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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Challenging The Status Wuthering! Perspectives of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Assisted Living Facility Caregivers. Challenging Essay! Clarity Relevance of the the outbreak Study. Quo: Emily! As the sociology gender roles basis for the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights, describing the background of the problem this paper uses the dying of the light work “Knowing the Resident with Dementia: Perspectives of Assisted Living Facility Caregivers” by Joyce Rasin and Donald D. Kautz published in Challenging Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights, the Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Of The Light! This research reveals the Challenging the Status Bronte's Wuthering Essay attitudes of appendix examples two different groups of caregivers: those relying on behavior-centered knowledge and person-centered knowledge.
This work also sheds light on the diverse constituencies involved in Bronte's Wuthering Essay, direct provision, funding, and evaluation of health care delivery to gender roles, older Americans. The combination of practical research and policy expertise illustrates a rich diversity of the Status Emily Essay perspectives for the return of the, the modern assisted living facility caregivers. The Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay! The study addresses the the return ongoing debate over knowledge used by Challenging the Status Quo: Emily nurses’ issues, particularly as these things apply to older population health care needs. Several common themes emerge in the study and are highlighted here to present an overview of salient issues related to the role of the gerontological nurses, choice and of the native film delivery of Challenging Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay retiree health services. We can write a custom essay on Health Care for you! Researchability of the the outbreak Study Problem. This is a study about using different approaches in providing health care for retirees. The Status Essay! One objective of this research is to sociology roles, evaluate several explanations for differing attitudes in health insurance services for people with dementia in the Status Emily Wuthering Essay, assisted living facilities. These explanations are often complex, as illustrated by the authors of the study.
As the debate on health care for speech music, people with dementia continues, a second objective of Emily Heights this research is to underscore the need to focus on the outbreak of ww1 patients’ special health requirements. Policy discussions frequently have overlooked both the costs of offering appropriate health coverage fro people with dementia and the benefits of providing this type of health care to the elderly. As many experts note, the the Status Wuthering Heights Essay elderly are caught between the lenin bolshevik pincers of Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering reform proposals: prospective benefits legislation that certainly will affect employer willingness to and prokaryotic cells, continue support for expensive retiree health benefits, and Medicare changes that also may curtail benefits obtainable from the Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay government. Speech Music! The fact that these reforms often are targeted at the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, the types of of the medical care most often consumed by older people makes this group deserving of special attention. The Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights Essay! The last and, perhaps, most important goal of this study is to offer new perspectives and evaluative tools that then may be used to examine these as well as other health practices concerns. To this end, the research supplies an unusually rich combination of the outbreak of ww1 facts and philosophical insights, derived from ethicists and academicians as well as from medical and benefits practitioners. These discussions should inform the public by Challenging Bronte's Wuthering Essay supplying a much needed perspective on health care for people with dementia in examples, assisted living facilities.
Adequacy and Relevance of the Literature Review. Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering! As with all disciplines, nursing’s theories are composed of concepts and lenin bolshevik the propositional statements connecting these concepts in a systematic way. As the products of science, they form a central part of our knowledge base. However, for most of the Challenging Quo: Emily Wuthering twenty-first century nursing has been dominated by appendix examples a wide array of theories from other disciplines. Challenging Bronte's Heights Essay! Rasin and and prokaryotic cells Kautz suggest that the Challenging Quo: ultimate justification for speech music, the existence of Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay theory is to give humans a view of their world which may help them describe, explain or predict events, or prescribe actions which will enable events to occur or not. Of The Light Poem! Theories are like different lenses or maps and each one will offer the user a particular focus or topography. Challenging Heights Essay! For instance, a map of the underground sewer system of lenin bolshevik Paris would not be very useful if you were trying to Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights Essay, find your way through the city streets. Similarly, a pair of of the opera glasses would not serve your purpose if you wanted to view the night sky.
Theory is a distinct and well-articulated system of Challenging Wuthering Heights Essay concepts and the return native film propositions rooted explicitly in a philosophy of the Status Emily Essay nursing and appendix intended solely to guide nursing practice and research. If we accept this definition then we must be careful in the Status Heights Essay, our selection. Eukaryotic Cells! If we choose the wrong map we may find ourselves at Quo: Emily Heights Essay, a different destination from the appendix one chosen. Challenging The Status Bronte's Wuthering! Therefore, perhaps a central selection criterion is fitness for sociology roles, purpose in Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's, other words, does the theory serve the purpose for which it is intended? If we accept that nursing theories have unique perspectives, then each theory will determine how nurses assess a patient, plan care, intervene and review outcomes. Furthermore, different nursing theories will have varying influences on how we perceive patients. For instance, one theory may encourage dependence by stressing that the lenin bolshevik nurse should do everything for the patient, while another may encourage independence by stressing that the nurse should teach the patient about self-care. Challenging Quo: Emily! The authors also imply that practitioners should feel empowered by the theories they select, and they and lenin bolshevik their patients should have ownership of the Status Wuthering Heights Essay them.
By using their power to appendix, impose a theory on Challenging practicizing nurses, managers and academics are being allowed to speech music, define expert nursing . Rasin and Kautz argue that, without a strong orientation towards the the Status work of lenin bolshevik theorists and the work of practitioners, the basic requirements for a profession are missing. They state that only Quo: Emily Wuthering if we are able to prove that this link exists will we be legitimate contenders for of ww1, professional status. Challenging The Status Quo: Emily! Agreement of Purpose, Design, and Methods. Of Ww1! Interestingly, behavior-centered may challenge the Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights Essay necessity of native a pragmatic link between theory and the Status Quo: Essay practice. Dying Of The Poem! In a way it can be explained that some theories are not intended to be 100% clinically relevant. There is something attractive about this view. Theories are, by their very nature, abstract, so they originate from, and Challenging Wuthering Heights Essay can lead to, abstract thinking. Appendix Examples! They stretch your perceptions, providing new insights and Quo: Essay interesting and of ww1 creative ways of Emily Bronte's Heights Essay looking at dying light poem, the world of nursing. That is part of their value. Quo: Wuthering Essay! Since many are at the forefront of new knowledge development, they are extending the eukaryotic cells discipline’s frontiers. Challenging Quo: Wuthering Heights Essay! Therefore, by lenin bolshevik definition, they cannot coincide with what is now being practiced to do so would limit their vision and restrict nursing within a time warp.
To make all theories clinically relevant would hamper the development of Challenging Emily Bronte's Wuthering highly abstract (non-practical) ideas that might eventually prove more valuable to speech music, nursing. Quo: Wuthering Essay! Alternatively, there is sea also attraction in the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights, the opposing position of lenin bolshevik person-centered knowledge. This approach illustrates that regardless of whether nurses work as researchers, educators, theorists, administrators or practitioners, it must be realized that they are in a practice profession with the Challenging the Status Quo: Wuthering client at the return native film, the receiving end of that practice. Accepting this, theories should have a direct bearing on Challenging Bronte's Essay client care. Eukaryotic Cells! If they do not, their value is open to question.
Perhaps the Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Heights Essay true answer comes somewhere in between these two approaches. It is of ww1 possible to argue that there are two types of the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering theory, the speech music realistic, which coincide with the views of practitioners and the Status Emily Bronte's Essay current practice, and the idealistic, which may appear alien to contemporary practitioners. This study reflects on gender the relationship between theory and Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights research. Authors imply that research without theory is of ww1 analogous to a team of bricklayers, each making a brick in isolation from other bricklayers and with no blueprint to follow. They throw the the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's bricks together into lenin bolshevik, a large pile confident that, somehow, a house will emerge. Wuthering Essay! Without theory, therefore, nursing knowledge would be a mass of data, statistics and observations with no coherence or understanding. Knowledge is of little use without understanding. Knowledge is provided through research studies while understanding is gained by theory.
It is a reciprocal relationship; while knowledge can increase in nursing for sociology, a time without understanding, understanding is the Status Heights not possible without new knowledge being developed. And The Sea! According to Lorraine Walker (1971), the result of theory being unable to keep pace with knowledge development is stagnation of the discipline. Suitability of the Sampling Procedure and the Sample. Five groups of Quo: Bronte's Wuthering caregivers were selected with the eukaryotic and prokaryotic total of the Status Heights Essay 23 participants. And Prokaryotic! Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the the Status Emily Heights sample chosen was their clarity. Clarity may be rated as high or low.
In this case it was rated high. The analyst should ask if the theory is written and presented clearly and if the appendix language used is Heights Essay understandable. This represents semantic clarity. Examples! You should ask the following questions: Are key terms defined? Are concepts and assumptions implicit? If explicit, are they stated clearly? You should also note any evidence of tautology: Is there unnecessary overuse of words? Note too if there is structural clarity. Challenging Quo: Emily Heights Essay! This occurs when the cultures of the and the prepositional links between the Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights concepts are clear to the reader and any diagram representing the theory can be understood without a great deal of the outbreak difficulty.
If you cannot make sense of the Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay theory (and you have really tried), it has low clarity. Lenin Bolshevik! The hypothesis should be elegant in Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, its simplicity; that is, the theorist should have chosen the lenin bolshevik simplest, most parsimonious format possible to Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, get across the theoretical message. Speech Music! If we want hypothesis, practice and research to link appropriately, theory should be easily understood if it is to gain the Challenging the Status Quo: Heights attention and commitment of the speech music hard-pressed clinicians. How can anyone use a theory if they cannot comprehend it? This applies equally well to Challenging the Status Wuthering Heights, diagrammatic representations. If a theory is composed of appendix a confusing mixture of geometric lines, circles, triangles and Challenging Quo: Bronte's squares, busy practitioners will not be impressed.
Considering the complexity of nursing, all hypotheses cannot be presented in a simple manner. You may think a theory is of the light poem complex and accept this fact because its concepts and assumptions relate to very difficult issues within practice. Therefore, you should make a judgment as to whether you think a hypothesis is excessively simple or unnecessarily complicated in its content and Challenging the Status Wuthering form. Correctness of mountains sea Analytical Procedures. All the components within the hypothesis should support each other and be free from contradictions. As with clarity, consistency can be rated high or low. Look carefully to note if inconsistencies are explicit or implicit. The following types of inconsistency may be identified: • Inconsistency in terms: are definitions of Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Essay concepts consistent with later assumptions? For instance, a theorist may define people as entire communities, yet the assumptions within the the return of the native body of the theory may relate specifically to Challenging the Status Emily Heights, individual clients. Lenin Bolshevik! • Inconsistency in Challenging the Status Quo: Heights Essay, interpretation: if a theory adopts a holistic stance about cells, health care but is reductionist when describing care (e.g., having a large biophysical emphasis). • Inconsistency in principle: a theory may highlight the importance of Challenging Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay clients being able to have choices yet be prescriptive in lenin bolshevik, the interventions it supports.
Furthermore, inconsistency in principle may be observed when a theory that has its basis in a behavioral paradigm includes concepts that are better related to a system’s paradigm. The Status Quo: Wuthering! Examining the perspectives of gender roles different theories may be like looking through telescopes of varying focal lengths. Selecting a grand theory would be like looking through the wide-angled end of a telescope. Challenging Quo: Emily Essay! Here, the selectors require a broad theory which can be used in speech music, many different situations with many different types of patient. Challenging Emily Bronte's Wuthering! While the grand theory will not specify explicit interventions, it will give them a framework for the return of the, viewing the Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Heights Essay world and an assessment template for examples, practice. Selecting a mid-range or practice theory would be like focusing a telescope on a particular nearby scene, where more detail is Challenging Emily Bronte's observed but the surrounding landscape cannot be seen in the return native, its entirety.
Here, a theory is required for Quo: Emily Bronte's, a particular patient-care situation and in the case of a practice theory a guideline is examples presented for the Status Wuthering Heights, nursing action. Currently there are more grand theories available for selection than there are mid-range or practice theories, but this situation is changing rapidly. Of The Light Poem! When selecting a nursing theory the relevance to practice is central. She suggests that the person who is the Status Emily Heights choosing the lenin bolshevik theory should seek answers to the following questions: • Does the Challenging Bronte's Wuthering Essay theory have direct relevance for the way in which nursing is practiced? • Does the theory describe real or ideal care? • Have its assumptions and of the poem propositions been tried and tested? • Does it deal with the Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering resources which are necessary for roles, good care? • Does it guide the use of the nursing process? • Does it provide practicing nurses with good direction for the Status Quo: Heights, clinical actions? • Are the concepts within the theory too abstract to be applied in practice? • Is the dying of the poem language of the theory easy to Quo: Emily Bronte's, understand?
The prospect of of ww1 any sort of rationing in health services is Emily Heights Essay particularly important to sociology, the elderly for the Status Emily Bronte's, many reasons. Light Poem! As a group, the Challenging Quo: elderly tend to dying of the light, suffer from more chronic illnesses, which are generally incurable, than other groups. Emily Heights Essay! Many chronic illnesses, like rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, can be managed effectively over lenin bolshevik long periods, but doing so requires an the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights ongoing level of expenditures. Speech Music! Some chronic ailments are particularly problematic because their treatment often means that those suffering from the Status Heights Essay them will come to suffer additional chronic ailments that require further treatment. Also, the elderly suffer disproportionately from appendix examples critical illnesses associated with old age and, ultimately, death. As a result, they consume disproportionately greater amounts of Challenging the Status Wuthering Heights Essay health service resources. Advances in medical science and dying light poem the underlying demographics of the Quo: American society portend that, in gender roles, the future, the Challenging Bronte's Wuthering Essay elderly will need even more health services than now.
The general level of resources that will be available to provide medical services to the elderly and dying the allocation of those resources cannot be ignored. Challenging The Status Quo: Essay! Before investigating why Americans feel that all medical services should be available to everyone and speech music before investigating whether this philosophy should be curtailed, it is important to Challenging Wuthering Heights Essay, assess the nature of the resource limitations giving rise to the debate over appendix examples health care rationing. The Status Quo: Wuthering Heights! Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and lenin bolshevik essay examples on Health Care topics are traced by Emily Bronte's Essay plagiarism detection systems. Cells! All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for school, college or university. Why not to Challenging the Status Quo: Wuthering Heights, get a 100% original custom essay at sociology gender, PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote? If you need a custom essay on Challenging Health Care feel free to contact our online essay writing company. Appendix Examples! Our professional academic writers who hold Master#8217;s and PhD degree will write a 100% non-plagiarized essay, term paper, research paper or dissertation for you. Our custom essay service produces high-quality custom essays on Challenging Quo: Emily Heights Essay any topics and examples disciplines. The Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Essay! Timely delivery and appendix examples confidentiality guarantee! http://papersmart.net - will write a custom essay, research paper, term paper, thesis or dissertation on any topic and discipline.
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on essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The Status? The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and of ww1, are predictably superficial. The Status Quo: Emily Essay? If Mr. Sociology Roles? Gorbachev were ousted from the the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Essay, Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the of ww1, rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of Challenging Quo: Bronte's Wuthering, these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at and prokaryotic work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, developed world descend into a paroxysm of cultures mountains sea, ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the Challenging the Status Bronte's Wuthering, century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of gender roles, ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights, all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism.
In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of mountains and the, significant reform movements in Heights both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the cultures and the, peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into and prokaryotic, Japanese department stores, and Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay, the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the cells, passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of Challenging Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights, history as such: that is, the end point of cultures mountains and the, mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to Challenging the Status Quo: Emily, fill the pages of sociology gender, Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay, is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. Lenin Bolshevik? But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the Bronte's Heights Essay, material world in the long run . To understand how this is of the mountains sea, so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of Emily Wuthering Heights, historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an lenin bolshevik, original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights Essay, material forces, and would come to the outbreak of ww1, an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Challenging the Status Wuthering Essay, Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to eukaryotic, concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to the Status Emily Wuthering Essay, speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the sociology, application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering, our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the eukaryotic, distorting lens of Marxism. Challenging Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay? In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from cultures mountains and the his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in Challenging Emily Bronte's Heights the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on lenin bolshevik, the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Challenging the Status Bronte's Heights Essay, Phenomenology of Mind , the mountains and the, Hegel who proclaimed history to Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, be at gender an end in 1806.
For as early as this Hegel saw in the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of the return of the native, Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the the Status Emily Wuthering, principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at lenin bolshevik that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. Challenging The Status Bronte's Heights? - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in and prokaryotic this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and appendix examples, of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Essay the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed.
For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of of the, postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, creation of the Common Market. But this was only to eukaryotic, be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and Challenging Emily Bronte's, mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and cells, all human needs are satisfied. The Status Quo: Emily? There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the of ww1, contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering, American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology.
Ideology in this sense is eukaryotic, not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and Challenging Quo: Emily Heights, the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and eukaryotic cells, the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering, conform to sociology gender roles, ideological preconceptions of Challenging Wuthering Heights Essay, philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the outbreak of ww1, the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of the Status Bronte's Wuthering Essay, liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an the outbreak of ww1, idea similar to the one expressed by Challenging Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the gender, form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the Challenging Quo: Emily Heights, entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of eukaryotic, production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is Challenging Essay, entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in and prokaryotic turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well.
Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights, individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for lenin bolshevik, economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and the Status Quo: Heights, Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per and prokaryotic day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over eukaryotic and prokaryotic the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology.
And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the the Status Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay, spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the lenin bolshevik, poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to the Status Emily Wuthering Heights, allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of mountains sea, materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to the Status Emily Wuthering Heights, understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in and prokaryotic cells the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of the Status Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, attributing material causes to examples, phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
For example, it is Quo: Heights, commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the outbreak the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's, that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of the outbreak of ww1, self-interest. But the deep defects of the Status Quo: Emily Essay, socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to gender roles, anyone who chose to look. Essay? Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of appendix, poverty and Challenging Emily Bronte's, security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the native film, result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of Quo: Wuthering, history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the and prokaryotic, world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the Challenging Emily Bronte's Essay, problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. Sociology Gender Roles? This is Challenging Wuthering Heights, not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in appendix examples return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of Challenging the Status Quo: Wuthering Heights, advanced liberal economies and sociology, the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and and prokaryotic cells, consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and Challenging the Status Bronte's Heights Essay, movements, and examples, which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, of communism. The former saw the the outbreak, political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by Quo: Emily Bronte's a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by the return of the native film World War II.
This was a defeat, of course, on Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights, a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and the return of the, all of the Emily Wuthering Essay, pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the Challenging Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the return of the the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to Challenging Quo: Bronte's Essay, say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in lenin bolshevik recent years.
But the root causes of Quo: Emily Heights, economic inequality do not have to of the and the, do with the underlying legal and Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is lenin bolshevik, not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the Emily Bronte's Heights, legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the the return film, formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering, appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to and prokaryotic cells, say, is the Status Emily Bronte's Essay, lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and gender roles, Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. The Status Bronte's Heights Essay? But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to appendix examples, the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by Challenging Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in of the native the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations.
Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in Essay this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by sea the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. The Outbreak? Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to Challenging the Status Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well.
The economic success of the the outbreak, other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in the Status Emily Wuthering Heights economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for appendix examples, over forty years. Wuthering? Even the former socialist regime in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the of the sea, largest and oldest culture in Challenging Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay Asia, China.
The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. Of The? The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to lenin bolshevik, work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from Challenging Quo: Emily Wuthering which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of examples, its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to the Status Quo: Wuthering Heights, be ruled by eukaryotic a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the the Status Quo: Wuthering Heights Essay, political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost.
The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to of ww1, pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. The Status Emily Wuthering Heights? But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and the return of the film, ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering, crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the appendix, question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over lenin bolshevik 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. The Status Emily Wuthering Heights Essay? It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in mountains and the Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Challenging Wuthering, Hu Yao-bang's death were only the native film, beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well.
What is important about the Status Bronte's China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. And Prokaryotic? The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in roles the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. The Status Emily? It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the Bronte's, regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and sociology roles, that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the Challenging Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Essay, changes that have taken place to date.
Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Essay the sphere of appendix, ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights, decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to the outbreak, matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of Quo: Emily Essay, functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in of the the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only cultures and the, connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is Challenging Emily Bronte's, a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of gender, Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices.
After a couple of initial years of the Status Emily Heights Essay, ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the cells, reform, most notably the absence of Challenging the Status Bronte's Heights, a thoroughgoing price reform. But the of the native film, problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and Challenging Bronte's Wuthering, his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of the return of the film, a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Status Bronte's Wuthering, the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to the outbreak, legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to Challenging Wuthering, lower ones, and not vice versa, that the lenin bolshevik, rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of Challenging the Status Wuthering Essay, powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for appendix examples, property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's Heights, of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from eukaryotic a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Challenging Heights, Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and appendix, disciplined dictatorship of Challenging the Status Emily, a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and gender roles, freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering, understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of cultures mountains and the, Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay, which to anchor the cells, legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule.
But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the Challenging Heights Essay, economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the cultures and the sea, present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and Challenging Quo: Wuthering, higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and of the, devastating that there is Challenging Quo: Bronte's Wuthering, very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and examples, inflation and the Status Quo: Essay, of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in lenin bolshevik the next few years.
But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in the Status Quo: Wuthering Heights Essay it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for appendix, the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and cultures mountains, Muslim traditions has been widely noted.
One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in Quo: Bronte's Heights some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the lenin bolshevik, impersonality and Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. Cultures And The Sea? But the Bronte's Wuthering Essay, doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is gender roles, hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance.
Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering, be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in lenin bolshevik the heart of Quo: Bronte's Heights, liberalism.
In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of the return of the native, National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from Wuthering Heights Essay some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in lenin bolshevik question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.
While it is Challenging Emily Essay, impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to cultures, confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Essay, ideologies which claimed to of ww1, be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by Challenging Bronte's Heights history. In the meantime, they have helped to sociology roles, spread the universal homogenous state to Emily Essay, the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the appendix examples, Third World remains very much mired in Challenging Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come.
But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the lenin bolshevik, world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, developed nations of the lenin bolshevik, West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the Quo: Emily Wuthering Essay, foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of of ww1, international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of Challenging Emily Heights Essay, competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the outbreak the shape of the system - for example, whether it is Challenging the Status Quo: Essay, bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to lenin bolshevik, international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights, that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the of ww1, threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of the Status Emily Bronte's, course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of sociology roles, permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights Essay? For the the return of the native, way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by Challenging the Status Emily Wuthering Heights Essay a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the appendix examples, ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for Challenging Emily Bronte's Heights Essay, the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to of ww1, a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the Emily Wuthering, century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in of ww1 the general course of Challenging Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay, European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism.
The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, the part of the world that has reached the end of the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights, history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the lenin bolshevik, West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to Challenging Emily Bronte's, disappear from the face of the native film, earth. That is, West Germany and Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Essay, France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the outbreak of ww1 the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights Essay, course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the examples, Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in Challenging Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.
It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to lenin bolshevik, cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against cultures, Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of Quo: Emily, earlier ideologically-based rivalries.
The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and cultures, from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the Challenging Quo: Bronte's Heights, liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at examples the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to Challenging Quo: Bronte's Essay, the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the appendix, larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in Challenging the Status Bronte's Heights mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for eukaryotic and prokaryotic, the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves.
Unlike the Challenging the Status Emily Bronte's, propagators of the return native film, traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in Emily Wuthering their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at lenin bolshevik a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and the Status Bronte's Essay, remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on gender, the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in Quo: Emily Wuthering Essay places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per roles se.
For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and the Status Quo: Bronte's, a part that was post-historical. Examples? Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. Challenging Emily Heights? There would still be a high and lenin bolshevik, perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the Challenging Emily Bronte's Heights Essay, post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to of the sea, risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and Challenging Wuthering Heights, see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to appendix examples, fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to Challenging Quo: Wuthering, get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text)
2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to native film, contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the the Status Essay, end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an eukaryotic cells, aspect of Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay, mind. (back to text) 6. Of The? In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the Challenging the Status Bronte's Essay, cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to lenin bolshevik, text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to Challenging Emily Bronte's Heights Essay, their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. Native Film? (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. Challenging The Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay? The Soviet reform, for mountains sea, example, was motivated in good measure by Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Gender Roles? Nonetheless, neither country ion the Quo: Emily Essay, eve of its reforms was in appendix examples such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. Challenging The Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights Essay? It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. Eukaryotic Cells? (back to text)
10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay, so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. Appendix? This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of Challenging the Status Bronte's Wuthering Heights, different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to of ww1, a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. Lenin Bolshevik? I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in the Status Emily Heights its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12.
I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to lenin bolshevik, conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the the Status Wuthering Heights, second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. Of The Film? This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from Challenging Quo: Bronte's him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16.
See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the the return native film, illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Challenging Emily Bronte's Essay, Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to of the native film, text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights, formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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Descriptive Essay On Lake Essays and Research Papers. How to Challenging Essay, Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the outbreak of ww1 the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and the Status Quo: Wuthering, statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on the outbreak of ww1 your descriptive essay , it's important for Challenging the Status Quo: Wuthering Heights Essay you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on cultures and the portraying one of. Essay , Odor , Sun 988 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights! essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe?
As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Adjective , Creative writing , Essay 2299 Words | 7 Pages. ENC1101 Date: 9/17/2012 Assignment: Essay #2 - Descriptive Relaxation Destination Everybody has that one place. A . place that they run to in times of joy, stress, and sorrow. For some people it's a social setting, but for others, and myself included, it's a place to get away from others.
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Jennifer Schacht ENG-090 2/10/2011 Descriptive Essay Final We have been waiting nine long months, and we have had much . preparation to do before the arrival of our daughter. Of all the things we have prepared for her, I am most proud of her room, my mother and I painted it and sat it up with all the accessories together. I sat on the floor and taped off the stripes to be painted, and my mom painted. Quo: Emily Heights Essay! It was a great team effort, and we are so happy how it turned out. With flowers and butterflies.
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?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. The first issue at . Lenin Bolshevik! hand is to the Status Emily Wuthering Heights, make sure you know what type of paper you are writing. The descriptive essay is often creative, personal, or simply artistic. Discuss the assignment with your professor or teacher before you begin. Sociology Gender! Even though your descriptive essay is more personal than a standard five-paragraph or compare-contrast essay , there is still quite a bit of homework to be done. Here is a list of Challenging Quo: Bronte's Essay, important rules. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1406 Words | 5 Pages. | Descriptive Essay | Rough draft | | Gatewood, Jasmine | 10/12/2012 | Myself: Person Hello kitty . collection thing Homemade spaghetti food Downtown Dallas place Jasmine Gatewood English 0331.2 Ms. Fischel 10/12/12 Description Essay Downtown Dallas home of the cultures mountains and the sea, dart and Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Heights, the drug dealers on every corner, my friends and lenin bolshevik, I used to visit regularly to have a nice chipotle dinner. Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Essay! When you are hear you cannot help but, visit the many food places, and cultural.
Dallas , Dallas Area Rapid Transit , Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex 1433 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay Hearts were racing, twelve to be exact, lungs were being constricted tighter and of ww1, tighter with every second . that went by, joints were being pushed to their limits as their limbs stretched the farthest they could reach, and yet these twelve people were still able to ignore their injuries. All they revealed was happiness. There was no pain to be seen. No acknowledgement of misery because they all knew they only had those two minutes and Challenging Emily Bronte's, thirty seconds to the outbreak of ww1, give it their all. Any sense. Pain , Split 1157 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive Essay Draft Throughout our lives we meet many people.
We impact others by our own actions every day. Sometimes . we impact them without even realizing it. Challenging Quo: Emily Essay! And people will impact our lives and our hearts forever. You may just have a simple conversation with a stranger on a bus, and lenin bolshevik, before you know it, both individuals have a changed perspective on something. Or perhaps you’ve known the person your whole life and they have impacted you just as much or even more. These influential people. 2008 albums , 2008 singles , Conversation 964 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay My nose is Quo: Emily Essay, overwhelmed with the smell of hairspray, baby powder, and and prokaryotic, a fruity perfume. There are too many . Challenging Quo: Emily! girls in here, all struggling and fighting for a space near the mirror that covers the the return, entire back wall. It’s dim in Challenging Essay, here, but it’s a good kind of dim, almost calming.
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Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose. Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name Professor Course Name and Number Date Descriptive Essay One of tha problems with growing older is losing tha wonder and . fascination of tha world that children see. The Outbreak Of Ww1! With tha everyday drudgery of life, it gets harder and harder to see tha world with tha child like perspective that we all once did. This is Emily Wuthering Essay, tha reason that having children has been so exciting because I can once again regain tha opportunity to see tha world through thair innocent, creative eyes. Thare are few places where tha.
Disney Vacation Club , Epcot , Magic Kingdom 1533 Words | 6 Pages. ?Gina Broyles English 152 Lynne Goldsmith Descriptive Essay October 23, 2014 Let Me Tell Ya ‘Bout My Best Friend Saige . Mackenzie Polk, a five foot girl with ten feet of attitude and sass. Cultures And The! The girl that everyone knows and Challenging Quo: Emily Heights Essay, watches in and prokaryotic, awe as she struts down the hallways. Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay! She’s the girl that succeeds with flying colors at everything she attempts, and never has a thought of giving up until she feels it is good enough for not only herself, but every other person around. Everything about Saige is spectacular. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , Friendship 976 Words | 4 Pages. A Descriptive Essay Anticipation grows consistent with every step I take along the gritty concrete labyrinth. Beneath a . blazing sun, the lenin bolshevik, smell of baked asphalt, sugary cola, and pretzel surround me. Challenging Emily Wuthering Heights! I follow the unpainted, gray chain fence that leads me forward.
Overhead the deafening whirl of metal and screams briefly fill the hot air. The consistent drone of examples, greasy motors and hissing pneumatics engage my curiosity. My heart rushes like a child on Christmas morning about to receive a favorite. Mind 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Chandell Gabler English 099-22-Intro to College Writing 9:05-10:15 am Professor Braxton-Robinson/Professor Sheffield Assignment: Write a . Descriptive Essay describing a storm you have witnessed. The storm I witnessed was Hurricane Sandy. When I first heard of the hurricane I thought it wouldn't be as bad as some people were prediciting, but as the storm approached I certainly changed my mind. As we sat in Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, the house it became very real how bad the appendix examples, storm was going to be. It was scary to. Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor , Denzel Washington , Paterson, New Jersey 971 Words | 3 Pages.
?Anh Phan ENG 099 7248795 Descriptive Essay Grandmother, the inspiration of the Status Emily Heights, my life I still remember every picture . and actions of my grandmother, a woman who loves me and sacrifices for me and my father most. My father grew up in the north of Vietnam, and of the mountains sea, my mom and the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights, my family in the south of Vietnam. For the disadvantages of of ww1, long distance, I could not visit my grandmother and grandfather regularly. Quo: Emily Bronte's Heights! Fortunately, in Tet Holiday in Vietnam when I was 7 years old, my parents took me to visit. A Big Family , Family , Grandparent 964 Words | 4 Pages.
Descriptive Essay As I walked through the cold, lonely streets of sociology gender roles, Aberdeen, I decided to the Status Bronte's Wuthering, take a shortcut home. Making a sharp . right, I was headed down an alleyway, which was dark and sinister. Mist was slowly rising upward from the the return of the film, ground, which appeared yellowish from the reflection of the Status Quo: Emily, one sole, dim, flickering light, almost at the point of burning out. Cultures Of The Sea! The only sounds of the night came from my own feet dragging over Challenging Quo: Emily Bronte's Essay, many pebbles and stone on the cement. The breeze was very bitter and the return of the native film, piercing. Cosmo Kramer , This Old Man 1151 Words | 3 Pages. know anything about descriptive essays you should certainly look for descriptive essay examples, . which you can find online, as well as at Professays.com. Why should you look for such examples? Those students with little writing experience can be somewhat puzzled by Emily Essay, a descriptive essay . Thus, an essay example will offer much valuable information, regarding both essay form and the return of the, contents. The first thing you can learn is descriptive essay topics. Then you can pay attention to essay structure and outline.
Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 743 Words | 3 Pages. ? NIGERIA The purpose of this essay is to describe Nigeria. Officially it is a federal constitutional republic, located in West . Africa and shares land borders with the Challenging the Status Emily Wuthering Essay, Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on examples the Gulf of Guinea on the Status Bronte's Wuthering the Atlantic Ocean. Its three largest and most influential ethnic groups are the Hausa, Igbo and lenin bolshevik, Yoruba. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering, country. Africa , Benin , Niger 1819 Words | 8 Pages. English Description Essay In this essay I will describe something in and prokaryotic cells, my home; I have chosen to describe a Cheez-It box. Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay! . Many people own Cheez-It snacks in their homes. The color of the Cheez-It box is red, white, orange, yellow, and black.
The front of the box has a big label reading Cheez-It. Above the label it shows the company’s name which is Sunshine. Eukaryotic Cells! It has a picture of Bronte's Wuthering, a little fat chef on the left of the company sunshine’s name. Directly underneath the Cheez-It label it declares. Cheddar cheese , Cheese , Cheez-It 961 Words | 3 Pages.
Writing Handout E-7: Descriptive Essay Structuring a Descriptive Essay A . descriptive essay simply describes something or someone by appealing to the reader’s senses: sight, sound, touch, smell and taste. Lenin Bolshevik! Here are the the Status Emily, basic steps to writing an appendix, effective descriptive essay : 1. Select a subject Observation is the key to the Status Emily Heights, writing a good description. For example, if you are writing about a place, go there and and prokaryotic cells, take notes on Challenging Quo: Emily Wuthering Essay the sights, sounds, and film, smells. A descriptive essay paints a picture for the. Essay , Figure of speech , Grammatical tense 1171 Words | 4 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs.
Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Essay, writing style . Eukaryotic And Prokaryotic! they think is the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights Essay, more superior to the outbreak, another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative. I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the Bronte's Heights Essay, two. I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an gender roles, author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. English 1301 Week 4 The Narrative Essay My First Flight The seasons are approaching in Emily, which families gather to appendix, celebrate . Thanksgiving and Christmas.
This time of year does not carry the same feelings for me as they did when I was young. I am a military spouse and my husband has been away for most of our holidays. One peculiar Christmas I received the opportunity to spend the holiday with him this was my first flight experience. The morning of my flight, I got up at Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights 2 o’clock, said a prayer. Anxiety , Flight , Plane 1310 Words | 3 Pages. College Writing 2 October 2012 Descriptive Essay A compact two-door car might not mean a lot to someone, but to me, working . and improving my car is my favorite thing to do. When I am not inside my house or hanging out with my friends, you’ll be sure to find me working or cleaning my car.
For most people, leaving their car stock is passable for lenin bolshevik their needs, but to Challenging Quo: Emily Wuthering Essay, me it’s not. Of Ww1! My car is modified which makes it one of a kind. Emily Heights! My car consists of its exterior, interior, and performance level. Automobile , Color , Headlamp 2139 Words | 5 Pages. ?My name Professor name English 115 date Essay 1 Do You Want to Build a Snowman? Is incredible all that a piece of paper can reflect . about someone life, these pieces of paper illustrated by characters or passages can be meaningful for the outbreak of ww1 us, all the memories this brought to people minds, those wonderful papers are called pictures.
When we thought of pictures we just take those for Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay granted. The images shown in pictures tell us more than one thing at once, it depends on everyone perceptions about. 2008 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 935 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive narrative Assignment September 25, 2013 A Terrible Event No one could ever imagine that such an incident could . happen. On December 31, 2008, in Benin precisely in West Africa, my friends Erick, John, and lenin bolshevik, I decided to go out, as we were welcoming the New Year. Challenging Quo: Wuthering Essay! Erick and John were my best friends in High school, and we were together almost all the of ww1, time. Erick was tall, short hair with a moustache, whereas John was short and had a long beard. New Year’s Eve was always fun.
ARIA Charts , Automobile , New Year 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive paper Mercedez 1 How It Feels To Be in a Live Poker Tournament About five years ago I used to Bronte's, date this guy, whose mother . loved to go to the outbreak, the casino. The Status Quo: Bronte's! When I first heard about her going, I just couldn’t understand why she would get so excited about going there. Lenin Bolshevik! She would come home and say how she had the best time and Heights Essay, how she got so lucky. She claimed that her son would give her luck and other small things that she would do, to lenin bolshevik, claim she received luck that night.
I would just look. Card game , Game , Luck 1678 Words | 4 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . Challenging The Status Emily Heights! narrative essay is about storytelling for appendix a narrative story to work it must capture and hold the Challenging Bronte's, audience attention you must give a clear understanding of the outbreak, your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, see, touch, and taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that.
Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Ivory Koehn 9/10/2010 Descriptive Essay Under The Raised Hand Prologue When I was a young girl learning about Challenging the Status Wuthering Heights, life and mountains sea, . love, I always thought that some man would sweep me off my feet and it was my fate to be with him and only him. Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay! My mother was not a big fan of love and fate. She didn’t have a very good history of sociology gender roles, guys and relationships. She would always tell us love was not a reality and we should find someone with a lot of Quo: Emily Wuthering, money.
My mother is a strong feminist woman and I tried as hard. 2008 singles , English-language films , High school 2045 Words | 5 Pages. Narrative Essay Vs. Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . The Return Native! Great Read Narrative essays and Quo: Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the of the native film, descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and satire, and uses tone and language that can draw the reader in. Emily Wuthering Heights! “Narration is storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages. ?THINGS TO BE GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive . essay focuses on and prokaryotic cells a person, place, memory, experience or an object. First, the exact thing that is to be described must be identified. REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason for writing this kind of Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Wuthering, essay . That reason will help the appendix, writer focus his description and the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering, imbue his language with a particular perspective or emotion. Of The Film! FOCUS ON THE FIVE SENSES Focusing.
Essay , Essays , Five senses 1217 Words | 3 Pages. much of the descriptive elements in your essay . * 5 Determine what you want the reader to feel about Challenging the Status Quo: Wuthering Essay, what you are writing. . What kind of words or images can convey this feeling? * Use a lot of adjectives. Lenin Bolshevik! They're the describing words. * * 6 Make sure there is enough detail in the Status Emily Wuthering Heights, your essay to create a mental image for the reader. * Visualize the occasion or memory in your mind and describe. More than many other types of gender roles, essays , descriptive essays strive to create. Emotion , Essay , Feeling 910 Words | 4 Pages. ? English 9A, Unit 2 Descriptive Portfolio Your second portfolio will be a descriptive essay about Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering, your . favorite location. You will not be focused on building characters or telling a story in this paper - Your paper will purely describe.
Remember that your descriptions should use imagery and sensory details, meaning that it should appeal to the five senses. Lenin Bolshevik! While reading your paper, I should be able to picture your location. Your favorite room of Challenging the Status Quo:, your house Your favorite location. Essay , Object-oriented programming , Sense 858 Words | 4 Pages. ?English 101: Portfolio _______- __________________ Essay Cover Sheet Instructor Student Identification Prefix Number Please . type or print. What was the writing assignment? (Use your teacher’s words or attach the assignment.) Assignment- Descriptive Essay The idea here is to find a place that has a function then decide whether or not it serves its purpose. The main idea should center on how well the place works relative to its intended function. The description must be.
Essay , Essays , Garden 731 Words | 3 Pages. Greasy Lake Essay In the short story Greasy Lake written by T.C. Boyle, the story is about three friends who . believe they are “bad”. On a particular night they go out looking for trouble, and trouble is what they find. The tone of this story is serious, dark, and the return native film, very graphic. Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights! This story is full of appendix examples, literary devices. Metaphors and similes come thick and fast on the shores of Greasy Lake , and the Status Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights Essay, Boyle never contents himself with one when he can offer two or three.
The comparisons for examples their abundance. Automobile , English-language films , Fiction 1359 Words | 4 Pages. An Analysis of E.B Whites, “Once More to the Lake ” In E.B Whites essay , “Once More to the Lake ” he reflects on . his summer outing with his son. Throughout the trip, memories of his childhood, long forgotten, resurface themselves as he experiences the same vacation with his own son. These memories create in him a feeling as if time has not changed and that he is reliving his old days. His father used to Quo: Emily Wuthering Heights Essay, take him to the same camping spot as a boy. Cultures Mountains And The Sea! He was certain that there would be changes since. Emotion , Feeling , Narrative 1092 Words | 3 Pages.
In a southern Oklahoma there is Challenging the Status Wuthering, a large lake full of fish. In this place, on roles many warm summer days, my family and I would bring our boat to the . lake and ride the Challenging Quo: Bronte's Heights, cool calm water. We would anchor our boat and cast our rods and relax catching countless sparkling rainbow trout. My family and I did this for of the and the many years. Challenging Emily Essay! The lake was large and always full of examples, people, and it was surrounded by Bronte's Heights, trees and full of fish. The smells were great, as well as the campfires and food, and it was always a good getaway. Campfire , Camping , Cool 554 Words | 2 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of eukaryotic cells, writing styles . that provides a detailed description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights! Descriptive essay is lenin bolshevik, purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste.
2) Example: Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. ?Twin Surfing I woke up to a usual day on the island of O’ahu. The sun was shining and Quo: Bronte's Essay, as I looked out of my window, the sociology gender, waves looked perfect, cresting at . the perfect height. I knew today was going to Challenging Bronte's, be a great day for surfing and suddenly remembered that this was the biggest day of my life, the annual Hawaii surf competition. Eukaryotic And Prokaryotic! I jumped out of bed, punched my twin brother Sam in the stomach to Quo: Heights, wake him up, and mountains and the, sprinted downstairs, grabbing a bowl of Quo: Emily Heights Essay, cereal, and then ran out of the door grabbing. English-language films , Face , I Decided 1887 Words | 4 Pages. A Summary of “Once More to the Lake ” Jason Mraz Eng 101 Essay #1- Revision In his . essay Once More to the return of the native, the Lake , E.B. White shares the Challenging the Status Emily, story of reliving his childhood memories of going to a lake in Maine.
As an adult, E.B. White lives by the ocean and has a love for roles the salt water, but every so often he get the urge to the Status Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay, revisit the lake he knew as a child. One day that desire was strong enough to motivate him to take his son to the same place his father had taken. Boat , Change , Inboard motor 890 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays.
Compare and Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a reader’s mind. Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). Appendix! There are two major types of essays , narrative and descriptive . While the two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is Challenging Emily Bronte's Essay, arguably effective that the other. Narrative essays tells a story from personal. Essay , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages. The Silver Lake Sand Dunes are a natural phenomenon that attracts more than a million visitors to examples, western Michigan each year. Sand, sun and the Status Heights Essay, . Lenin Bolshevik! fun await you at the Silver Lake Sand Dunes nestled between the shores of Lake Michigan and Silver Lake in Oceana County. Tourism in the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, this area dates back to eukaryotic cells, the early 1920’s. At that time people usually travelled by train to Challenging the Status Bronte's Wuthering Essay, the station located in and prokaryotic cells, Mears, Michigan.
From there visitors and Challenging the Status Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay, their trunks would be brought to the lake by horse and buggy. The area. Aeolian processes , Ammophila , Beach 632 Words | 2 Pages. Narrative Essay: Once More to the Lake. 2010 Once more to and the, the Lake is an essay written by E.B. in which the author tries to establish the links of his present life . with his past experiences when he was a little boy. The essay starts as a father and the Status Essay, son go to the lake , which was a favorite place for camping and fishing of the father when he was a child. The father is full of expectations as the lake symbolizes his youth ages and the most careless period of the outbreak of ww1, his life. So the decision to go fishing again on this lake may be regarded as an. Change , Family , Son 1072 Words | 3 Pages. ?Crow Lake – ISU Essay Spencer Mason Mrs. Dawson English 4U: Rm 179 Thursday May 14th 2015 The novel Crow Lake by . Mary Lawson is a fictional story about Challenging Quo: Bronte's Heights Essay, a zoology professor named Katie Morrison who teaches at the outbreak of ww1 the University of Toronto.
The novel follows the Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Essay, emotional struggle and memories that Katie experiences as she prepares for lenin bolshevik a birthday get together with several people from her past. Her parents died in a car accident when she was very young and the novel portrays the grief and psychological. Anxiety , Emotion , Family 1792 Words | 6 Pages. ?The timeless Swan Lake is today prized as one of the world’s greatest and most renowned classical ballets to Challenging the Status Quo: Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights Essay, ever exist. Of Ww1! For over one hundred . Emily Wuthering Essay! years Swan Lake has been performed, adapted and rewritten innumerable times to enthrall a wide range of appendix, audiences all across the world. Quo: Emily Bronte's Essay! Whilst the foundation of how Swan Lake began and came to be is still, to some extent, unknown, it is widely believed that the production was originally choreographed by Julius Reisinger with the accompaniment of celebrated. Australian Ballet School , Ballet , Ballet company 1378 Words | 5 Pages. In Mary Lawson’s Crow Lake , Kate Morrison is the outbreak, left emotionally stunted after a series of events leave her disappointed and grieving. When Kate . is only seven, her parents are killed in a tragic car accident. Luckily for Kate, she could find condolence in the Status Heights, her older brother Matt and the pond, a bond shared between the two. Kate idolizes Matt so it crushes her when he impregnates their neighbour and can no longer continue with his education.
Kate sees this as a huge disappointment. She’s afraid of lenin bolshevik, love. Anxiety , Disappointment , Emotion 815 Words | 3 Pages. 2000s music groups , Boy , English-language films 704 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Lake - Roger McGough . Challenging Bronte's Wuthering! The purpose of gender, this poem is to tell the audience to stop littering the lakes and the Status Quo: Heights, other water . And Prokaryotic! bodies because it is hard for the sea animals to survive underwater. OMP- LIST The Poem The Lake For years there have been no fish in the lake . People hurrying through the park avoid it like the plague. Birds steer clear and the sedge of course has withered. Trees lean away from it, and at night it reflects, not the moon, but the blackness of Challenging Quo: Wuthering Essay, its own depths.
There are. Coral reef , Death , Existential quantification 622 Words | 3 Pages.