beginnings! Through the Depression and Hitler and Alger Hiss, she had raised to last traduzione, adulthood a boy who, by Essay on How Games the century's twilight, had become the world's best-known living scientist, a multimillionaire TV star and castles Pulitzer Prize-winning author, and recently wed to a brainy, luminous brunette (a lady so desirable that a prior suitor had written a novel about her). He was so famous, in fact, that he haunted the minds of the mad . My son, the specter! Bragged Rachel, the onetime waif, at Essay on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, the end of her letter: We are not the run of the mill, are we, or the rank and file or the ordinary plebeian. Aren't you glad you know us? Rachel's origins were vague; she preferred it that way. Pro And Cons Of Polygamy. She and her family tended to be secretive about embarrassing family matters, Carl Sagan wrote in a November 28, 1994, letter to lifelong friend Lucille Nahemow, a professor of Can Video Games Be Harmful?, psychology at the University of Connecticut at Storrs, who specializes in family issues and who studied Rachel's life. Carl's sole sibling was his sister, Carol, nicknamed Cari.

A social worker, she is married to a Union Carbide executive. In the living room of their handsome home in Houston, she showed this writer a faded black-and-white photo of atm security, a middle-aged couple standing on a boardwalk at the beach. The man in the photo is Leib Gruber, Rachel's father. Tall and unsmiling, he wears a dark suit and a big black hat. He looks like a movie mobster.

The rumor, Cari said as she served coffee and Passover muffins, is on How Can Video Games, that he was a murderer. Leib Gruber was born in the late nineteenth century in the village of Sassow, part of the in Prison Essay Austro-Hungarian Empire#151;an empire creaking in all its multi-national joints, as Arthur Koestler put it, waiting to fall to pieces. Essay Can Video Games. Across the continent, the vipers of anti-Semitism stirred: the Dreyfus case in France, village slaughters in rural Russia. Concentric Castles. Conspiracy theorists touted the Essay on How Games Be Harmful? fraudulent Protocols of belcanto folies bergere, Zion as proof of a global Jewish conspiracy. In reality, few Jews outside an intellectual and Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful? artistic elite#151;Freud, for example#151;found influential careers within Emperor Francis Joseph's doomed empire. Leib's father sold fish. Life In Prison. Young Leib was big-boned and strong, and raised cash in a medieval manner#151;carrying travelers on his back across the shallow stretches of Essay on How Be Harmful?, a river. In the words of his grandson Carl Sagan, he was a beast of concentric castles, burden. According to one version of Essay on How Be Harmful?, a family legend, in 1904 Leib killed an anti-Semite. He fled to the New World, leaving behind his young wife, Chaiya. Concentric Castles. (His loyal brother supposedly stayed in Austria to take the Games rap for the crime.) Leib got a job in the United States. He made enough money to transport Chaiya to New York on a Hamburg-based ship, the Batavia . She arrived with one dollar in her bag.

The couple anglicized their names, from Leib to Louis and from Chaiya to vs cognitivism, Clara. Then they settled down and bred two children. The first was Rachel, whose official birthdate was November 23, 1907. (The true birthdate is Essay Be Harmful?, uncertain because Rachel was secretive about her age.) Chaiya died during a second childbirth. For whatever reason, Leib/Louis decided that he couldn't manage little Rachel. He sent her to concentric, Austria, where she lived with relatives. In the meantime, he remarried. Can Video Be Harmful?. Unfortunately, the monologue traduzione Austrian relatives didn't want#151;or couldn't stand#151;the energetic little girl. Essay On How Can Video Games. After a few years, they shipped Rachel back to pro and cons of polygamy, New York, to on How, her father and belcanto folies bergere her stepmother, Rose (the woman in the photo). Rose received her stepchild with less than open arms. Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?. By the belcanto folies bergere time she was eight, Professor Nahemow observes, Rachel was rejected on Can Video Be Harmful? two continents. Rachel's family was dysfunctional before dysfunctional was a cliche.

Leib gave his children nasty nicknames. He called Rachel hair lice (she had returned from Austria with lice in behaviorism, her hair). Essay Games Be Harmful?. Rachel's stepbrother Abraham was institutionalized for in Prison Essay mysterious reasons; his very existence was a family secret. (Carl Sagan first heard about his stepuncle at Rachel's funeral in 1982.) Leib had a good side. On one occasion, Rachel's schoolteacher reprimanded her for misbehavior. Leib protected Rachel from Essay Games Be Harmful? Rose's wrath by lying to macbeth last monologue traduzione, his wife, claiming that the reprimand was actually a compliment. Still, Rachel avoided home as much as possible. She hated Rose. Rachel never accepted Rose as her mother. She knew she wasn't her birth mother, Cari Sagan says. She was a rather rebellious child and young adult . `emancipated woman,' we'd call her now.

Professor Nahemow obtained many details about Rachel's childhood from Nahemow's mother, Flora Bernstein, one of Rachel's closest childhood friends. Once Rose stormed into Flora's childhood home, accusing Rachel of being a whore. Flora's mother unceremoniously threw her out. Flora, a resident of Games Be Harmful?, Liberty Avenue in Brooklyn, met seven-year-old Rachel when she was skipping rope with friends. Rachel invited the shy, pretty new girl to play. Rachel, Flora learned, was inventive and fun to be with.

In turn, Flora offered Rachel access to her home. The Bernstein residence was much nicer than the Grubers' grubby digs. The Bernsteins threw many parties with interesting people (none of whom were wanted for murder in Austria). Ambitious, Rachel seized her opportunity: she became outgoing and very affectionate toward Flora's mother. In turn, Mrs. Bernstein adored Rachel#151;enough to vs cognitivism, make Flora jealous.

Rachel, Flora now believes, was a waif, an unfortunate child who needed all the affection she could get. Rachel had a reputation for Can Video Games taking chances. She would come to [Mrs. Bernstein's] Hebrew school and pick up boys, Flora recalls. She was always . very conscious of the opposite sex.

She dressed well and Life in Prison Essay had a good sense of fashion. Rachel was the Essay on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? first one in the crowd who bought a bathing suit. Concentric. There was a law about the Essay on How length of suits and Rachel's was too short. She was thrown off the last monologue traduzione boardwalk in Coney Island. Rachel was smart. She completed an equivalency test to receive a high school diploma. Brilliant, a very perky little woman, smart, well read, very interesting to talk to, recalls one of Essay Can Video Games, her relatives, Beatrice Rubenstein. Rachel explored New York's high culture with the guidance of a savvy relative, Sarah Cohen. They lacked money but managed to get into concerts, plays, and ballets via hook, crook, and subway. Sarah learned to get through turnstiles without paying, and took Rachel along. Behaviorism. Sometimes they entered [the show] at intermission and stood in the back.

As the war-mad 1910s became the on How Be Harmful? money-mad 1920s, Rachel and her female pals formed a club. Castles. They called themselves the `It' Girls after screen heartthrob Clara Bow. By that time Rachel was a brassy, bold, five-foot-two cyclone. She was hardly a beauty. But no one, male or female, could resist her allure as she blew into a room and leveled it with her street-smart mouth and radiant eyes. Essay On How Can Video Games Be Harmful?. Rachel was unpredictable, recalls Flora Bernstein.

She sometimes stole other girls' boyfriends just to show that she could do it. Folies Bergere. But at other times she was very protective of her friends. I once went in a car with a boy. Rachel wrote down the license number and said, `You take good care of my friend. If anything happens to her, I have your number.' At a party, `It' Girl Mary Brodsky introduced Rachel to Essay, a quiet young man. He was skinny, red-haired, and covered with freckles. When they went swimming, she gasped at the extent of his red-splotched flesh. Are you freckled everywhere ? she demanded.

Everywhere! he boasted. Samuel Sagan made Rachel's hormones race, and Life Essay she his. She saw dad's red hair and immediately fell in love, Cari Sagan says. And he was swept off his feet by her, which is understandable because she was very, very charismatic and vivacious. They were married within weeks. In Carl Sagan's lakeside home in upstate New York, his widow, Ann Druyan, keeps a black-and-white photo of the young Sam and Rachel.

They are kissing enthusiastically, Hollywood-style, on a boardwalk. Games Be Harmful?. They wed in the early 1930s, the bleakest days of the Great Depression. At that time, Sam was a poorly paid usher at a movie theater. Atm Security. In Germany, Nazis were marching. Essay. American Jews feared an upsurge of local fascism. The apprehensiveness of American Jews, Fortune magazine observed, has become one of the important influences in the social life of our time. No matter; Rachel and Life in Prison Sam were in love. They married, had two kids, survived it all. They lived long enough to retire to Essay Games, Florida, to play Scrabble and shoot pool, to watch their son grow famous on television.

Sagan's secretary Shirley Arden recalls how playful the couple remained to the end: Sam took the golfer's stance a la Johnny Carson, gave Rachel a lecherous look, and said, `Just you and me, babe.' Rachel was a sensuous woman. Sam adored her and put up with her foibles. Rachel, Cari Sagan Greene recalls, would fuss over Sam's hair and make sure that the little dip in my father's hair was just so. She wanted the folies man that she married to look the way she thought `good' looked. He was sort of indulgent; he knew it was inevitable; it didn't bother him a bit. In 1979, at age seventy-four, Sam lay in Essay Can Video Be Harmful?, a hospital dying of lung cancer. Rachel slipped into the bed with him, to atm security, hug and comfort him.

When Sam Sagan was five years old, he left the Ukraine and joined the hungry, hopeful millions then streaming to America. As an adult, he would recall little about on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, his Ukrainian hometown, save one detail: it was near a prison. An appropriate memory. The entire Pale of Settlement, a vast expanse of farmland between the Baltic and the Black Seas, was effectively a prison where the Jews of the Russian Empire were forced to live, subjected to many governmental restrictions. Incorporating fragments of dismembered medieval states, the Pale seethed with ever-growing numbers of impoverished peoples, including former serfs. Their lives were humdrum at vs cognitivism, best, nightmarish at worst#151;more like Bernard Malamud's The Fixer than Fiddler on the Roof . Sam was born on Can Video Games March 2, 1905. It was a triumphant year in the history of science, and an ominous one in Russian history. Outside Russia, the in Prison year 1905 was the turning point in several areas of science, heralding radical changes, says historian of science Stephen G. Brush. That year brought pivotal accomplishments by on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? many researchers, Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein among them. Freud and Einstein#151;two Jews, who overcame anti-Semitism and rose to fame by challenging our view of reality.

In 1905, Freud published Three Essays on the Theory of atm security, Sexuality , one of his classic explorations of the Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful? unconscious. As he explained, the mind is not merely a reasoning machine, as Victorian optimists had believed. Rather, the mind is haunted by ghosts, by irrational forces of desire and repression. Freud believed that these ghosts surface in symbolic forms. One form is the self-destructive group behavior called war.

Also in 1905, Einstein published three historic papers. The most radical was his theory of special relativity, which transformed concepts of time, space, mass, and energy. Special relativity paved the way toward his later, even stranger work on atm security general relativity. In general relativity theory, gravity is not a Newtonian force or action-at-distance; rather, it is the consequence of the curvature of space. General relativity implied a whole new cosmology, a cosmos that (as it turned out) expands over time. On How. As astrophysicists later showed, the cosmos expands because it was born billions of years ago from the atm security big bang, a kind of explosion whose ejecta cooled into innumerable galaxies.

And each galaxy is an Can Video Games Be Harmful?, ocean of stars, whose light may illumine countless planets, many of monologue traduzione, them perhaps inhabited. The Freudian and Einsteinian revolutions posed big questions, questions that tormented Carl Sagan much of his adult life. Reason and irrationalism#151;polar opposites, yet uncomfortably united. Earth and the cosmos#151;different realms, yet part of each other. Sagan explored such dichotomies in many of his books, in cosmological ruminations such as Cosmos and Essay Games Contact , and in his essay-poems on consciousness and evolution, The Dragons of Eden and Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors . Humanity, he believed, must reconcile its rational and irrational sides. Succeed, and empyrean vistas open before us; the cosmos is ours to explore, with all its strange and wonderful sights and (perhaps) peoples. Fail, and bergere we won't make it out of the solar system alive. All our bright promise will be lost; all our long progress will end in a bright, noisy flash.

Freud's outlook grew dark as Europe tore itself to on How Games Be Harmful?, bits in one war, then rearmed for a worse one; and darker as the cancer attacked his mouth. By contrast, Sagan was an optimist#151;always was, even as the blood disease ravaged his body, even as he waited to be arrested at an atomic site, even as he gazed into the poker faces of nuclear weaponeers and castles realized that they really believe in their research, believe that instruments of annihilation will forever keep the peace. Sagan experienced all this yet still believed in the future, in Games Be Harmful?, humanity, in cons, the eventual triumph of reason. Can Video Games Be Harmful?. At heart, he was a child. He descended from a hopeful people. Pessimists stayed in the Ukraine, scratching their meager existences from the dark soil. Concentric. Optimists said to hell with it and headed west, usually to America. The 1900s were a good time to leave: the on How Can Video Russian Empire quaked with revolts and pogroms, foreshocks of the greater revolution to come, in 1917. Belcanto Folies. The czarist regime struck back with typically cloddish brutality. Six weeks before Sam Sagan's birth in 1905, troops killed more than a hundred peaceful protesters in St. Petersburg.

In June, sailors mutinied aboard the battleship Potemkin in Odessa. The revolts triggered an on How, anti-Semitic backlash. Thousands of Jews, including many women, were arrested on political grounds. According to Moses Rischin, In 1904, of an estimated 30,000 organized Jewish workers, 4,476 were imprisoned or exiled to Siberia. Pro And. Young Leon Trotsky observed one of the 1905 pogroms.

He noted how the gang rushes through the town, drunk on vodka and the smell of blood. According to family legend, after Sam's mother died in on How, childbirth, his Ukrainian relatives sent him to New York to cons of polygamy, join his father, who had already journeyed there. Five-year-old Sam and on How Can Video Games his uncle, George, first glimpsed the atm security New York skyline in Can Video Games, 1910, from Life in Prison a ship approaching Ellis Island. Many immigrants' hearts raced as they read this passage in a guidebook: Hold fast, this is most necessary in America. Forget your past, your customs, and your ideals. Select a goal and pursue it with all your might. You will experience a bad time but sooner or later you will achieve your goal. Do not take a moment's rest.

Do not take a moment's rest. This might have been George Sagan's credo, or his grandnephew Carl's. George was old enough to join the on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? booming New York garment industry. In 1916 he founded his own firm, the New York Girl Coat Company. Eventually he became a wealthy man, a country-club type and a member of the board of educational and vs cognitivism public-spirited institutions. When the on How Can Video Be Harmful? firm celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in 1966, the cons New York Times ran a story on the front page of its business section. The story included a photo of a grinning George Sagan admiring a little girl modeling his wares. As a joke, Carl Sagan mentioned the firm in his 1985 novel Contact . Sam had more intellectual ambitions.

Like many immigrant Jews, he believed in the transformative power of education. He eventually enrolled at on How Games, Columbia University, hoping to atm security, become a pharmacist. Then his father died. End of Games, dream. To support his family, Sam went to work for Uncle George as a garment cutter. [H]is job, Carl Sagan later wrote, was to use a very scary power saw to cut out patterns#151;backs, say, or sleeves for ladies' coats and suits#151;from an enormous stack of cloth. In Prison Essay. Then the Essay patterns were conveyed to endless rows of women sitting at sewing machines. In Prison. Textile fibers wafted through the Can Video air; some, perhaps, found their way into behaviorism Sam's lungs and hastened his ultimate end. This proletarian fate did not embitter Sam. He was good with people, liked them; they adored him.

By the late 1940s he was a factory manager. Can Video Games Be Harmful?. He made enough money to bergere, send his son to a great university, to be taught by noted scholars who would escort him to fame. You will experience a bad time but sooner or later you will achieve your goal. The guidebook had been right. This was America; optimism, it seemed, made sense. Carl Sagan was born in Brooklyn on November 9, 1934. Essay. His mother, Rachel, named him in honor of her biological mother, Chaiya/ Clara, the mother she never knew, in Sagan's words. As a science popularizer, Sagan sometimes drew on childhood memories to illustrate scientific points. Atm Security. Most of us have a memory like this: you're lying in your crib, having awakened from your nap, he and his wife, Ann Druyan, wrote in Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors . You cry for your mother, at first tentatively, but when no one comes, more emphatically.

Panic mounts. Where is she? Why doesn't she come? you think, or something along those lines#151;although not in words, because your verbal consciousness is still almost wholly undeveloped. She enters the room smiling, she reaches in and picks you up, you hear her musical voice, you smell her perfume#151;and how your heart soars! Rachel was madly in love with her little boy. She told him he was brilliant. He believed her. Essay Games Be Harmful?. Throughout Sagan's life, Rachel's devotion to pro and, her son awed or amused or disgusted outsiders.

She worshiped the ground he floated above, joked Peter Pesch, the best man at Sagan's first wedding. He could do no wrong. Can Video. That's got to belcanto folies, be a good start in Essay, life#151;a mother that thinks you are the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth. Sagan's boyhood friend Robert Gritz recalls Rachel bragging to macbeth last traduzione, everyone about Carl#151;for example, gloating, Oh, Carl got an A! The writer Timothy Ferris, who befriended Sagan in the 1970s, remembers the aged Rachel as an Essay on How Can Video, ur -mother who'd made a kind of shrine to Carl in the spare bedroom with all his awards and everything, and to whom every accomplishment was just a step toward the next accomplishment. There's no way of understanding him without understanding her very well, says Sagan's first wife, scientist-author Lynn Margulis. Behaviorism. His mother had made him so dependent on this one relationship#151;on her . He was worthy of Essay on How Can Video, every attention, all the time, every need [was] always filled. Despite this adoration, there were hidden fears in macbeth last monologue, Sagan's life. He later wrote that starting at age two, he was frightened . by real-seeming but wholly imaginary `monsters,' especially at night or in the dark. I can still remember occasions when I was absolutely terrified, hiding under the bedclothes until I could stand it no longer, and then bolting for Games the safety of my parents' bedroom#151;if only castles, I could get there before falling into the clutches of . The Presence. On How Games. Sometimes he awoke drenched in sweat, my heart pounding. (A child is Essay, terrified of the dark, then grows up and becomes an astronomer.

Psychoanalysts may make of this what they will.) Rachel's devotion to Carl was double-edged. She had experienced life's darker side. She had little patience with those#151;even children#151;who fantasized about life. Essay Can Video. The slightest whimsical observation might irk or anger her.

In his final years, Sagan recalled a blustery fall day when he was about macbeth last traduzione, age five, looking out the Essay on How Can Video Be Harmful? living room window at Lower New York Bay. The water was choppy and pro and the sun was about to on How Be Harmful?, set. His mother came by the window and they gazed toward the Atlantic Ocean. Atm Security. On the other side of the sea, World War II was beginning. There are people fighting out there, killing each other, she told him. Carl replied: I know.

I can see them. She fired back: No, you can't. They're too far away. This seemingly trivial incident gnawed at Sagan. On How. His adoring mother had contradicted him! He later wrote: How could she know whether I could see them or not? . Squinting, I had thought I'd made out a thin strip of land at the horizon on which tiny figures were pushing and belcanto bergere shoving and dueling with swords as they did in my comic books. Rachel could be utterly charming, Lynn Margulis recalls.

Yet Rachel also could scan a newcomer, find her or his vulnerability, and stick it in#151;make a caustic remark that deeply hurt. Sagan's sister, Cari, remembers how as a child, I always had a deep voice and she would imitate it, not in a pleasant way, just in a way that wiped me out emotionally. It was devastating. Cari's mother gave Carl more attention: I can never remember her hugging me, Cari said. Sagan's son Nick, a television writer, recalls his grandmother as a delightful fireball. She was a great cook and loved to make him spicy spaghetti and meatballs. But she was insane#151;in a sometimes wonderful, and on How Games sometimes not wonderful, way . Last Monologue. very paranoid. She was convinced that restaurants weren't sanitary and that the waiters would always spit in the food.

Rachel's eccentricities affected Sagan emotionally. Her dedication to logic, like his, sometimes bordered on the illogical. Games. Once Carl, smelling her cooking, made an behaviorism, Mmm! sound. What do you mean? she snapped angrily. You haven't even tasted it yet! Over the long run, Nick believes, his father compensated for Rachel's wackiness: She was irrational in certain ways, and that led to his very ultra -rational kind of way with things. Arrogance often hides insecurity; pretentiousness usually conceals ignorance. These are psychological truisms.

Rachel was touchy about her limited education. Games. Once she and some friends went to an Arthur Miller play and argued about macbeth last monologue traduzione, it afterward. Feeling slighted, Rachel reportedly stormed off, declaring: You'll hear from me when I get my degree. She wanted to go to college, but Sam vetoed the idea. He also forbade her to get a job. Uncharacteristically, she complied; no other man could have said no to Rachel and lived. She was resentful, but she didn't let her mind rot. She read a great deal . Essay. was very interesting . an traduzione, intellectual person, Cari says.

When I was taking piano lessons, she would be resting on the couch, reading the New York Times . In the 1980s and 1990s, Sagan, Ann Druyan, and their intimate friend the movie producer Lynda Obst, met in southern California to plan the film Contact . Can Video Games Be Harmful?. Obst recalls how they sat around for hours, telling stories about their mothers: Hours! . We were all really interested in psychology and figuring ourselves out. Sagan revered his mother's memory, but by that time he didn't have any illusions about her; he had seen how she treated his first two wives. He was also beginning to atm security, look into his own soul, to Essay on How, understand the kind of atm security, person he was#151;the kind of person Rachel had made him. All the time we talked about Rachel . On How. [Carl] wasn't angry with her . but he also knew how controlling she was, and folies bergere how tough and mean she was to his other wives, and how selfish she made him in certain kinds of ways#151;how `entitled' is a better word, Obst says. Rachel had so many secrets and so many issues. I think she had a lot of rage. Essay Can Video. And Carl was her production#151;Carl was a `Rachel Production.' And she launched him into atm security the world to stake her claim. In some sense he was shot out of a cannon. Indeed, little Carl was an impressive kid, sometimes too impressive. Essay. I was thrown out of Sunday school, he recalled.

Someone had asked, How did Pharaoh's daughter know that Moses was a Hebrew child? The answer was, He was circumcised, but the last teacher was too embarrassed to Essay Can Video, say it. Carl kept pushing and pro and cons of polygamy pushing and pushing the teacher to answer the question. Essay On How Can Video Games. Did [the child] have a Hebrew letter on folies it? How could you know? . And the teacher couldn't give me the Games Be Harmful? answer, even though he knew it, because he was embarrassed.

Jews were a large fraction of the populace in belcanto, Bensonhurst, a Brooklyn neighborhood. The Sagans lived in a modest apartment a short walk from the on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? Atlantic Ocean. Nearby was Coney Island, a site of frequent Sagan family outings. Old photos show Carl lolling on the beach, with baby Cari on his back. The 1930s. The Great Depression (which fascists blamed on Jews). Framed pictures of FDR (attacked by bigots for folies bergere his Jew Deal) on kitchen walls. Edward G. Games. Robinson (born Emmanuel Goldenberg) movies at the Bijou. Father Coughlin on the radio, denouncing Jews. My family never hid the fact that they were Jewish, [but] didn't shout it from the rooftops, Cari Sagan says. The exact nature of the family's religious faith is unclear.

In a 1991 interview, Sagan recalled that they were Reform Jews, the more liberal wing of Judaism's three main groups (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform). Cari, however, says they were Conservative (that is, more conservative than Reform but more liberal than Orthodox). In any case, both agree that their father, Sam, showed little religious interest. Atm Security. Cari says Rachel definitely believed in Essay on How Games, God and was active in the temple. My mother only served kosher meat. There [were] never any pork products or shellfish in the family or household. The couple occasionally quarreled, but not over religion. Vs Cognitivism. Carl said: My mother and my father were deeply in love with each other, and Essay Games so my father went along for my mother's sake. In turn, Cari noted, Rachel was flexible: My dad liked bacon and eggs. And so he would go out on a weekend or some time and belcanto folies bergere have it at Essay on How Can Video, a restaurant. And my mother was okay with that because it wasn't brought into the house.

In this Judaically fluid atmosphere, the teenage Carl would nurse primal doubts. Secularization was in vs cognitivism, the air. The great rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, the originator of Reconstructionist Judaism, a new, fourth branch of Judaism, urged Jews to abandon superstition, to rebuild their lives around ethnic identification rather than ancient folk tales. The Humanist movement was well under way; its diverse band of intellectuals, leftists, and religious skeptics urged Americans to Be Harmful?, concentrate not on a doubtful hereafter but on the certain here and atm security now. Trotskyists passed out literature on street corners. One's aunt or uncle might be an active member of the Communist party. In the park right across from on How Games Carl's, on a Sunday afternoon, his friend Gritz remembers, it was like Hyde Park in London: guys would stand up and give speeches for or against Stalin.

Sam was no intellectual, and as a factory boss he was certainly no Marxist. Vs Cognitivism. But he gave his children a social conscience. Cari was awed by his warm relationship with his workers at the factory#151;no mean feat in the highly unionized and combative garment industry#151;and decided to become a social worker. As for Carl, he was four or five years old when his parents took him to the New York World's Fair of 1939-1940. Essay On How Games. Holding their lunches, they walked by macbeth monologue traduzione a man selling pencils.

Sam took Carl's apple and Essay Can Video Games gave it to the man. Concentric. Carl disliked apples; nonetheless, he started wailing. It was his apple! To avoid embarrassing the man, Sam carried Carl away until their voices were out of earshot. We don't really need that apple, he explained to Games, his son gently. That fellow was hungry. Carl never forgot the of polygamy lesson. Essay On How Be Harmful?. Many decades later, his enemies would include the nation's most virulent right-wingers. At the nadir of the Depression, Sam Sagan had been a miserably paid movie usher in New York City.

Six decades later, his only son's name would glisten on bergere the movie screen. Sagan recalled his parents: My relationship with them was really very good. Essay On How Can Video. I missed them often. Still miss them. Every now and then, when I am working or I am shaving or something like that, I hear#151;as clear as a bell#151;one of them saying my name: `Carl,' just like that. It's unmistakable. I know whose voice it is. Belcanto. I turn around before I can do any cerebration on it. [Memory of their voices] has to be in many different parts of my brain. And it's not surprising that my brain would sort of, you know, play it back . Essay Games Be Harmful?. every now and then.

When Sagan repeated this story publicly, parapsychology buffs misunderstood his meaning. Atm Security. They excitedly spread the rumor (in words to this effect): Carl Sagan, the Essay Can Video Games king of skeptics, is in psychic contact with his dead parents! Pseudoscientists and occultists were always misunderstanding Sagan. He was the best-known scientist of Life in Prison Essay, his time, and they yearned to Can Video Games Be Harmful?, convert him to their various causes. And it is concentric, true that throughout his life, Sagan proposed many unusual ideas, some so unusual that his more conventional colleagues scorned him as a sensationalist, a headline grabber.

But for all his fancies, Sagan was too good a scientist to be fooled by his brain's neurological mirages; he was too confident an Can Video Games Be Harmful?, atheist to think he would ever see or hear his parents again, no matter how much he loved and missed them. The skeptic inside him#151;the Rachel inside him#151;knew better. During the depression, Thomas Wolfe observed a new intellectual force afoot: thousands of bright young Jews, the children of immigrants. In You Can't Go Home Again , Wolfe described the belcanto Jew boy eagerly reading in a New York tenement building. Games. For what? Because, brother, he is burning in the night.

He sees the behaviorism vs cognitivism class, the Essay Can Video Be Harmful? lecture room, the shining apparatus of gigantic laboratories, the last monologue traduzione open field of scholarship and pure research, certain knowledge and the world distinction of an Einstein name. New York City, 1939. The nation was still groggy from the Great Depression. Evil was afoot around the world#151;Hitler and Mussolini in Europe, militarists in Japan. Yet pessimism did not come easily to Americans. They loved to talk about the future and the wonders it would bring. On How. Fabulous new technologies would eliminate poverty, hunger, illiteracy. Synthetic foods would feed the behaviorism starving.

Miracle drugs would heal the sick. Television would bring high culture#151;for free!#151;into every home. An ordinary Joe could afford his own small airplane. (And would keep it, one presumes, in a backyard hangar.) Aviation would make long-distance travel routine. Hence, national and international cultural barriers would dissolve; hence, different societies would better understand each other; hence, farewell to war! The Depression had stirred radical juices. Socialists and Communists were on the march, radicalizing workers, threatening to redistribute wealth and topple the greedy few. On How Games Be Harmful?. But technology's propagandists promised to folies bergere, improve society without any need for class revolts or ideological bickering. How? Simple! Technology was the physical embodiment of Enlightenment rationalism. Rationalism or reason was the royal road to Truth, to optimal solutions for all problems, solutions that would satisfy everyone regardless of class or ethnicity or nationality. Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?. (Gender was not on the intelligentsia's radar screen at that time.) Therefore (the propagandists argued), technology, being reason's physical embodiment, was inherently nonideological.

Its control could be entrusted to politically neutral experts, professional Benthamites whose goal was the greatest good for the greatest number. Who could question such a noble agenda? As in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz , where Emerald City looms miragelike beyond the belcanto poppy fields, the City of Tomorrow beckoned on Essay Games the horizon of macbeth last monologue, 1939. It would be a city of superhighways and robots and television#151;of everything, in fact, displayed at the 1939 New York World's Fair. While Hitler blitzkrieged into Poland and France, Americans fantasized about a coming techno-utopia that satisfied all needs while requiring a minimum of societal self-criticism or personal introspection. There was no need to question who would control the technology, or for what ends.

Carl Sagan's generation was raised on this technological faith. It is little wonder that for decades afterward, Sagan collected Fair memorabilia#151;postcards, ashtrays, and Essay on How the like. At the Fair's Futurama exhibit, operated by General Motors, participants flew over belcanto folies bergere, a moving map of the America of Tomorrow. They passed futuristic cities with elevated highways and on How Can Video Games cloud-piercing skyscrapers. Fairgoers were informed about future wonders: weather control, robots, atomic energy.

It showed beautiful highways and atm security clover leafs and little General Motors cars all carrying people to skyscrapers, buildings with lovely spires, flying buttresses#151;and it looked great! Sagan remembered. In retrospect, Sagan acknowledged, he had accepted the on How Games Be Harmful? Fair's extremely technocratic message in an uncritical way. Young Carl thought: That's what tomorrow is bergere, going to be like. Gee! And I'm going to live in it! He gasped at a display in which a flashlight illuminated a photoelectric cell, creating a crackling sound.

In another exhibit, a sound wave from a tuning fork registered as a sine wave on an oscilloscope. Plainly, Sagan observed, the world held wonders of a kind I had never guessed. How could a tone become a picture and light become a noise? He also witnessed, for the first time, the Can Video Games technology that would make him famous: television. One of the Fair's most publicized gimmicks was the burial of a time capsule at concentric, Flushing Meadows. It contained mementos of the Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful? 1930s to be recovered by atm security our descendants millennia hence. The time capsule thrilled Carl. Imagine, relics of our day, unearthed and pored over by inhabitants of an epoch unimaginably more wonderful than ours! How they will smile as they examine the pop-culture artifacts of our century, or struggle to decipher the script of old documents, written in languages as obscure to Be Harmful?, them as Chaucerian English is to us.

As an in Prison Essay, adult, Sagan and Essay on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? his colleagues would create his own time capsules#151;capsules destined to survive not for millennia inside the Earth, but for millions of years in the galaxy. The Pioneer plaques and the Voyager records#151;all are long-term spinoffs of Sagan's wide-eyed scamper through the Word's Fair. These metallic messages to the cosmos may drift through the Milky Way for Essay billions of years, never to be found. And if they are found, it'll be by creatures not of this world. But space is terribly vast; there is only an Essay on How Games Be Harmful?, infinitesimal chance that aliens will one day scrutinize these micrometeorite-scarred ambassadors of atm security, Earth, these relics of A.D. Can Video. 1939, of the spirit of Flushing Meadows, of the high hopes that soon crashed and burned in the chaos of folies, Word War II. A New York boy, particularly a Jewish boy, could not fail to be aware of the Second World War. The headlines were full of strange words such as Blitzkrieg and Essay on How Games Anschluss . Belcanto Folies Bergere. Parents whispered about the fate of Essay on How Games Be Harmful?, European relatives. In 1942, when Sagan was seven, the behaviorism vs cognitivism struggle between fascism and democracy took place literally within earshot. His friend Robert Gritz remembers lying in bed at Essay on How, night and listening to the far-off boom! of macbeth last traduzione, exploding merchant ships, more victims of Hitler's wolf packs. Can Video Be Harmful?. Kids on behaviorism Brooklyn beaches stumbled on the resulting debris#151; binoculars, jackets, body parts.

Sure, we had relatives who were caught up in the Holocaust, Sagan recalled. Hitler was not a popular fellow in our household, even before the on How war. Atm Security. But on the other hand, I was fairly insulated from the horrors of the war. I spent time drawing Grumman Avengers shooting down Stukas. Fairly insulated is correct. Be Harmful?. Rachel, Cari says, above all wanted to protect Carl from the in Prison Essay horrors of war.

She had an extraordinarily difficult time dealing with World War II and the Holocaust. This was something that was never talked about, essentially, that I can recall. We had relatives who were slaughtered. By shielding Carl's eyes from the ongoing apocalypse, Rachel ensured that he would grow up an optimist. Emotionally, that optimism would be his greatest strength; intellectually, it would be his greatest liability. On How Games. It was a mental blinder that kept him politically naive until he was in his fifties, when he finally opened his eyes and in Prison faced the dragon in his mental Eden: the nuclear age, the threat of global annihilation. Carl inherited this mixed legacy from Rachel.

I wouldn't say she was ugly or plain, Gritz says of Rachel. You wouldn't give her a second look, but you wouldn't say, `Oooh, she's funny-looking.' Rachel frequented a beauty salon run by Gritz's father. Games. Sometimes she brought Carl. She dressed nicely#151;a skirt, makeup, her hair coiffed. She took good care of herself. While Rachel submitted herself to Mr. Gritz's handiwork, Carl and pro and of polygamy Robert played outside. Cops and robbers, Americans versus the Essay Can Video Be Harmful? Nazis, and so on. Young Carl was well built#151;very athletic, in contrast to Life in Prison, the exercise-averse, skinny adult he would become. Sagan kept his nose in the air and had little to do with most children, Gritz recalled.

He was aloof#151;`standoffish' is the Essay Can Video Games best description. Head in the clouds. I think his mother inculcated in him an idea that they were somehow better than the Life Essay riffraff in the street. I could speak to him about Essay Can Video Games, things I couldn't speak [about] to my other friends. My relationship with my other friends was almost one-dimensional#151;there was no intellectual or cultural interaction. But with Carl, it was on different levels. Sagan's parents were liberal Democrats.

That was nothing unusual in the Brooklyn of that day, where FDR was second only to Moses and where many neighbors were farther left. (Gritz recalls assuming that Carl's parents weren't Communists simply because they didn't greet friends as comrade.) This politically lively atmosphere nurtured Sagan's lifelong liberalism. Behaviorism. Also, the culture tolerated oddballs (to quote Irving Howe: Attitudes of tolerance, feelings that one had to put up with one's cranks, eccentrics, idealists, and extremists, pervaded the Jewish community). This tolerance may explain Sagan's adult willingness to converse calmly with, rather than to eviscerate, his ideological opposites#151;from pseudoscientists to theologians to militarists. Sagan's parents, too, knew the fine art of restraint: I never saw his parents lay a hand on him, Gritz says. He was an Be Harmful?, only child for atm security a long time. He was the Can Video apple of their eye. He got a lot more from them than we did from our parents, materially speaking. Folies. The Sagans didn't have much money in Can Video Games Be Harmful?, the early days; Carl slept in concentric, his parents' bedroom.

Yet Sam and Rachel managed to create a cultivated, upscale atmosphere. They even bought a small piano. Essay On How Games. Sagan recalled a lively intellectual life. . Both my father and folies bergere mother read, there were wonderful arguments about Essay on How, politics and other matters, friends and macbeth last monologue traduzione visitors that I got to Games, listen to [while] sitting in the corner. We had Shakespeare in the house. Other boys in the neighborhood built toy ray guns out of atm security, old orange crates, Gritz says, but Carl didn't have to do that; his parents would buy [toys] for him. Essay On How Games Be Harmful?. A half-century later, Sagan wrote evocatively about the day that his parents bought him a pricey electric train with tracks and a headlight. Yet Sagan was not spoiled. He was, in fact, unusually deferential to atm security, his parents. Can Video Games Be Harmful?. This amused his friends.

Carl called his father `Father' and pro and of polygamy his mother `Mother,' Gritz says. Nobody did that in Essay on How Can Video Games, those days! Your mother was `Ma,' your father was `Dad' or `Pa.' People laughed at him because it was peculiar. Sagan also pronounced aunt ahhnt#151;more grounds for neighborhood merriment. When Carl told Gritz, My mother said I have to be home by behaviorism vs cognitivism three o'clock, Carl left in on How Can Video Games, time, Gritz recalls. He was a very obedient person, a very conforming child to concentric castles, his parents' wishes, which we [other boys] were not. Still, fires burned inside Sagan. Games. He permitted a lucky few to feel their warmth. Gritz recalls how they cooed over a deck of French postcards#151;playing cards displaying naked women. They also shared more sophisticated interests. Life Essay. For one thing, they listened to classical records together; Sagan was a real aficionado of the musical masters.

My mother had classical records and an old wind-up phonograph, Gritz says. Essay Games. We listened to classical music together; we enjoyed that very much. [The Sagans] had a record of Toscanini playing the Rossini overture to William Tell with the famous finale, the `Lone Ranger' music. Decades later, Sagan's passion for the classics would be reflected in his choices of music to be included on the Voyager record, bound for the stars. We also listened to the radio together#151; Captain Midnight and Superman . Folies. Sagan was very big into Superman . Gritz recalls that in one of their favorite shows (from his description, it was probably Superstition ), mysteries, especially occult ones, prove to Games Be Harmful?, have simple, logical explanations. Did Superstition reinforce Sagan's fledgling skeptical tendencies? The boys also experimented with lenses to make objects appear closer. Coincidentally, Sagan had begun to atm security, wonder about the stars: what were they? He recalled one winter in Brooklyn when he was five years old.

The stars, he said, seemed to me different. They just weren't like everything else. And so I asked other kids what they were. They said things like they're lights in the sky, kid. I could tell they were lights in the sky, but what were they#151;little electric bulbs on long black wires? . I asked my parents, they didn't know. I asked friends of my parents, they didn't know. [His mother suggested:] I've just gotten you your first library card. Take the streetcar to Games, the New Utrecht branch of the New York Public Library and find a book. [The answer] has to be in a book. I went to the library. Atm Security. I asked the librarian for a book on the stars. She came back and Essay on How gave me a book.

I opened it. It was filled with pictures of concentric, people like Jean Harlow and Clark Gable. I was humiliated. I gave it back to her and said, This wasn't the kind of stars I had in mind. Can Video Be Harmful?. She thought this was hilarious, which humiliated me further. Belcanto Folies. She then went and got the right kind of Be Harmful?, book. I took it#151;a simple kid's book. I sat down on a little chair#151;a pint-sized chair#151;and turned the pages until I came to the answer. And the macbeth answer was stunning. It was that the Sun was a star but really close.

The stars were suns, but so far away they were just little points of light. And while I didn't know the [inverse] square law of light propagation or anything like that, still, it was clear to Games, me that you would have to move that Sun enormously far away, further away than Brooklyn [for the stars to behaviorism, appears as dots of light]. The scale of the universe suddenly opened up to me. [It was] kind of a religious experience. [There] was a magnificence to it, a grandeur, a scale which has never left me. Never ever left me. By the time Carl and Robert were six or seven, they found that by holding two lenses in the right positions, they could see the craters on the Moon, Gritz recalls. They also studied the red colors of Mars. The boys broadened their astronomical education by visiting the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, and its famous Hayden Planetarium. Essay On How Can Video Games. The displays included meteorites, rocks from space. One imagines them standing awestruck before these celestial oddities. Their very solidity proved what Sagan would later emphasize in lectures: space is Life Essay, a place . Carl Sagan later wrote about his childhood trips to the museum. I was transfixed by the dioramas#151;lifelike representations of Games, animals and their habitats all over the world.

Penguins on the dimly lit Antarctic ice; okapi in the bright African veldt; a family of gorillas, the male beating his chest, in a shaded forest glade; an American grizzly bear standing on his hind legs, ten or twelve feet tall, and staring me right in the eye. Like many children, Sagan became fascinated by dinosaurs and read all he could about them. Popular culture reinforced Sagan's growing interest in science. His parents had taken him to see the folies 1939 New York World's Fair and Essay Can Video Games Walt Disney's film Fantasia , both of which excited him about different aspects of science (the latter included a dinosaur sequence). Sagan was also a sports buff.

Contrary to stereotypes about Jewish intellectuals as Woody Allenish nebbishes, the New York Jewish community encouraged an interest in sports, especially basketball and baseball. Baseball players like Sandy Koufax (Brooklyn's own) and Moe Berg (Princeton grad, spied for the Allies during World War II) symbolized what Jews could achieve in America. Carl was really a fanatic Yankee fan, Gritz says. We could recite the batting averages of all the guys on the team. Indeed, numbers enthralled Sagan, especially big ones. At age eight, the future author of concentric, Billions and Billions had the childish compulsion to write in sequence all the on How Be Harmful? integers from 1 to castles, 1,000. We had no pads of paper, but my father offered up the on How Can Video Games stack of gray cardboards he had been saving from folies when his shirts were sent to the laundry. His mother interrupted the project: Carl had to bathe. The boy protested.

Supportive in on How, ways unimagined by Dr. Spock, Sam offered to continue writing the numbers while his son washed. By the time I emerged, he was approaching 900, and cons I was able to reach 1,000 only a little past my ordinary bedtime. The magnitude of large numbers has never ceased to impress me. The Sagans also subsidized Carl's growing interest in chemistry by buying him chemistry sets, with literally explosive results.

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10 Things Your Resume Needs When Applying at Essay on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, Startups. Get Our FREE Guide to concentric, the Perfect Resume. Learn how to write resumes that get you HIRED with our FREE, 30+ page ebook. You can unsubscribe from Can Video Games our mailing list at any time. We won't use your email address for anything else, promise! So you want to work for a startup? Have you ever wondered what a startup founder wants in the people who work for her? What goes on your resume is the atm security deciding factor when applying for any job, but with startups it can be even more important. Ultimately, what the CEO wants is whats going to get you a job. Essay On How! Understanding her perspective is critical to acing your startup resume and breaking into this world.

Psst! For even more great resume advice, check out last monologue traduzione, Skillcrushs free Ultimate Guide to on How Games Be Harmful?, the Perfect Resume! Its easy to assume that startup leaders arent too picky in their hiring. Their organizations are typically less well-known than their big company brethren. Macbeth! They cant possibly be as demanding as Google with millions of applicants, right?

Even if they get fewer applicants than the Big G, they also need a lot fewer employees. Google needs to hire 5,000 new staffers a year while a tiny startup may need just one. The startup can afford to hold out for the perfect new teammate. Especially because that new teammate is likely to on How Can Video Games, have a huge impact on Life the organization. One new employee at Google is a drop in the oceanif she does a great job or a terrible one, the overall companys fortunes wont likely shift one iota. But Employee #5 in Essay Can Video Games a five-person organization is traduzione, now responsible for 20% of the workload and, potentially, 20% of its success or failure. With so much riding on everyones shoulders, Employees 1-4 arent likely to be free to train #5. The organization needs someone who can come in Essay Can Video Games and hit the ground running. The Googles of the world, with giant HR departments and armies of engineers, can afford to hire for pure potential and then polish that potential through extensive training. Startup founders can actually be pickier than, yes, even Google. Theyre hiring the cons one perfect employee who can make or break their organizationsand they need that person to contribute immediately.

No pressure, right? What Do Startups Want on Your Resume? So what does all this mean for your chances of getting a startup job? Startups want it all in their early employees, so its up to you to Essay Can Video Games, give it to them! The best way to last monologue, do that is to Essay on How Be Harmful?, strike a balance between these five tensions inherent in a startups hiring wishlist:

1) Big Company Experience vs. Atm Security! Startup Experience. Startups tend to fetishize big company experience even more than big companies themselves. Why? Because so much of a startups future is Essay on How Can Video, unpredictable, theyre routinely evaluated on their only known asset: their employees. In Prison! Many Silicon Valley pitch decks start with a description of the teams background (Ex-Apple, Ex-Google, Ex-Facebook) before they even get to the startups product. Being able to list a well-known brand name on your resume is like catnip to a status-hungry founder. Even if it was just an internship or a freelance project, being able to Essay on How Can Video Games, say that My new developer cut her teeth at pro and of polygamy, Amazon lets her bask in the halo of your former employer. The totally ironic thing about this big company idolatry is that big company working styles are dead wrong for startups. If a former employee of Can Video Games, a tech giant walks into a startup, expecting to concentric castles, specialize in one very focused area and then delegate her work to a giant team of Can Video Games, underlings, shes in for a rude awakening.

Startups tend to run crazy lean at first, meaning that everyone wears multiple hats and theres no one else to do the work except for the person staring at you in the mirror. Startups also want to see that youve got some entrepreneurial experience on your resume. Think of it as evidence that youll actually be willing to work the long, stressful hours that startups require. Whether you helped start a club in college or launched some cool projects on the side, founders want to be sure that you havent gotten too soft in your cushy big company environs. Startups need someone to vs cognitivism, come in on How Can Video Be Harmful? and hit the ground running. They want to see a track record of resultsnot just potential. The very best startup resumes are going to include detailed proof of what youve actually accomplished. Here are two ways to demonstrate your past success: Quantify the cons of polygamy accomplishment : List specific, numerical outcomes that came directly from your work (shipped an app three months ahead of schedule, increased page views 27%) Brand the Essay on How Can Video accomplishment : Even if you dont have a specific number to Life, share, you can increase your bullets impressiveness by dropping a fancy brand name or title into the story (partnered with Disney to roll out the new site, worked with the on How Can Video Be Harmful? CEO to develop a content strategy) At the vs cognitivism same time startup founders seek result-generating mercenaries, they also want a mercenary with a little personality.

If theyre going to on How, be to elbow-to-elbow with you in the startup trenches, just talking about work is going to get old. Showcasing your passionwhether for vs cognitivism, organizing a kickball league or collecting rare tequilasis critical for making this case: Hey, you wouldnt mind spending more time with me than your significant other! Make sure that the Additional section on your resume is just as robust and interesting as your Experience section, not a cliched afterthought: Interested in Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful? books, tech, and long walks on cons of polygamy the beach. Weve already discussed how time-starved startup employees are. That means when it comes time to Essay Be Harmful?, review resumes, no startup recruiter is atm security, going to spend hours trying to decipher your resume and Essay Can Video figure out exactly what Configured the DJI protocol for the alpha launch really means. The onus is on belcanto folies you to be crystal clear with your bullets.

No jargon from Can Video Games a different industry, no weird acronyms specific to your former employer, and vs cognitivism pretty much nothing that your mother wouldnt understand. If the Essay on How Can Video Games startup recruiter doesnt get it in 10 seconds, shes already gone. Startups also dont want someone whos too straight and narrow. If all your bullets are super orderly (I downloaded the data, applied the preset algorithm, and uploaded the belcanto folies bergere results), that can be suggestive of a person whos not equipped to on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, handle the potential chaos of the startup experience. The most predictable thing about startups is just how unpredictable they areyou never know when a bug will wipe out your database or a major new deal will change your companys whole business. As much as startup recruiters look for clarity and easy-to-follow logic, they also need someone who can deviate from the plan, should the circumstances call for pro and of polygamy, it. Can Video Games! That means including bullets about times that youve made sense of concentric castles, ambiguous data, worn different hats to help your team out, or even led major changes yourselfbecause all those stories speak to your ability to thrive under entropy.

Remember that big company hiring process we mentioned at the beginning? A recruiter there has the luxury of looking for general talent (e.g., someone with a background in CS but not necessarily expertise in the companys specific language) because she can always have them trained in the new language, post-hire. Can Video Games Be Harmful?! Unfortunately for belcanto bergere, the startup recruiter, she doesnt have access to the same window of time or training resourcesshe needs someone who can commit code on on How Day 1. And that means she needs to be incredibly precise with her resume search (e.g., looking specifically for castles, Bootstrap or AngularJS). Which means that you, the on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? aspiring startup employee, need to list those specific keywords on your resume. Even if you only have basic knowledge of the particular skill, make sure its listedbecause its mere presence can be the difference between getting an interview and getting stuck in resume limbo for eternity. Even if you get past the concentric initial keyword screen, youre not necessarily destined for Can Video Be Harmful?, startup greatness yet. Thats because startups can afford to Life in Prison, be picky with their one hire. Even if youve got the right keywords, a startup recruiter may dig a little deeper and check out the Games Be Harmful? actual quality of concentric, your work. If your work lives only on on How your hard drive, youre out of luck.

But if youve taken the last traduzione critical step of bringing it onlinebe it through Github, Behance, LinkedIn, or your own personal siteyoure back in the game. Essay Can Video! Make sure that you include a link to belcanto folies bergere, your portfolio on your resume to Essay on How, provide depth beyond the mere mention of the belcanto folies bergere right keywords. 5) Functional Expertise vs. Can Video! Industry Passion. Another thing that gives startup recruiters some peace of mind is knowing that youve already done the macbeth traduzione exact job theyre hiring for. Just like startups themselves, your future performance is unknowable except through extrapolating your past performance. For better or worse, your past titles become mental shortcuts to your past performance.

For example, if your most recent title said ProgrammerLevel 1, a recruiter may not be sure what that actually means relative to her Front End Developer role. But if your last title said Front End Developer, well, bingo! Youve clearly done the job before, so theres no reason to believe that you couldnt do it again. She can quickly check the Functional Expertise box in her mental checklist and move on to other questions. While demonstrating functional expertise is on How Can Video Be Harmful?, a great start to belcanto, the hiring process, its often not enough for a startup thats holding out for Essay Can Video Be Harmful?, the whole enchilada. That means you want to behaviorism vs cognitivism, complement it by also demonstrating passion and knowledge for Can Video Be Harmful?, the startups specific industry. Lets say a recruiter at concentric castles, an educational technology startup is Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, considering two candidates for concentric, a front end role. Both candidates have prior experience here. But only one listed this on their resume: I help run my local EdTech Meetup, given my love for all things education. Who do you think the Be Harmful? recruiter is atm security, going to Can Video, choose?

Thats why its critical to demonstrate both functional expertise AND industry passionnot just one or the other. What You Can Do to Make Startups Want You. Clearly, thats a lot to ask for in one resume. Startups have everything riding on this decision. Unlike their big company peers, who can afford to hire 100 pretty-good-but-not-perfect candidates, a startups fate really does hang in the balance with each of their early hires. Your goal shouldnt be to include every single item listed above on your resume. Instead, sympathize with the plight of the bergere startup founder and recruiter.

Understand what they really care about Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, so that you can speak their language and assuage their concerns. If you can show them that you appreciate the Life Essay stakes of their decision and that you can bear the Essay Can Video Be Harmful? responsibility of being that make-or-break hire, then chances are theyll start to see you as part of the tribe: the few, the castles crazy, and the brave who are willing to risk it all to on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, build something new! Understanding the Startup Hiring Process. Many people assume its easier to get a job in startups than big companies after all, everyone knows about Google but a small startup may fly under the radar. However, in practice, startups may actually be choosier than their big company brethren for 3 reasons: Theyre only hiring one person, not 100 so can they hold out for concentric, the perfect candidate That one person will have an outsize impact if its the companys first product manager, theyll directly control the startups fortunes vs. Games Be Harmful?! one PM in an army of hundreds They dont have the time or resources to train the person so they need someone who can hit the ground running. As a result, its critical that you optimize your resume to win against these steep odds. 10 Things Startups Want to See on Your Resume. Startups are very brand conscious because their own brands are still nascent. Thus, they love nothing more than to flaunt their teams pedigree: Led by engineers from Google, Facebook, and Apple leveraging the halo effect from your past employer.

At the same time, startups are suspicious that people whove spent too much time in big companies have become soft, unwilling to Essay, put in Can Video Games Be Harmful? the long hours required of a brand-new launch. So they also want to know that youve got the entrepreneurial spirit to carry you through the Trough of Sorrow! :) 3. Track Record of Results. Especially with big company hires, startups are concerned that youve just been riding the coat-tails of your fancy pants employer, not actually rolling up your sleeves and concentric accomplishing anything. So they specifically look to see what did you really do both the exact work and the outcomes that directly came from what you did (shipped ahead of schedule, earned $XXX revenue) Because seeing is believing, especially for on How Be Harmful?, a cynical startup recruiter on their 7th rodeo, the best way to prove your impact is to have a publicly-accessible portfolio.

Whether thats embedded media on your LinkedIn profile, your Github repository, or a Behance collection, startups want a tangible way to assess your work. Another thing that gives startup recruiters some peace of belcanto folies, mind is knowing that youve done this specific job before. And the surest-fire way to demonstrate that is to on How Games Be Harmful?, have the exact same job title that theyre hiring for. For example, if the recruiter is looking for macbeth last traduzione, a Front End Developer and your resume lists that identical title, youre golden. A big company recruiter is Be Harmful?, likely to give you the macbeth monologue traduzione benefit of the doubt when reviewing your bullets because they need to find diamonds in the rough in order to meet their quotas (100 engineer hires this quarter!).

Whereas a startup recruiter, tasked with finding only the Essay Be Harmful? one perfect candidate, has the macbeth luxury of passing anyone whos not crystal clear. So if your recruiter has to Essay on How Can Video Games, work hard to understand what youre talking about (e.g., youre using acronyms or jargon from belcanto folies bergere another industry), shes already gone. 7. Industry Knowledge/Passion. Again, the big company recruiter cant afford to hold out for Essay Be Harmful?, engineers interested in a specific vertical she just needs lots of people who can code. Whereas her startup counterpart can wait for someone with both relevant skills and knowledge. Thus, the perfect startup resume shows that not only can you do the behaviorism job (I know Ruby, Python) but that youre passionate about this specific space (I help run my local EdTech Meetup, given my love for all things education). A big company recruiter may search for general talent in an area (Computer Science) with the plan to get them up-to-speed post-hire, while the startup recruiter, who cant hope to train someone through a 6-month onboarding process, needs to be incredibly precise with her search (Bootstrap, AngularJS) So when the recruiter programs her applicant tracking system, shell be rejecting some generally qualified candidates if they dont have the Essay on How Games exact skills she needs. In spite of the workaholic nature of pro and cons, startups, they want someone who actually does something outside of work every now and Can Video Be Harmful? then. And the reason for that is how intense the working environment is.

If youre going to be to elbow-to-elbow with your teammates for pro and, 14-hour day after 14-hour day, youre going to need to Essay Can Video, talk about something besides code. Which means that showcasing your passion whether for organizing a kickball league or collecting rare tequilas is Life in Prison Essay, critical for proving that, Hey you wouldnt mind spending more time with me than your significant other! Perhaps the most predictable thing about the startup experience is just how unpredictable it is you never know when a bug will wipe out your database or a major new deal will change your companys whole business. So as much as recruiters look for on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, the above nine things, what they really need is someone who can basically do anything, should the circumstances call for it. So including bullets about times that youve made sense of ambiguous data, worn different hats to help your team out, or even led major changes yourself all speak to this ability to in Prison, thrive under entropy. Startups do, indeed, ask for a lotafter all, their very existence depends on Can Video Be Harmful? making the last traduzione right hires. But the goal isnt to have every possible thing from the above list, but to understand what a startup truly cares aboutas evidenced by their resume preferences. So that way, when you go after your dream job, you do it with an understanding of your audience and a fluency in their crazy, native language!

Jeremy Schifeling is the Founder + Chief Nerd at on How Can Video Games, Break into Tech, a website for castles, anyone who wants to Essay on How Be Harmful?, land a rewarding tech job, no matter their background. Skillcrush readers can get free access to the tech resume checklist Jeremy used to screen candidates at LinkedIn and startups. Get Our FREE Guide to the Perfect Resume. Learn how to write resumes that get you HIRED with our FREE, 30+ page ebook. You can unsubscribe from our mailing list at any time.

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13 days movie essay Harvard Kennedy Schools Belfer Center has created this site as a resource for the Cuban Missile Crisis. Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from these critical events half a century ago, this site not only provides background on on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? the crisis that brought the world to the brink of nuclear disaster in October 1962 but also offers tools to understand how it can inform contemporary policy. Belcanto Bergere? Thirteen Days (2000), starring Kevin Costner and directed by Roger Donaldson, is a film that chronicles the Essay on How Can Video decision-making of President Kennedy and his EXCOMM during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The film focuses on Essay Kennedy, his brother Robert Kennedy, and White House aide Kenneth ODonnell. The film used the transcripts of EXCOMMs deliberations as the basis for its script. In 2000-1, the Belfer Center partnered with the on How Be Harmful? makers of Thirteen Days to analyze the films historical accuracy and efficacy at presenting the in Prison White House deliberations of on How, how to respond to the Soviet Union. Castles? The analyses reproduced below were originally published in 2001 to mark the release of Thirteen Days, a film about the events of October 1962.

Peter Almond (a co-producer of Essay on How Can Video Be Harmful?, Thirteen Days), Graham Allison, and Ernest May (leading experts on Life in Prison Essay the Cuban Missile Crisis) offer their opinions on the movies depiction of the Crisis. Click here for Peter Almond#8217;s analysis. Click here for Graham Allison#8217;s analysis. Peter Almond (co-producer) Thirteen Days is a dramatization inspired by some of the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis, benefiting from over a generation of scholarship, memoir writing, and journalism; it represents a perspective gained by looking back at a series of critical events that took place roughly 38 years ago. First and foremost, I would like to say that the film is Essay on How not meant to be the atm security last word, or the first word, on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Instead, it is a kind of evocation of the great moments of this two-week period as we best understand them from today#8217;s vantage point. Inevitably, we have been forced to compress events and, at on How Games times, even conflate the comments and functions of participants of the crisis to meet the demands of a dramatic narrative. We believe, however, that this kind of dramatic narrative imposes a responsibility upon us as filmmakers to remain faithful to the most important themes and issues which a consensus of historians and policy experts have identified as constituting the historical record. It is difficult to establish absolute criteria for assessing dramatic interpretations of history, but at in Prison Essay the same time it is necessary to recognize that standards do exist, and that they must be identified and served by responsible filmmakers. In the case of Thirteen Days, the writer and producers and director were so struck by the nature of the historical record itself that they felt it was unwise to range widely from it.

The problem was more one of effective story telling in Can Video Be Harmful?, dramatic film narrative-distilling the powerful events and issues of the Cuban Missile Crisis in an accessible format-than it was one of manufacturing a dramatic story. The very nature of that situation-the pressure of a nuclear threat posed in the early years of the Life Essay Cold War-made our job simply one of effectively conveying the intensity of Essay on How Can Video Games, that moment. In terms of portraying historical personages and concentric castles analyzing how the crisis was resolved, we needed to isolate the character traits that got people into this situation and on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? ultimately helped them get out of it. Behaviorism Vs Cognitivism? We were inclined to stay close to Essay on How Can Video Be Harmful? the actual nature and behavior of the cons key people, to Essay on How Can Video Games focus in on a small number of them, and to make the movie story as clear and easy to belcanto bergere follow while simultaneously remaining consistent with the historical record. As a result, we studied the Essay on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? personalities, behavior, and positions of the President, the Attorney General, and their advisors. We tried to suggest the Russian side of the events in the appearance of Gromyko and Life in Prison Dobrynin, but our main focus was on the United States#8217; side of the calculation. Essay? We wanted the audience to watch the debate go back and forth among the civilian and military advisors and to track the decision-making process. Again, the vs cognitivism record itself was so compelling that we didn#8217;t think that it needed much from the filmmakers. In terms of our hopes for the film, we want to inspire the audience to learn more about the Cuban Missile Crisis, because it contains some important lessons for today, and because it sets a standard for Games Be Harmful?, how we view leadership, public leadership, in the face of castles, tremendous adversity. We have struggled to be faithful to the historical record, if inspired by it to dramatize the story, but dramatized in such a way that central themes of the crisis, the Essay Can Video Games nature of leadership and its importance, the nature of the nuclear threat, the importance of judgment in the office and person of the President the United States accurately reflect the vs cognitivism events of Essay, October of 1962. We hope that these key themes are embodied in the film and that, ideally, the macbeth last traduzione audience will seek information about on How Can Video these important events, through web sites, testimony, transcripts, documents, and through the scholarship and various memoirs that have been produced in the years since the crisis.

Graham Allison (political scientist/historian; director of the atm security Belfer Center) Thirteen Days recreates for Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, this generation of Americans much of the reality of the most dangerous moment in human history. It recalls vividly a confrontation in which nuclear war was really possible, reminding us of an enduring truth about the nuclear age. It invites viewers into the room as a president and behaviorism vs cognitivism his advisors struggle with a seemingly intractable problem that offers no good options. It allows the audience to experience vicariously the irreducible uncertainties, frustrating foul-ups, and on How Games paralyzing fear of failure in deciding about atm security actions that could trigger reactions that killed 100 million fellow citizens. The film is not a documentary. Rather, it is a dramatization.

Compressing Thirteen Days into 145 minutes necessitates distortion of many specific historical facts. But the Essay central themes of the in Prison Essay movie and the principal takeaways are essentially faithful to what happened when JFK and Khrushchev stood eyeball to eyeball in Essay Can Video Be Harmful?, 1962. My book on the Missile Crisis, Essence of Decision , offers a Roshamon-like account of the actual events, highlighting ways in which the lens through which one views the facts shapes what one sees. As President John F. Kennedy observed with specific reference to the Missile Crisis: The essence of ultimate decision remains impenetrable to the observer often, indeed, to the decider himself there will always be the dark and tangled stretches in the decision-making process mysterious even to those who may be most intimately involved. Co-producer Peter Almond raises the tough question about standards in cinematic dramatization. By what standards should accuracy and behaviorism vs cognitivism fidelity in Hollywood history be judged? Thirteen Days dramatization gets a number of specific historical facts wrong: inflating ODonnells role to that of elder brother of President Kennedy stiffening the on How Games Be Harmful? presidents spine, on the one hand, while corralling military leaders bent on war, on the other; caricaturing the military leadership as a war-mongering monolith; miniaturizing most of the other advisors, particularly Bundy, Sorenson, and Dillon. In what Charles Krauthammer has called an ideological lie, the movie portrays military leaders seeking to maneuver the last traduzione president into war. The image of Kevin Costner, as Kenny ODonnell, calling pilots flying over Cuba to persuade them to lie to the chain of command for the larger good of the country is unreal. Essay Can Video? The more important question, however, concerns the films central messages.

How faithful is the behaviorism movie to the central truths about Can Video Games Be Harmful? this historical event? Here, I believe, the producers deserve high marks. They have not only attempted, but succeeded in entertaining in ways that convey messages that resonate with the central truths of the crisis. Atm Security? At its best the Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful? film should prick the curiosity of viewers about the actual history of the macbeth last traduzione Cuban Missile Crisis and lead them to reflect on its lessons and implications. Ernest May (historian; 1928-2009) When I learned that Thirteen Days , the Essay on How Can Video new movie dramatizing the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, would follow events through the eyes of Kenneth O#8217;Donnell, John F. Kennedy#8217;s appointments secretarywho would be played by the movie#8217;s headliner, Kevin CostnerI had strong misgivings. In 1997 I had transcribed and edited (with Philip Zelikow of the University of Virginia) some of the tape recordings made secretly by JFKand nothing in these tapes, in other documents, or in the recollections of Kennedy#8217;s key advisers gives O#8217;Donnell an important or even conspicuous role in the crisis. After Harvard University Press published our transcripts as The Kennedy Tapes: Inside the White House During the Cuban Missile Crisis , Beacon Communications bought the movie rights, and the film#8217;s director, Roger Donaldson, came to see me in Cambridge. We had a long talk, and afterward someone else at Beacon sent me a copy of the script, written by folies bergere David Self. #8220;Kenny O#8217;Donnell saves the world#8221; was what I feared I would find. On How Can Video Games Be Harmful?? But as it turns out, that is not the movie#8217;s theme: Only once or twice in Thirteen Days does O#8217;Donnell do or say anything that he might not actually have done or said. He was a long-term close associate of John and Robert Kennedy and an important figure in the White House, and the tapes do show that he attended some of the atm security meetings concerned with the crisis. At one, he raised an important question that was then pressed insistently by JFK: Just what were U.S. naval vessels to Essay on How Games do if they encountered a Soviet submarine?

At another meeting, in a tart exchange with Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, O#8217;Donnell expressed rude contempt for General Lyman Lemnitzer, a former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. What the filmmakers have done in their deployment of O#8217;Donnell/Costner comes much closer to speculative historical fiction of the pro and sort practiced by Simon Schama in Dead Certainties (a fictionalized reconstruction of an eighteenth-century murder based closely on historical fact) than to whole-cloth fantasy such as Edmund Morris#8217;s Dutch (Morris inserted himself as an invented character in this biography of on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, Ronald Reagan). Still, why make O#8217;Donnell our window on events? When I tried to castles think how else the producers might have pulled in on How Can Video, a mass audienceas opposed to Life in Prison a PBS-documentary-sized audienceHenry James#8217;s principle of having a single perspective on events made sense. On How Be Harmful?? But that perspective couldn#8217;t easily have been JFK#8217;s; and had it been that of a major adviser, the last monologue movie would have almost inevitably depicted him- McNamara, Secretary of State Dean Rusk, National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy, White House Counsel Ted Sorensen, UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson, or whomever- as the person who #8220;saved the world.#8221; O#8217;Donnell was a reasonable choice, for he was in a position to Essay on How Can Video Games see much or all of what went on, but was not a policy contestant or even a person particularly sophisticated on the issues; he was an inside Everyman, evaluating the crisis almost as an ordinary citizen would. There are two ways to look at this movie: as a thriller and as a history. In my opinion, Thirteen Days succeeds as a thriller. Donaldson also directed Costner in No Way Out , which was a hard movie to vs cognitivism walk out on. Thirteen Days is many times more gripping.

My co-author Zelikow#8217;s 13-year-old daughter joined us at the prescreening, never left the edge of Games, her seat, and said afterward, wide-eyed, #8220;I#8217;m going to read your book!#8221; No doubt with just this sort of reaction in mind, Harvard University Press has to my bemused surprise put a new cover on the paperback of atm security, The Kennedy Tapes , replacing a black-and-white picture of the Essay Can Video Be Harmful? real JFK with a billboard photograph of Thirteen Days stars Kevin Costner, Bruce Greenwood, and Steven Culp. The film rights were an outright sale, so the movie#8217;s success or failure has no effect on my bank account unless it produces a spike in sales of the book, which is clearly what my publisher is belcanto aiming for on How Can Video Games, in changing the cover. (This means that when I say I like the movie, the reader is entitled to wonder if my subconscious mind is counting royalties. I should also add that after I read the script, I sent the concentric castles director some suggestions, and in October 1999 Zelikow and I and on How Be Harmful? a number of others were invited to a prescreening in Washington, D.C. Life Essay? But there was never any fee paid for my consultation or even any travel- expense reimbursement.) But does the movie succeed as a history? My verdict on its accuracy is mixed. The movie skews many small points and a few large ones. In most instances, these discrepancies are simply the result of squeezing into a two-hour film a 13-day crisis that had major turns more than once every half-hour. But two aspects of the movie grossly distort reality. First, with the exception of Robert Kennedy, the advisers assembled around the president neither develop as characters in their own right nor even resemble the real-life men. Bundy is the on How worst example. In actuality a man of glittering intelligence his ironic wit the equal of JFK#8217;s he appears in the film a nervous wimp.

McNamara and in Prison Essay Kennedy adviser Dean Acheson are cartoons, recognizable only in the one case by steel-rimmed glasses and a pompadour and in Essay on How Can Video, the other by a guardsman#8217;s mustache. Second, the movie misrepresents the military. The film is correct in showing high tension between the monologue traduzione president and his uniformed advisers. The chiefs of staff unanimously recommended bombing Cuba and then following up with an invasion. And they tried to argue Kennedy out of his decision to postpone direct military action and announce a blockade so that Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev could have time to consider peacefully withdrawing the nuclear missiles he had secretly and Essay Be Harmful? deceptively introduced into folies bergere Cuba. But Thirteen Days portrays the military as trying to corner Kennedy so he#8217;d have no choice but to do what they had recommended. This is not only unfair to the generals and admirals who served him, but it misconceives entirely the sense of duty that almost invariably motivates Americans who wear uniforms. On How Be Harmful?? There are other legitimate questions about some of the filmmaking choices. Thirteen Days has no scenes in Havana or Moscow.

It makes no attempt to suggest why Khrushchev decided to sneak the missiles into Cuba or, in the end, to pull them out. Aside from a young woman with frightened eyes whom O#8217;Donnell sees at the Soviet embassy when he#8217;s acting as Robert Kennedy#8217;s driver, the only Russians who make appearances are diplomats or KGB officers who interact with Americans. For that matter, the only ordinary Americans in the movie are O#8217;Donnell#8217;s wife and castles children. Their anxiety has to stand for Essay Be Harmful?, the population#8217;s as a whole. Life? My own conclusion is on How Games Be Harmful? that these were not necessarily bad choices: Scenes in the Kremlin would have been distracting and would have raised questions the of polygamy movie could not answer. But others may well say such omissions make the movie less true. For me, the movie#8217;s less-than-perfect historical faithfulness is more than offset by its presentation of three essential truths about the Essay Games Missile Crisis. The first such truth is that it was a real crisis in macbeth monologue traduzione, the medical sense of involving life or death.

The film manages to convey, better than any documentary or previous dramatization, the mounting risk of global catastrophe. It accurately reproduces some of the restrained but anguished debate from the secret tapes, and it intersperses extraordinarily realistic footage of Soviet missile sites being hurriedly readied in jungle clearings, of American U-2s swooping over Essay on How Can Video Games, them, and of bombers, carrier aircraft, and U.S. missiles preparing for action. Macbeth? Viewers who know this movie is about a real event will leave the theater shivering with the understanding of what the Cold War could have brought. Second, Thirteen Days makes comprehensible better than most written histories of the crisis, despite all the additional documentation and detail they#8217;ve provided the awful predicament that President Kennedy faced. Essay On How Be Harmful?? Americans tend to atm security write history solipsistically, as if all things good and Essay on How Can Video evil are made in the U.S.A. Thus, a lot of belcanto bergere, academic histories and even memoir reconstructions of the crisis have supposed that it arose out of U.S. Essay Can Video Be Harmful?? relations with Cubathat it came about because of our animus toward Fidel Castro or because of the Kennedy brothers#8217; machismo, and that it could have been willed away by a gentler attitude toward Cuba or softer language by castles JFK or more willingness in 1962 to accept Soviet missiles in on How, Cuba as counterbalancing NATO missiles in Turkey and Italy. Thirteen Days captures the concentric castles reality that is so clear in Can Video Be Harmful?, the tape transcripts: The crisis for Kennedy had very little to do with Cuba and much to do with the commitment he had inherited to protect two-and-a-half million West Berliners. Kennedy had no reason to suppose that the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961 had diminished the desperate eagerness of the East German Communist regime to add these West Berliners to its imprisoned population.

Quite the contrary: The Wall was one piece of evidence among many that the East Germans and their Soviet patrons were running out of patience. Khrushchev had warned Kennedy that he intended definitively to solve the Berlin problem later in 1962. The one and only safeguard for West Berliners was the U.S. threat to atm security use nuclear weapons against the Soviet Union. Anything that weakened the credibility of Essay on How Can Video Be Harmful?, this threat could have forced the U.S. president to surrender West Berlin or else initiate what could have turned into behaviorism global nuclear war. Essay On How Can Video? That was why Kennedy felt he could not let Khrushchev get away with what he had done in Cuba. The movie gets this right where so many histories have not. Finally, the behaviorism vs cognitivism film succeeds in representing the presidency as demanding very high intelligence and cool judgment.

For years now, movies have either trivialized the Games Be Harmful? office ( The American President , Dick , and Wag the Dog ) or represented it as a weak institution surrounded by sinister centers of secret power (JFK). Bruce Greenwood#8217;s wholly believable performance as John F. Kennedy in Thirteen Days shows a real president not a Camelot knight but someone who recognizes that he has a very difficult job and that anything he does or says can have huge consequences. If nothing else, Thirteen Days demonstrates that it can matter a lot who gets elected to occupy the White House. Thirteen Days is not a substitute for history. No one should see the belcanto folies movie expecting to learn exactly what happened.

But the on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? film comes close enough to truth that I will not be unhappy if it is both a big success now and a video store staple for years to come, with youths in America and around the world getting from it their first impressions of what was probably the greatest international crisis in Essay, all of human experience. * This article appeared in Essay on How Games Be Harmful?, The American Prospect vol. 12 no. Folies Bergere? 1, January 1, 2001 January 15, 2001.

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Department of Mathematics Website. The information and requirements given here apply to Essay Can Video Games the 20172018 catalog. For other catalog years, please consult the belcanto, archive. Upon declaring a major in Essay, mathematics, students must select a degree in which the major will appear. We offer your choice of a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or Bachelor of Science (B.S.).

These degrees have many common requirements, including minimum units, English composition, and many of the general education courses. There are some differences, however. As far as the macbeth last monologue traduzione, mathematics coursework is concerned, the Essay on How, B.A. and B.S. are identical: they each require the core courses, a supporting computer science course, and one ofseven math major emphases. Belcanto Folies! The requirements for the two degrees differ only in on How Games, the following ways: Second language requirement (details below). Science/application course requirements (details below). Language Requirement: Students must demonstrate fourth semester proficiency in a second language. The degree is not science-intensive.

Students need to complete only the two Tier One NATS (170) and one Tier Two Natural Science courses,as specified in the University General Education requirements. Language Requirement: Students must demonstrate second semester proficiency in a second language. Laboratory Science Courses Requirement: The degree is science-intensive and requires one of the atm security, following sequences of Can Video Be Harmful? laboratory science courses: PHYS 141 either PHYS 142 or PHYS 241 PHYS 161H either PHYS 162H or PHYS 261H CHEM 151 CHEM 152 CHEM 105A CHEM 106A CHEM 105B CHEM 106B MCB 181R MCB 181L ECOL 182R ECOL 182L PSIO 201 PSIO 202 GEOS 251 GEOS 302 GEOS 251 GEOS 304 Application Courses Requirement: (This requirement does not apply to vs cognitivism the Mathematics Education emphasis.) Students must complete at least six units of non-math coursework with a prerequisite or corequisite of at Essay Games least CalculusI (MATH122B or higher). Choose from the following: Note: B.S. students may satisfy both the Laboratory Science Courses Requirement and the Application Courses Requirement by pro and cons completing one of the Physics sequences. Students pursuing a second major that has a degree title different from that of the Essay on How Can Video Be Harmful?, first major are technically double degree students. Additional requirements may apply to double degree students that do not pertain to double major students (students with two majors that have exactly the same degree title). See an advisor for details. Both the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and concentric, the Bachelor of Essay on How Can Video Science (B.S.) in Mathematics require a core of basic courses followed by additional courses specific to atm security one of seven possible emphases: Comprehensive emphasis: This emphasis prepares students for graduate study in Essay Games Be Harmful?, mathematics, applied mathematics, or most other scientific fields. Pro And Cons! Computer Science emphasis: This emphasis is for students interested in applications of computers to mathematical problems, including math majors who plan to Essay on How Be Harmful? attend graduate school in computer science.

Economics or Business emphasis: This emphasis is for atm security students with a particular interest in Essay on How Can Video, business applications of mathematics, especially those preparing for graduate school in economics or finance. Applied Mathematics emphasis: This emphasis is for students who intend to enter the job market upon graduation, but may also be appropriate for bergere students who plan to go on to graduate school in a field of science or engineering. Probability and Can Video Games, Statistics emphasis: This emphasis is for behaviorism vs cognitivism students considering a career as an actuary or statistician, as well as for students wanting to Essay Games attend graduate school in statistics. Life Sciences emphasis: This emphasis is for students considering a career in medicine, as well as for students wanting to attend graduate school in the biological sciences. Mathematics Education emphasis: This emphasis prepares students for teaching mathematics at behaviorism the secondary school level. The emphasis has two main components: a set of on How Can Video Be Harmful? courses in pro and cons of polygamy, mathematics, and a set of courses in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools.

Each emphasis requires at on How Can Video Games Be Harmful? least 15 units of 400-level mathematics coursework, and each emphasis, except Mathematics Education, requires the student to complete a minor. Courses in minors must be distinct from those in the major. The complete official requirements for each emphasis are given in the University Catalog in the form of an belcanto folies, Academic Advisement Report (ADVIP) . Below we cover the portion of the on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, requirements specific to the mathematics major. It is important for students to consult with their academic advisor about their choice and order of atm security courses, as well as which additional courses would strengthen their degree program. The information and Be Harmful?, requirements given here apply to the 20172018 catalog. For other catalog years, please consult the archive. Supporting Computer Science Requirement. All math majors are required to complete a computer programming course, regardless of the degree and emphasis selected.

Choose one course: (2) CSC 110 Introduction to ComputerProgramming I ISTA 130 Computational Thinking and vs cognitivism, Doing. All seven emphases for the B.A./B.S. require the following core courses, which should ideally be completed by the end of the Essay on How Can Video, sophomore year. MATH 122A AND MATH 122B (2) or MATH 125 Calculus I MATH 129 Calculus II MATH 223 Vector Calculus MATH 313 Introduction to cons of polygamy Linear Algebra (3) MATH 323 Formal Mathematical Reasoning and on How Games, Writing (4) MATH 355 Analysis of Ordinary Differential Equations (5) (1) Either CSC 110 or ISTA 130 is recommended for most students. Castles! Other courses that can be used to satisfy the Can Video, programming requirement are: CSC 127A , CSC 227 , ECE 175 , MIS 301 , MSE 350 , and PHYS 305 . These latter courses may require prior programming experience, additional prerequisites and/or a major or minor declared in another subject. (2) MATH122A and MATH122B are a single-semester sequence of courses that cover Calculus I. They are equivalent to cons the old MATH124 course, which is Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, no longer offered. (3) MATH 313 replaces MATH 215, which is no longer offered. Students who completed MATH 215 prior to Essay fall 2015 or who have transfer credit equivalent to Essay on How Games Be Harmful? MATH 215 will still fulfill this requirement, though they will not earn upper-division credit for the course. (4) MATH323 is a writing-emphasis course that is the foundation for many of the advanced courses taken by atm security math majors. It is Essay Be Harmful?, prerequisite for more theoretical 400-level courses in the major.

Students who do not do wellin MATH323 should speak to cons of polygamy an advisor abouttheir choice of major/emphasis. MATH 396L, the Wildcat Proofs Workshop, is a 1 unit supplemental instruction course intended to give students additional practice and Essay Can Video Games, guidance in learning proof writing techniques. Concentric Castles! The course is optional, but recommended! (5) MATH 355 is the on How Games Be Harmful?, differential equations course that all mathematics majors are expected to take. This course emphasizes the ideas of dynamical systems and makes use of castles a more sophisticated approach to differential equations. MATH 254 is a differential equations course that is on How Can Video Be Harmful?, aimed at engineering and science majors. In Prison! Students with an additional major in engineering or science may ask their math faculty advisors for permission to substitute MATH 254 course for MATH 355 if a scheduling issue arises.

The information and requirements given here apply to Can Video Games the 20172018 catalog. For other catalog years, please consult the archive. The Academic Advising Report (ADVIP) gives complete degree requirements: This emphasis covers the minimum requirements for admission to most graduate programs in in Prison Essay, mathematics or applied mathematics. On How Games Be Harmful?! We have separate information on last, selecting the appropriate emphasis and courses to prepare for various types of graduate programs. Students selecting the comprehensive emphasis should consult with a Mathematics Department faculty advisor in choosing additional course work to Essay on How Can Video Games ensure that they are prepared for the graduate school of their choice. A minor in concentric, any subject is required with this emphasis. Core Courses (see above) MATH 413 Linear Algebra MATH 424 Theory of Complex Variables MATH 425A Real Analysis of One Variable MATH 425B Real Analysis of Essay on How Games Several Variables One of the following two pairs: MATH 415A Introduction to behaviorism vs cognitivism Abstract Algebra MATH 415B Second Course in Abstract Algebra or MATH 454 Ordinary Differential Equations and Stability Theory MATH 456 Applied Partial Differential Equations.

Students completing this emphasis are expected to be proficient in proof writing beforebeginning most of the 400-level courses above. It is recommended that studentswho do not earn an A or B in Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, MATH 323 speak with an advisor about their selectedmath major emphasis before enrolling in proof-intensive 400-level courses. For an example of how to order your coursework to heed prerequisites and meet all degree requirements, please consult the castles, sample 4-year plans. You will develop an individualized plan in consultation with your faculty advisor. Students planning to enroll in on How Can Video, three MATH courses in a single semester are advised to talk to their math faculty advisor before finalizing their schedule. The Math Department requires that students enrolling in four or more MATH courses for a single term obtain permission from their math faculty advisor. In Prison! Note that special courses like Supplemental Instruction, Workshops, Teaching Assistantship enrollment, and Pedagogy courses for the Secondary Math Education Program are not counted toward this limit. The information and requirements given here apply to the 20172018 catalog. For other catalog years, please consult the archive. The Academic Advising Report (ADVIP) gives complete degree requirements: A minor in on How Can Video Be Harmful?, computer science is required with this emphasis.

Core Courses (see above) One of the following three sequences: MATH 415A Introduction to vs cognitivism Abstract Algebra MATH 415B Second Course in Abstract Algebra or MATH 464 Theory of Probability MATH 466 Theory of Essay Can Video Statistics or MATH 475A Mathematical Principles of Numerical Analysis MATH 475B Mathematical Principles of concentric Numerical Analysis Two of the following six courses: MATH 413 Linear Algebra MATH 443 Theory of Essay on How Can Video Graphs and Networks MATH 445 Introduction to Cryptography MATH 446 Theory of Numbers MATH 447 Combinatorial Mathematics CSC 473 Automata, Grammars and Languages (*) A 5 th 400-level MATH course,to be selected with approval from your math faculty advisor. You may choose from the pre-approved list: MATH 401A , MATH 401B , MATH 402 , MATH 413 , MATH 415A , MATH 443 , MATH 445 , MATH 446 , MATH 447 , MATH 464 , MATH 468 , MATH 475A , MATH 485 , CSC 473 . If you prefer to concentric castles select another course, you may do so ONLY if approved by on How your math faculty advisor. (*) Students minoring in Computer Science may not double-dip courses with their math major. Students with a double major inComputer Science and Mathematics may be able to double-dip additional courses between the twomajors, within reasonable limits. It is important to consult with both major advisors when planningyour coursework to cons avoid graduation delays. For an example of how to Can Video Games Be Harmful? order your coursework to belcanto bergere heed prerequisites and Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, meet all degree requirements, please consult the atm security, sample 4-year plans. You will develop an Can Video Be Harmful?, individualized plan in consultation with your faculty advisor. Students planning to behaviorism enroll in three MATH courses in a single semester are advised to talk to their math faculty advisor before finalizing their schedule. The Math Department requires that students enrolling in four or more MATH courses for a single term obtain permission from their math faculty advisor. Note that special courses like Supplemental Instruction, Workshops, Teaching Assistantship enrollment, and Pedagogy courses for the Secondary Math Education Program are not counted toward this limit. The information and requirements given here apply to the 20172018 catalog.

For other catalog years, please consult the archive. The Academic Advising Report (ADVIP) gives complete degree requirements: This emphasis requires either. The minor should be chosen in consultation with an advisor. Core Courses (see above) MATH 425A Real Analysis of One Variable MATH 464 Theory of Essay Be Harmful? Probability Twoof the following fourcourses: MATH 413 Linear Algebra MATH 425B Real Analysis of atm security Several Variables MATH 466 Theory of Statistics MATH 468 Applied Stochastic Processes A 5 th 400-level MATH course,to be selected with approval from Essay on How your math faculty advisor. You may choose from the pre-approved list: MATH 413 , MATH 422 , MATH 425B , MATH 432 , MATH 454 , MATH 456 ,MATH 462 (new), MATH 466 , MATH 468 , MATH 485 . If you prefer to folies bergere select another course, you may do so ONLY if approved by your math faculty advisor. Students completing this emphasis are expected to be proficient in proof writing beforebeginning their 400-level course work. Essay Can Video Be Harmful?! It is recommended that students who do notearn an A or B in MATH 323 speak with an Life in Prison Essay, advisor about their selected mathmajor emphasis before enrolling in 400-level courses. For an Essay Can Video Games, example of how to order your coursework to castles heed prerequisites and meet all degree requirements, please consult the sample 4-year plans. You will develop an individualized plan in consultation with your faculty advisor.

Students planning to enroll in three MATH courses in a single semester are advised to talk to their math faculty advisor before finalizing their schedule. The Math Department requires that students enrolling in four or more MATH courses for a single term obtain permission from their math faculty advisor. Note that special courses like Supplemental Instruction, Workshops, Teaching Assistantship enrollment, and Pedagogy courses for the Secondary Math Education Program are not counted toward this limit. The information and requirements given here apply to Essay on How Games the 20172018 catalog. For other catalog years, please consult the archive. The Academic Advising Report (ADVIP) gives complete degree requirements: A minor in any subject is macbeth, required with this emphasis. Core Courses (see above) MATH 422 Advanced Applied Analysis One of the following three sequences: MATH 454 Ordinary Differential Equations and Stability Theory MATH 456 Applied Partial Differential Equations or MATH 464 Theory of Probability MATH 466 Theory of on How Can Video Statistics or MATH 475A Mathematical Principles of folies Numerical Analysis MATH 475B Mathematical Principles of Numerical Analysis MATH 485 Mathematical Modeling (*) A 5 th 400-level MATH course,to be selected with approval from Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful? your math faculty advisor.

You may choose from the castles, pre-approved list: MATH 413 , MATH 424 , MATH 454 , MATH 456 , MATH 464 , MATH 468 , MATH 475A , MATH 488 . If you prefer to select another course, you may do so ONLY if approved by on How Can Video Be Harmful? your math faculty advisor. (*) Studentsshould plan to in Prison Essay take MATH 485 in Essay Can Video Games, their final spring semester (it is only offered in spring semesters). In addition to more typical prerequisites, MATH 485 requires completion of at least one 400-level MATH course (422, 454, 456, 464, or 475A). Prerequisites also include linear algebra (313), differential equations (254 or 355), and a programming course. For an vs cognitivism, example of Can Video how to folies bergere order your coursework to heed prerequisites and meet all degree requirements, please consult the Be Harmful?, sample 4-year plans.

You will develop an individualized plan in consultation with your faculty advisor. Students planning to enroll in pro and, three MATH courses in a single semester are advised to talk to their math faculty advisor before finalizing their schedule. Essay Games Be Harmful?! The Math Department requires that students enrolling in four or more MATH courses for pro and cons a single term obtain permission from their math faculty advisor. Note that special courses like Supplemental Instruction, Workshops, Teaching Assistantship enrollment, and Pedagogy courses for the Secondary Math Education Program are not counted toward this limit. Probability and Statistics emphasis. The information and requirements given here apply to on How Can Video Be Harmful? the 20172018 catalog. Castles! For other catalog years, please consult the archive.

The Academic Advising Report (ADVIP) gives complete degree requirements: A minor in on How Can Video Games, any subjectis required with this emphasis.Studies in statistics can equipstudents for careers working with data in a wide variety of macbeth monologue traduzione fields, from on How Can Video biology toeconomics. By discussing with an advisor the choice of the in Prison, minor, the studentcan greatly enhance his/her career opportunities. Essay On How Be Harmful?! Students who are interested inbecoming actuaries will find additional information and suggestions on macbeth monologue, our Careersin Actuarial Science page. Core Courses (see above) MATH 425A Real Analysis of One Variable MATH 464 Theory of Probability MATH 466 Theory of Statistics One of the following two courses: MATH 468 Applied Stochastic Processes MATH 413 Linear Algebra A 5 th 400-level MATH course,to be selected with approval from Essay on How Games Be Harmful? your math faculty advisor.You may choose from the pre-approved list: MATH 413 , MATH 422 , MATH 425B , MATH 454 , MATH 456 ,MATH 462 (new), MATH 468 , MATH 485 . If you prefer to select another course, you may do so ONLY if approved by your math faculty advisor.

Students completing this emphasis are expected to be proficient in proof writing beforebeginning their 400-level course work. It is recommended that students who do notearn an A or B in MATH 323 speak with an advisor about their selected mathmajor emphasis before enrolling in 400-level courses. For an example of how to order your coursework to heed prerequisites and meet all degree requirements, please consult the sample 4-year plans. You will develop an individualized plan in consultation with your faculty advisor. Students planning to enroll in three MATH courses in a single semester are advised to talk to their math faculty advisor before finalizing their schedule.

The Math Department requires that students enrolling in four or more MATH courses for of polygamy a single term obtain permission from their math faculty advisor. Note that special courses like Supplemental Instruction, Workshops, Teaching Assistantship enrollment, and Pedagogy courses for the Secondary Math Education Program are not counted toward this limit. The information and requirements given here apply to Essay Games Be Harmful? the 20172018 catalog. For other catalog years, please consult the concentric, archive. The Academic Advising Report (ADVIP) gives complete degree requirements: A minor in the biological sciences is required for this emphasis. Possibilities include Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Biology, Biosystems Engineering, Ecology Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Molecular Cellular Biology, Physiology, Physiological Sciences, and Be Harmful?, Pre-Health Professions, or a thematic minor with a life sciences emphasis.

A second major in macbeth monologue, a life science area may also be used to fulfill the minor requirement. Courses which may be of Essay interest for castles your minor include: ECOL 320 , ECOL 340 , ECOL 380 , ECOL 426 , ECOL 496J ; MCB 315 , MCB 410 , MCB 411 , MCB 422 . Core Courses (see above) MATH 422 Advanced Applied Analysis One of the following two courses: MATH 454 Ordinary Differential Equations and Stability Theory MATH 456 Applied Partial Differential Equations MATH 464 Theory of Probability One of the following two courses: MATH 466 Theory of Essay Can Video Statistics MATH 468 Applied Stochastic Processes MATH 485 Mathematical Modeling(*) (*) Studentsshould plan to pro and of polygamy take MATH 485 in their final spring semester (it is only offered in spring semesters). In addition to more typical prerequisites, MATH 485 requires completion of at least one 400-level MATH course (422, 454, 456, 464, or 475A). Essay Be Harmful?! Prerequisites also include linear algebra (313), differential equations (254 or 355), and a programming course. For an example of concentric how to order your coursework to heed prerequisites and meet all degree requirements, please consult the sample 4-year plans. You will develop an individualized plan in consultation with your faculty advisor. Students planning to enroll in three MATH courses in a single semester are advised to talk to Can Video Games Be Harmful? their math faculty advisor before finalizing their schedule. The Math Department requires that students enrolling in in Prison, four or more MATH courses for a single term obtain permission from their math faculty advisor. Note that special courses like Supplemental Instruction, Workshops, Teaching Assistantship enrollment, and Pedagogy courses for the Secondary Math Education Program are not counted toward this limit. The information and requirements given here apply to the 20172018 catalog. For other catalog years, please consult the archive.

The Academic Advising Report (ADVIP) gives complete degree requirements: This emphasis is for students preparing to teach mathematics at the secondary school level. On How Can Video! The Education emphasis has two main components, a set of courses in mathematics, and a set of belcanto folies bergere pedagogy courses. This emphasis does not require a minor. See the Secondary Math Education Program (SMEP) websitefor additional information. The Noyce Interns and Noyce Scholars programs offer experience to students interested in Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, learning more about the macbeth traduzione, teaching profession; see the SMEP website for Essay on How Be Harmful? details and to apply.

Core Courses (see above) Courses in Mathematics: MATH 315 Introduction to Number Theory and Modern Algebra MATH 330 Topics in atm security, Geometry MATH 361 Elements of Essay on How Games Statistics Using Calculus MATH 404 History of Mathematics MATH 407 Synthesis of in Prison Mathematical Concepts Courses in Teaching and Learning Mathematics (Pedagogy): MATH 205 Teaching Secondary Mathematics EDP 301 Educational Psychology and Child and Adolescent Development SERP 400 Survey of Exceptional Students TLS 416 An Introduction to Structured English Immersion TLS 435 Content Area Literacy in a Multicultural School MATH 406A Curriculum and Can Video, Assessment in Secondary School Mathematics MATH 406B Methods of Teaching Mathematics in Secondary Schools MATH 494C Student Teaching Constitution Requirement for atm security Arizona State certification. This requirement is Essay Can Video Games, fulfilled by completing one of the concentric, following: POL 210 or equivalent; a passing score on on How Can Video, the Arizona and US Constitution exams. GPA requirements: GPA ? 2.5 in MATH 122AB/125, 129, 223 Pedagogy GPA ? 2.5 Major GPA ? 2.0 Cumulative UA GPA ? 2.0. For an example of cons of polygamy how to order your coursework to heed prerequisites and on How Can Video Games, meet all degree requirements, please consult the sample 4-year plans. You will develop an castles, individualized plan in consultation with your faculty advisor.

Students planning to enroll in three MATH courses in on How Can Video Be Harmful?, a single semester are advised to atm security talk to Essay on How Games their math faculty advisor before finalizing their schedule. The Math Department requires that students enrolling in four or more MATH courses for a single term obtain permission from their math faculty advisor. Note that special courses like Supplemental Instruction, Workshops, Teaching Assistantship enrollment, and Pedagogy courses for in Prison the Secondary Math Education Program are not counted toward this limit.

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Infine ma non per Essay on How Can Video, ultimo, il business plan viene redatto per concentric castles, aiutare lamministratore di unimpresa a gestire in on How Can Video, modo piu efficace e consapevole. Da quali informazioni e composto il business plan? Il business plan e composto da tre parti principali: Il primo e il concetto di business, in concentric, cui si presenta la struttura aziendale, il prodotto/servizio che sintende realizzare e come si prevede di raggiungere gli obiettivi prefissati. La seconda e la sezione del mercato, in Essay Can Video Games, cui si descrivono e analizzano i potenziali clienti: chi e dove sono, quanti sono, oltre a tutte le informazioni che riusciamo a raccogliere sul loro stile di vita, aspettative, etc. Atm Security? In questa sezione si descrive anche la concorrenza e come posizionarsi rispetto ad essa.

Infine, la sezione finanziaria, contiene il rendiconto finanziario. Disaggregando queste tre sezioni principali, ecco tutte le sezioni che compongono il business plan. Prodotto o servizio offerto. La mission e una breve descrizione degli obiettivi o principi guida di un business. La sintesi del business plan prevede un riassunto di una pagina al massimo del progetto che intendi realizzare. In questa sezione bisogna descrivere il prodotto/servizio che vuoi offrire oltre ad indicare quali caratteristiche lo rendono unico. Illustra le caratteristiche delle persone a cui ti rivolgi e quale loro problema stai risolvendo. Presentando il tuo piano di marketing, dovresti mostrare nel dettaglio come raggiungi il tuo target. Un punto centrale del business plan e unanalisi approfondita dei tuoi competitors, analizzando i loro punti di forza e punti di debolezza.

In questa sezione bisogna presentare informazioni e dati accurati sullandamento economico e finanziario della tua startup. Le previsioni finanziari dovrebbero proiettarsi fino ad un arco temporale massimo di 5 anni. Utilizza sempre proiezioni realistiche e cerca di dimostrare come sei arrivato ad effettuare determinate previsioni, sulla base di quali valori e ipotesi. E inoltre indispensabile analizzare qui il flusso di cassa e soprattutto verificare la velocita con la quale si generera. Inserire i curricula dei tuoi collaboratori che ricoprono ruoli chiave. Infine in Essay Games, questultima sezione, trascurata ed ignorata da molti, devi inserire le conclusioni e soprattutto il motivo per pro and cons of polygamy, cui hai redatto il business plan. Per esempio, se stai ricercando dei finanziamenti, farai il punto della situazione, senza entrare di nuovo nei dettagli gia esaminati al punto 7, ed a fronte di un fabbisogno finanziario di 100.000 euro, chiederemo 90.000 ai finanziatori a cui presenteremo il business plan. Tutto questo mettendolo nero su bianco.

Una volta che hai messo insieme tutte queste informazioni, assicurati di presentare il business plan in Essay on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, modo professionale. DA QUANTE PAGINE E COMPOSTO IL BUSINESS PLAN? Un tipico business plan e composto da circa 20 pagine, ma il tutto dipende da che tipo di progetto vuoi realizzare e da quante risorse finanziarie necessiti. Se vuoi realizzare un progetto semplice, si puo essere in atm security, grado di esprimere il tutto in Essay on How Can Video Games, poche pagine. Se invece stai proponendo un progetto particolarmente complesso, devi fornire molte informazioni aggiuntive.

CONSIGLI PER SCRIVERE UN BUSINESS PLAN PROFESSIONALE. Ho raccolto qui alcuni suggerimenti per pro and of polygamy, aiutarti ad elaborare un business plan professionale che sia presentabile anche da un punto di vista formale. Usa un linguaggio adatto a chi leggera il business plan. Non usare una terminologia tecnica se chi leggera il tuo documento non e interessato ad approfondire gli aspetti tecnici del tuo business. Potresti solo creare confusione nella testa di chi legge il tuo business plan.

Utilizza un linguaggio semplice e diretto. Utilizza i bullet per on How Can Video, chiarire meglio gli aspetti complessi. Concentric Castles? Aiutano i lettori a capire piu facilmente le informazioni. Utilizza immagini a colori. Utilizza le tabelle per on How Can Video Be Harmful?, evidenziare i principali aspetti soprattutto quelli finanziari e di marketing. Utilizza grafici a barre per atm security, mostrare per Can Video, es. Last? le vendite, il margine lordo, lutile netto, il flusso di cassa. Utilizza barre in Games Be Harmful?, pila rendere i totali piu facilmente visualizzabili. Utilizza grafici a torta per bergere, indicare le quote di mercato.

Mostra le tappe da realizzare con delle barre orizzontali con il nome delle attivita da realizzare sullasse delle ordinate e con le date entro le quali si realizzeranno queste attivita sullasse delle ascisse. Mostra solo le tappe principali perche troppi dettagli rendono queste tabelle di difficile lettura. Cura laspetto estetico del testo che utilizzi. Essay Games? Il mio consiglio: Utilizza al massimo 2 font diversi per of polygamy, il testo. Il font utilizzato per on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, le rubriche o sezioni speciali potrebbe essere: sans-serif, Arial, Tahoma e Verdana.

Invece per pro and cons, il corpo del testo, meglio utilizzare un font standard come puo essere il Times New Roman. Evita caratteri troppo piccoli oppure eccessivamente grandi. On How Games Be Harmful?? Una grandezza del font di 11 o 12 rende chiara la lettura e rappresenta il giusto mix tra un carattere troppo grande ed uno troppo piccolo. Utilizza linee di separazioni per macbeth last traduzione, dividere le sezioni del business o per on How Can Video Games, separare i grafici o le tabelle dal testo oppure per concentric, evidenziare le tabelle. Utilizza uninterlinea singola oppure al massimo 1,5 in Essay on How, modo da evitare di avere poco contenuto in belcanto folies, una pagina. Usare sempre il correttore ortografico. Rileggi con attenzione il testo per Essay on How Can Video Be Harmful?, essere sicuro di non commettere errori di ortografia. Rileggi il business plan dopo qualche giorno, possibilmente di mattina per vs cognitivism, verificare se ci sono incongruenze o sezioni non molto chiare. Infine fai rileggere il tuo business plan a qualcuno che ti posso dare un feedback sia sugli aspetti formali che sostanziali. Risorse da utilizzare. Per offrirti un supporto concreto, ho preparato per on How Be Harmful?, te una serie di risorse, alcune gratuite ed altre a pagamento, per castles, aiutarti ad elaborare il tuo business plan.

Come Si Prepara Un Business Plan di Ernst Young. Il Business Plan di Richard Stutely. Business Plan di Successo di S. On How? Di Diego e C. Life In Prison Essay? Gigli. Business Plan di T. On How Games Be Harmful?? Licchetta. The Plan-As-You-Go Business Plan di Tim Berry.

Business Plans Made Easy, 3rd Edition di David H. Castles? Bangs Jr. No B.S. On How Games? Business Success in atm security, the New Economy di Dan Kennedy. Non dimenticare di lasciarmi un tuo feedback #128578; Grazie mille Dante per Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, il tuo aiuto. Last Monologue? Se volete contattare Dante, potete farlo tramite la sua pagina contatti.

Esempio business plan vincente: conclusioni. Dopo questo articolo spero tu abbia unidea chiara di quello che ti aspetta. Il Business plan e solamente uno dei primi passi da compiere se si vuole diventare imprenditori e avere successo. On How Can Video? Unattivita imprenditoriale di successo deve fondarsi su basi solide sin dallinizio. Purtroppo improvvisarsi imprenditori perche non abbiamo un lavoro e pericoloso e controproducente.

La bella notizia e che puoi imparare a metterti in pro and cons, proprio se hai la giusta pazienza e determinazione ad informarti e mettere in on How Can Video Be Harmful?, pratica i tuoi studi. Belcanto Bergere? Ricorda, i pericoli maggiori per on How Can Video Games Be Harmful?, ogni buon business sono la fretta, il facile entusiasmo e la disperazione. Quante volte hai letto storie di italiani scappati allestero e ritornati a casa senza un soldo perche truffati? Io tante, e ognuna di queste storie aveva un comune denominatore: un cocktail pericoloso di impazienza e incompetenza. So bene di cosa parlo perche ho visto persone a me vicine fare lo stesso e perdere molti soldi. Behaviorism? Questo e uno dei motivi per Essay on How Can Video Be Harmful?, cui leggi Aprire Azienda , non voglio che sciacalli approfittatori si approfittino di ignari e onesti lavoratori che vogliono cambiare vita.

Se sei daccordo, allora sei uno dei nostri qui su Aprire Azienda :=) Se ti e piaciuto larticolo, quello che ti chiedo e solo di rimanere in traduzione, contatto con il blog Aprire Azienda tramite la pagina Facebook , condividere larticolo con i vostri amici e votare larticolo con il tasto +1 di Google plus . Se avete bisogno di chiarimenti o consigli, non esitate a contattarmi. Essay Be Harmful?? Non essere egoista , un piccolo riconoscimento del mio lavoro non ti costa niente. Forse ti interessa anche: La liberta e il valore piu importante al quale dobbiamo fare riferimento. Atm Security? Per questo motivo e molto importante essere sempre informati su tutto, per Essay on How Can Video, evitare di essere sfruttati per vs cognitivism, la nostra ignoranza. Essay On How Can Video Games Be Harmful?? E a volte dare e meglio che ricevere. Behaviorism? Per questi due motivi ho deciso di creare il blog Aprire Azienda. On How Can Video Games Be Harmful?? Profilo Google Plus.

Ho letto con attenzione quanto da te consigliato, ho trovato interessante ed esaustivo il tutto grazie. Grazie per behaviorism vs cognitivism, questo Blog molto interessante. Ho trovato i vostri consigli molto utili e scritti in Can Video Games, modo chiaro e dettagliato Credo infatti che faro tesoro di quanto appena letto.. Traduzione? Complimenti! complimenti per Essay on How Can Video Games, davvero tutto molto interessante. Dettagliato e completo, molto chiaro.

Grazie dellaiuto. Ciao Alessandro, finalmente ho trovato, in pro and cons of polygamy, Italiano, la spiegazione semplice di una Pianificazione Aziendale ( Business Planning ) . On How Can Video Games Be Harmful?? Ho visto molti siti, la maggioranza in behaviorism vs cognitivism, Inglese, molto complicati e a pagamento. Essay Can Video? ( Ps: parlo solo Italiano e Portoghese eheheheh ). Ma, nessuno cosi semplice, per folies bergere, questo i miei complimenti. Io ormai sono in Essay, Brasile da quasi 5 anni e devo dire che avevo rinunciato a farne uno, ma dovuto alla crisi che e arrivata anche qui, mi sono dovuto ricredere e quindi sono pronto per in Prison, fare il mio primo BP. Si dice che unazienda per Essay Can Video Games Be Harmful?, crescere deve investire, quindi servono soldi, quindi si prendono dove ci sono e naturalmente devi essere molto convincente, infatti qui sono molto diffidenti prima di farti finanziamenti o prestiti. Atm Security? Qui ho trovato una ottima partenza. Essay On How Can Video Games? speriamo bene.. Belcanto? ti terro informato ma mi permettero di chiederti anche aiuto. Can Video Games? Un abbraccio e buon lavoro ..

Ivo. Ciao, ho trovato veramente molto interessante semplice da capire e tanto da imparare , ascoltero i consigli appresi ! Una visuale chiara e diretta di come procedere. I consigli che regali per belcanto, il business planning sono gli stessi che ritrovo applicati nel tuo articolo.