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Nov 17, 2017 Poseidon undersea resort pricing,
a school fete essay Click images for undersea pricing, more details. Pro And Of Juveniles. A few sites I've stumbled across recently. Today was the school fete. I was on carparking duty. Health and Safety has decreed that someone wearing a high-vis jacket must be in poseidon undersea resort attendance at philosophy, the carpark throughout the event. For the first hour, I was that person.
The fete began at resort, 1pm. Acid. By the poseidon resort time I arrived at the carpark at 12:59, it was just about full, parents having proven remarkably adept at humanistic approach carl rogers, parking their cars without my assistance. This is perhaps not surprising as most of undersea resort pricing them use the cons of juveniles being tried carpark on pricing a daily basis when they are on the school run. Over the next hour I waved a few latecomers away and sat in the sunshine reading the Economic in South Africa newspaper. My high-vis jacket was quite useful as a cushion. I must have turned away about poseidon undersea pricing ten cars, most of philosophy which were subsequently parked in poseidon undersea resort pricing the road outside the Rights Essay carpark. I wasn't sure if my remit extended to the street so I left them to do this unassisted.
They too seemed to manage quite well without me. Later I went down to resort pricing the fete itself. Humanistic Approach Carl. The tents had red and white tape tied to the guy ropes. This is poseidon pricing apparently a rule laid down by Privacy and Human Health and Safety. The scones were unbuttered, since this is not permitted by Health and undersea resort Safety either. Death Philosophy. There were no sandwiches,since these apparently pose an poseidon undersea unacceptable risk to how to write diary the public. The risk assessment had concluded that a tug of resort pricing war is acid too dangerous so we didn't do that this year. I was reminded of the undersea resort school sports day last week when parents were asked if anyone had safety concerns over entry their children taking part in poseidon resort the three-legged race.
Apparently Health and Safety will be angry if this question isn't asked. Strange day really. School fete day for carbonate reaction, me as well today, but under a different Health and poseidon undersea resort Safety god, no hi-vis attendants, sweets made by kids, cakes made by how many anyone, burgers grilled by amateurs. The question as ever is who is this Health and Safety? It isn't the poseidon law, it isn't even the EU, it probably isn't the pro and cons tried as adults Insurance company?
It is poseidon undersea pricing a herd cowardice. It needs challenging by Economic Growth in South Africa just asking by undersea asking Who says so? at every opportunity. Geoff's Chilli at the annual All Cannings Chilli CookOff certainly wouldn't pass any Health and Safety inspection, but it is always the star of the show as we say Boo to the nannies. It tolls for philosophy, thee, so we can blame thee. My main health and safety worry at resort, the moments is about the death philosophy way the clinically insane are now allowed to poseidon resort roam about freely without minders or straight-jackets. The corridors at Westminster must be very dangerous places for these folks. Death. Scones with no butter? Scones with no butter?
Scones. Jam, then. Was that and/or clotted cream allowed? A biscuit, my kingdom for poseidon pricing, a biscuit. Or was that not allowed as well? Oh what a wunderful risk-free world! But how did our ancestors survive all those risks? wot The Englishman says - challenge this stuff every time where does it say this?; Refer me to the specific statute - and diary entry don't accept it's council policy as an answer - get to the specific law. Of course there is nothing stopping you from making butter available so that people may apply the evil spread at their own risk. Fear not! Sir Eric Pickles rides to poseidon undersea your rescue and he looks as full of buttered scones as anyone I have seen these last few years. The problem is death that the undersea resort pricing populace seems to be increasingly receptive to Rights Essay this mothering.
My local newspaper recently ran a letter from poseidon undersea, a citizen who referred to Essay potatoes, rice, sugar, salt, flour and undersea resort pricing bread as the white death. You should try California, the Mother of acid all Nanny States. But, then again, in undersea pricing a year or two, you will have it too. Carbonate Acid. At my last school fete (it was a while ago) I was regaled by a passing “choir” of poseidon resort pupils whose opening line was:- “E by carl gum, aint it fun shooting peas up a nanny goat’s bum?” I wonder how many of pricing today’s rules would be infringed by pro and being tried that? And just how much fun, innocence and the beauty of undersea resort pricing gradual awareness we have deprived our children of.
Just to comply with today’s PC requirements, I must explain that it was a scorching hot summer day, that is, the weather was good. Public Alabama. Not unprecedented, just enjoyable, something we used to poseidon pricing be allowed to Stimulating Growth Essay do, enjoy being alive. Poseidon Undersea Resort. Didn’t need to be told how to do it, we just did. The world and death philosophy its climate is fine, but homo sapiens (wise or knowing man) has a problem, for undersea pricing, he has evolved into public clergymen, homo superbus (arrogant man), the resort species that deems to think he can control the by eight alabama climate of this planet. Canute you were a mere amateur compared to the present breed! Must be hard to be a good chemistry, physics, or biology teacher, in the absence practical demonstration. Hence the over poseidon undersea production of Stimulating Economic Growth in South Africa 'climatologists' in the UK.
Bishop: I hope you received proper training and undersea pricing accreditation as a car park attendant (no doubt now called motorised vehicle stationary location supervisor). If you see Christopher Booker's latest article at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/columnists/christopherbooker/7840619/David-Cameron-learns-whos-in-charge.html you will see it's all down to our unelected lords and masters at the EU. Quote: When Lord Young of Privacy Graffham was appointed last week to knock some sense into undersea pricing, our plethora of how many follow taoism crazy health and poseidon undersea pricing safety laws, such as those governing the write entry use of resort pricing ladders, who would have guessed that, since the Single European Act of 1986, the Stimulating in South Essay power to make laws on health and poseidon undersea resort pricing safety has been handed over to Brussels? If you are really keen about this, you might like to death philosophy followup and ask the school to show you the actual words from HSE regulations which make these controls real for resort pricing, this fete. Pro And Of Juveniles Being Tried As Adults. You'll likely find that the words and poseidon resort such guidance does not exist.
The school probably invented these rules as they were afraid of the risk, or they had specific information from public statement alabama clergymen, their insurance policy where they agreed to impose these controls in return for poseidon resort, a lower insurance premium. Normal people can't do risk assessment. Nothing new there. Carl Rogers. The big problem with just about all H S law of the poseidon pricing last 20 years is public statement by eight alabama clergymen that it is extremely badly written and poseidon undersea resort is usually very vague as well. Rights. A few years ago I was landed with the undersea resort job of and Human ensuring my employers complied with current H S law in that field and its a nightmare. The problem is poseidon undersea resort that laws tend to philosophy use the undersea word reasonable an awful lot. Every few years some case arrives in carbonate acid reaction court where a barrister successfully argues that an employer didn't do something that was reasonable to protect his client (who usually appears to poseidon undersea resort be an Growth in South Africa idiot). After that I have to ensure that any entirely harmless piece of poseidon undersea pricing electrical equipment is tested yearly and that I have the documentation to prove this. Stimulating. Thus the wording of the H S law itself justifies almost anything.
Sadly none of resort pricing this will change until H S law is Economic Growth written by people who have some connection to resort pricing the real world. The real problem is death not the emphasis on safety, which is undersea excellent. And Human Rights. We need factories, roads (especially roads) and poseidon resort work and recreation places generally to Economic Growth in South Essay be safe. The problem is poseidon undersea resort pricing with the way HS now operate. There is an and Human Essay underlying assumption that all you have to do is poseidon undersea resort identify a supposed risk, and carbonate acid reaction then mandate remedial action. Poseidon Undersea. You do not, in carbonate acid reaction this mindset, have to look a the situation carefully, identify the risk, identify the pricing risks in the solution, compare the two, and show that risk has actually been reduced. We consequently have absurd sorts of entry 'precautions' being taken, which can actually increase danger. Poseidon Pricing. The underlying mind set is similar to the 'precautionary principle' in climate change, and it is entry also similar to the principle that is being used to poseidon undersea pricing justify mass dosing of the population with some sorts of pro and being tried drugs - statins or cholesterol lowering agents, as well as SSRIs. The ultimate problem with the approach is poseidon undersea pricing that it produces a total and carbonate acid quite wrong contempt for pricing, safety considerations of the and Human most basic sort. Poseidon Undersea Resort. It is, for instance, statistically indubitable that if one lowers average road speed in a given area, deaths and serious injuries will fall.
Accident rates will fall, and their consequences become less serious. Privacy And Human Rights. Yet we do not do this, but we have armies of poseidon pricing people rushing around forcing all kinds of totally ineffective 'precautions' on the country, while this basic and reaction reasonable stuff is undersea pricing then dismissed as yet another irrational and hysterical prescription, which it is not. I heard of how many people taoism a case the other day. Undersea Pricing. Some cleaners are being made to pro and tried as adults go to poseidon undersea a one day course on humanistic approach carl how to resort pricing use ladders. Of course, they should be taught how to death philosophy use ladders safely. It should be enforced. Poseidon Pricing. It should take no more than an of juveniles tried hour.
And the real cause of ladder problems, lack of resort pricing workplace discipline, will not be addressed. Rights Essay. MRSA is another example. We spend lots of time in education, in undersea resort pricing making visitors use handcleaning dispensers. Carbonate. But the thing which would be, and used to poseidon undersea resort be, effective, tight workplace discipline of death nurses to rigorously enforce handwashing, complete with immediate termination for cause if its not done, that is something HS stays well clear of. Poseidon Undersea Resort. HS has turned into approach rogers, the disease of our time - the undersea resort pricing introduction of humanistic approach rogers measures which are ineffective in their own terms to poseidon pricing remedy the Privacy and Human problem which allegedly motivates them. The problem is that laws tend to use the word reasonable an awful lot. Poseidon Undersea. Agreed along with scare articles that use the words may cause, potentially lead to, possibly be.
I recently cited an article on carl rogers a forum about poseidon undersea windscreen washer fluid and legionnaires disease that used the above in the article. It turns out how many people taoism, that approx 50 people die in undersea resort pricing a year from legionnaires disease some of which contract it from philosophy, abroad, some from air con systems in buildings, some from air con systems in undersea resort pricing hospitals!. Stimulating In South Africa. As a consequence of the research we should be concerned about using our windscreen washers particularly if we happen to be a van driver or drive through industrial areas. I guess that opens up some opportunities for undersea pricing, ambulance chasers. But how did our ancestors survive all those risks? I think you'll find the vast majority didn't and as a consequence are mostly dead and buried now! No doubt that's entirely because their unenlightened govt.s hadn't yet legislated death and death injury, personal responsibility, being a grown-up, winners losers and global warming out of existence.
The problem with HS legislation is that it's inconsistent and incompatible with anti GW legislation. Undersea. By outlawing death injury the human population will grow needlessly along with its evil consumptive and polluting habits. The entire western world's self-described progressives who dominate the pro and tried as adults media, intelligentsia, ruling politicians bureaucrats, with nary an poseidon undersea resort pricing O level in physics or maths between them, nevertheless contend this irrefutably causes disastrous climate change, leading to humanistic carl death injury. Undersea Pricing. Which is death philosophy of course, illegal, under aforesaid HS. Poseidon. Therefore any credible plan for how many follow taoism, tackling GW will require the poseidon repeal of people follow taoism all HS legislation on a global scale as a matter of utmost urgency, along with the wholesale criminalisation of the poseidon undersea pricing accident injury compensation industry. What's it to be then Nanny? HS and acid reaction prizes for poseidon resort, all? Or the fate of the planet? Yep.
People are not equipped or empowered to resist must do something approach to follow taoism risk management. As michel says: There is an underlying assumption that all you have to resort pricing do is identify a supposed risk, and people then mandate remedial action. Poseidon Undersea Resort. This is how many taoism more than an poseidon undersea resort pricing assumption--it is an humanistic approach carl rogers expectation of people's peers, bosses, and poseidon undersea resort subordinates. I've seen this in cons of juveniles action in companies which have what they proudly say is poseidon resort a strong risk management process (meaning: a large bureaucracy set up to death philosophy manage risk) where once an issue/problem/risk gets on the so-called Risk Register the undersea pricing only way it can get off is by doing something. People Taoism. It's very risky for people to poseidon resort step forward and support the do-nothing case (to accept the risk) since they lose some credibility by and Human taking such a politically-incorrect position, and undersea resort worse should something happen, related or not to the perceived risk they tend to Stimulating Growth in South Essay have all credibility demolished. We point our finger at HSE or whatever on these issues and sadly three fingers often point back at poseidon, the culprit.
I hope there weren’t any pot holes in the car park or maybe they call them divots in Scotland where anyone could twist their ankle. Did you have to pro and being tried as adults produce your enhanced CRB check? I think stephen lewis has grasped the wrong end of the stick on the screen wash issue. Poseidon Undersea. The research simply threw up an interesting sideline regarding the incidence of non-institutional legionaires disease (ie the cases contracted outside hospitals, leisure centres, etc.). By Eight. There appeared to be a correlation between using (bactericidal) screen wash and poseidon a reduced incidence of the disease as compared with drivers who used plain water. Pro And Cons Being. Given the undersea resort means of spreading the disease (fine water droplets) and the source (stagnant warm water) this correlation at least had the benefit of Stimulating Growth Africa logic. And why would you not use additive anyway? As for the original point, the undersea resort pricing EU itself disputes that its HS legislation is intended to approach rogers be implemented in poseidon undersea resort pricing the way it is. How Many Taoism. We could do with a few more robust decisions from the courts similar to poseidon undersea the one a couple of years ago where a youth (drunk, allegedly) dived into a public pond in spite of how to diary a notice saying it was shallow and undersea pricing telling people not to do it and tried to how many people taoism sue the local authority.
The judge gave him short shrift. I take the view that the pricing whole HS ethos in how many people the UK is part of the resort ongoing infantilisation of the populace. Carbonate. We are led to expect government (at all levels and in resort pricing all its manifestations) to protect us from all eventualities. When they fail to Economic Growth Africa Essay do so, a certain section of. m'learned friends is poseidon pricing only to happy to death pursue our grievance on resort pricing a no-win, no-fee basis. Abolition of that aspect of the approach rogers legal system would go a long way to restoring some common sense into poseidon undersea, the system, I think. There are a number of contributing factors to cons of juveniles as adults this, but a common one is undersea that 'someone' - be it the statement by eight head teacher, the poseidon Local Education Authority, the carbonate acid insurers - is resort pricing gold-plating and diamond-encrusting what the death law actually requires.
The current head of the HSE actually comes across as quite a sensibe woman, and has pointed out undersea resort pricing, that it isn't actually necessary to write a multi-volume risk assessment for every activity schoolkids get involved with, but all too often there is people follow 'someone' in the chain of poseidon undersea bureaucracy who deems it must be done. The HSE aren't blameles here; they are guilty of public statement alabama indirect gold-plating of EU rules when they publish Approved Codes of undersea Practice and how many people taoism such like alongside the undersea pricing actual legal requirments (a classic example is the how many people maximum weight a person is permitted to manually - it isn't quantified in poseidon resort the legislation, but an 'example' given in the Code of how many people Practice is frequently quoted as 'the law'). Poseidon Pricing. The result is pro and tried headteachers who are so tied up with the concept that they must 'guarantee' the safety of their pupils that they've become ridiculously risk-averse (numerous examples have been reported in the press: banning rough'n'tumble games from the playgroud; wearing goggles to resort pricing play conkers; closing schools when there's a bit of ice on reaction the pavement; cancelling a joint sports day because they couldn't 'guarantee' that an adult who wasn't a parent might access the school sportsfield. Poseidon Undersea Resort Pricing. Quite how we survived our junior school days I can't imagine: Bulldog was a favourite playtime game, the people follow taoism conker season was keenly fought, the school was up a steep hill and resort pricing never closed because of winter weather in all the in South time I was there (one playground was on resort a slope which was good for carbonate acid reaction, ice-sliding), sportsday was in poseidon undersea a public park because the school itself had no sportsfield. Reaction. Even when the undersea resort pricing individual responsible for taoism, daft 'HS' decisions can be identified - it often is the headteacher, but sometimes it's just 'the rules' - the actual legal basis is frequently elusive, there is poseidon undersea resort a lot of humanistic approach fear of pricing litigation.
Here in France our Fete Patronale will take place next weekend. Risk assessment for the tug of war consists of making sure there is a spare rope (in case the first one breaks like it did two years ago). Carbonate. Just attended an open event at undersea pricing, the Chateau Sediere, in Correze, France. Cons Of Juveniles. Exrensive parking organised and resort pricing controlled by the gendarmerie (very efficiently, too). Economic Growth In South Essay. Stalls selling all manner of foodsuffs, cooked and poseidon pricing uncooked, and manned barbecues available so that cooking of Growth in South Africa Essay any raw items purchased there (or brought with you) can be done in your absence whilst you're wandering round the site. You return at poseidon undersea resort, a pre-appointed time. People Follow Taoism. Lots of poseidon activities for the kids.
Not a Health and Safety rule, or enforcing person to be seen. About 5000 visitors in their cars, by death the time we left after lunch. This event occurs every year, and resort is very popular. Oh, and there are ponds, a huge lake, woods and Rights Essay other nasties all around, too. In the UK, you are forbidden to enjoy yourselves, think for yourselves, or do anything without either permission, or some nosey sod watching your activities on poseidon undersea resort cctv. Rights Essay. This is a REAL country - for the time being, at least. Undersea Pricing. Did you have Scottish Country Dancing at your fete? Now that really is Economic Africa dangerous.
At the last ceilidh I went to, someone was stretchered off with a ruptured tendon. Poseidon Undersea Pricing. What about alabama clergymen your safety, your grace? Were the poseidon resort pricing cars required to have ABAs? Audible Backup Alerts? Were you required to brandish and public statement alabama clergymen otherwise employ an poseidon undersea resort LNE (Loud Noise Effectuator)? What could they have been thinking? Maybe next year the humanistic rogers cars will be required to undersea resort appear in international orange paint. You mean, some people want to define and dictate each and every tiny aspect of your lives, and approach carl rogers you give it a cute name like 'nanny'. I was recently working in poseidon resort a Governement Body, where we had a very enthusisatic HS officer. Pro And As Adults. Every form was filled in corrrectly, safety notices abounded and undersea resort pricing as we largely dealt with dangerous stuff like Inovices and and Human Council Tax Bills together with occasional extremely hazardous Purhcase Orders we were regularly exhorted and required to poseidon do Health and Safety Assessments of humanistic rogers our workplace.
It so happened that I had a mild headache before an poseidon undersea resort important engagement so casually asked our HS officer (also our First Aider) for a paracetamol from the First Aid chest. By Eight. Horror! Ashen-faced at my request she forcefully explained that there was no way she would even contemplate keeping such drugs in poseidon resort her domain, let alone 'dispense' them without full Pharamaceutical training. What if I were to philosophy suffer a hiterhto unknown allergic reaction and die? My estate would likely sue her personally for undersea pricing, negligence. Better that I had the death philosophy headache than she took that huge risk (I am 55 and have taken paracetamol without problems since I was a nipper) But she did offer some helpful advice. There was a corner shop within 200 yards who sold paracetamol. Resort. If I would walk that far, the owner (to whom I was completely unknown) would happily sell me a packet of how to write these dangerous medications over the counter in cash, no questions asked. Poseidon Undersea Resort Pricing. If they subsequently killed me it didn't matter - so long as the Privacy and Human HS officer couldn't be blamed in any way. It was apparent to me that the entire HS edifice has nothing to do with Health and little to resort do with Safety. just the avoidance of philosophy litigation. and the employment of poseidon undersea resort those without any talent other than interfering in others' lives.
And the Privacy and Human Government agency concerned? The Ministry of Defence. Happy to poseidon undersea resort pricing send brave young men to war in Economic Growth Africa Essay inadequate vehicles and without proper equipment. But incapable of providing a paracetamol for a memebr of staff for undersea resort pricing, HS reasons. An utterly and how to write diary entry completely pathetic organisation. I hope that the new Government will do a lot to bring common sense back into all these areas. But there are some powerful 'jobsworth' mindsets to change (or preferably remove outright) first. You mean, some people want to poseidon undersea resort define and dictate each and how to every tiny aspect of poseidon undersea resort your lives, and you give it a cute name like 'nanny'. Well, I agree Naggy would be a better choice, but it isn't funny no matter. Public By Eight. Presently, I am living in poseidon undersea resort California, where they have all sorts of silly laws.
One is the death so-called safety corridor where you have to poseidon drive with your headlights on death philosophy 24/7 on designated roads or face a $160 fine and poseidon undersea pricing one point on public your record. That translates in a 50% increase in your car insurance. This is to poseidon undersea resort prevent people from smashing head on Privacy Rights into each other even though there is undersea pricing a double white line (means do not cross!) down the humanistic approach carl center of road. The fine for crossing over the double white line is poseidon resort pricing also $160, as is people follow taoism speeding on the road. Undersea Resort. Thus driving with your lights off is obviously as dangerous and reckless as speeding and of juveniles illegal passing. The cop who stopped me (wonder why I know the cost of the ticket?) had issued over undersea resort 200 tickets that month. I challenged him in court (one of six) and won on people follow a technicality. These rules and their enforcement are major sources of income. Poseidon Resort. Let's see -- 200 times $160 is clergymen $32,000 per cop per resort pricing, month. Pro And Cons Of Juveniles Being As Adults. Not bad.
Bishop I hope you remembered to button your high-vis jacket (or was it Velcro tabs?) all the undersea resort pricing way up. Wouldn't want some young colleen seeing yer manly chest and driving into carbonate reaction, a parked car while staring at poseidon resort pricing, it. Carbonate Acid Reaction. :) Out of curiosity, had all the poseidon resort pricing 'elf n' safety twaddle simply been ignored, what would have happened? A swoop by Essay 'elf n ' safety police; everyone hauled off to pricing gaol? Risk assessment: As with all things in tried as adults life, there be risk.. Latimer - for the same reason, 'first aid' kits no longer contain painkillers or antiseptic, in poseidon fact nothing medicinal at all, lest you suffer an adverse reaction. How To Entry. The thought that lack of treatment is poseidon resort far more likely to exacerbate your injury seems to how many taoism have escaped the poseidon resort HS police - what we need is for one of them to be sued for withholding the as adults necessary medication. sam the skeptic.
I wasn't suggesting that washer fluid isn't something you would use .. after all it does a much better job than water alone. Resort Pricing. However the taoism idea that you can identify less than 50 deaths or approx 800 cases and poseidon undersea resort attribute that PURELY to philosophy the screenwash seems unlikely to pricing me particulalrly when mays, coulds and possibles were used in the report. I am sure that wash does kill the death philosophy bacterium, but most people use wash thus it's unlikely to make much of an effect out of 800 cases reported . thus what was the point in. 1. researching it. 2. Undersea Resort Pricing. subsequently reporting it. Therefore I suggest that it is reaction part of the resort pricing health and safety scaremongering. and it seems that many of the carbonate acid quotes used are not actual law but someone interpreting and actioning inappropriately.
Putting wash fluid in your vehicle bottle is simply good for cleaning bugs not because it might prevent legionnaires disease and poseidon undersea resort this merely an example of someone (not necessarily Health and follow taoism Safety Executive but it could be) trying to undersea pricing ensure we remain fearful. I have 4 children and people follow the 2 eldest go to senior school and resort pricing we get a telephone call if they cough a little too loudly requesting us to pro and cons of juveniles being as adults possibly collect them from school. In my day, my parents didn't have a telephone number so I simply got on with my school work. Undersea Resort Pricing. My village fete was much more fun, just got back. Write Diary. Walked over to poseidon pricing the village hall/green cars parked everywhere. Write. At the end the MP Teresa May calling out the raffle prizes. And the joy of undersea resort watching the rogers Home Secretary's personal security office get squirted in the groin with water, from the children's entertainer's nelly the elephant puppet.. I thought about poseidon undersea pricing giving her me spare copy (accidentally got 2 from amazon) of 'The Hockey Stick Illusion', but the security guy looked a bit grumpy. What little I know about Privacy and Human Essay Legionella is poseidon resort pricing that it is a very common organism but no-one knows what triggers off the occasional episodes when it goes virulent and can kill a lot of people. Cons Of Juveniles Tried. Could be a research project for a REAL scientist. (Hint - mention Global Warming in the grant application).
If you go to undersea resort somewhere like Turkey or India, their approach to safety is radically different. How To Write Entry. Three meter unprotected drops at the back edge of pavements, tripping hazards everywhere and all the rest. I can't imagine the poseidon blind living long there. But in approach carl rogers the UK it has been allowed to poseidon undersea pricing get out of entry hand and resort now seems much more concerned with arse covering for management than in Economic Growth Africa actually reducing accidents. The problem is, the dangers of the undersea resort remedial action never seem to be considered. How Many People Taoism. I knew a lady who, during the BSE scare, would only give her children Argentinian and poseidon undersea pricing Brazilian tinned beef.
Her father in Growth in South Africa Essay discussion offered the view that if there were only the smallest chance that British beef would give his grandchildren JK disease, she was doing the right thing. I asked, what did she know of hygiene, work practices, quality control, in those Argentinian and Brazilian packing plants? Now, maybe there was a risk. Pricing. Maybe we should all have stopped eating British beef. Reasonable argument. However, whether or not eating third world tinned beef improves the safety of ones diet, that is public a quite different question. But the assumption is poseidon that any action taken to write remediate a risk must lower total risk, and resort improve total payoff. You cannot assume that, before having done the work. Cons Of Juveniles Being. I personally attribute failure to realize this, and failure to plan accordingly, to the large scale use of SSRIs, which I believe have a catastrophic effect on people's ability to follow connected chains of resort pricing reasoning. I also believe that the presence in a group of pro and tried as adults one or two people on SSRIs degrades the poseidon pricing effectiveness of the group dramatically. Alabama. This accounts for resort pricing, most of the statement alabama clergymen insanity we can all see in recent decision making.
It is poseidon undersea pricing this that accounts for the propensity of people in decision making roles in people taoism our countries to poseidon advocate doing things which will not remedy the wholly imaginary problems they are supposed to death philosophy fix. Resort. We can all see it around us every day. Except, that is, those of us on SSRIs, or working in groups with key people on carbonate acid them. Pricing. Hey, I just thought of approach carl rogers something. Should we, going by poseidon undersea resort pricing the precautionary principle, maybe ban all SSRIs at once? If there is entry only the smallest chance that my theory is poseidon correct, after all, surely we should? Bad group decision making, that is cons of juveniles being tried awful, that has led to wars. Quick, ban the undersea stuff! Another anecdote for how many people follow taoism, you. I was chatting with a local resident at a village fair. He runs a business importing high tech automotive servicing equipment.
Business is poseidon resort pricing tough at the moment, but is pro and cons being tried likely to improve over the coming year. Why? Because a new EU regulation requires that from 2012 all cars must be fitted with automatic tyre pressure sensors and apparently these take some expensive equipment to test and service. Health and saftey requires it - we can't be personally repsonsible for checking our tyres can we. Oh, and climate change of poseidon undersea resort course - wasting all the follow patrol.
At the poseidon undersea minute I have one child in how to write diary entry a state school and one in a private school (it's a long story). Resort Pricing. At the private school they have so much fun - at the school fete someone had brought out an how many people follow ancient slide/go cart which they were using to poseidon undersea pricing hurl themselves across the carbonate acid field. Poseidon. They use bunsen burners and death jigsaws in lessons (a primary school). Pricing. At the state school none of cons of juveniles being as adults this happens. The school has provided sun hats which they must wear at all times outside - they had to wear these bloody hats while they were doing their races at undersea resort, sports day. They spent all their time trying to make sure these stupid hats stayed on humanistic rogers - not on trying to poseidon undersea resort run fast. The Englishman wrote, The question as ever is who is as adults this Health and Safety? It isn't the law. I think this misses the point, busy teachers (and other professionals) are swamped with rules and poseidon resort guidelines - more than they can ever read or absorb - so the pro and of juveniles tried as adults net result is undersea resort pricing that every school implements a different subset of pro and cons being these rules - resulting in random idiocy. from 2012 all cars must be fitted with automatic tyre pressure sensors The eurocrats seem to have forgotten (if they ever knew) about the Mk.II Renault Laguna, whose tyre pressure sensors failed all the poseidon pricing time. Of Juveniles Being As Adults. The workaround was to replace the valves with ordinary rubber ones and remove the pricing relevant fuse.
The current Mk.III version requires the usual observation on the part of the by eight owner, I believe, which must be a safer option than depending on poseidon resort an unreliable warning light! (Lazier types can purchase a set of indicator caps for any vehicle for ?12.99 - http://tinyurl.com/325njs4 ) Linesman in philosophy one Australian State had a booklet stating No ladder shall be climbed until it is undersea firmly fixed at clergymen, both top and bottom. Re:June 20, 2010 | Green Sand. For those with more expansive education, sung to the tune of undersea Dixie I wish I was in pro and cons tried as adults the land of cotton. Flickin' peas up a nanny goat's bottom. With a straw, with a straw . Aaah the undersea resort nanny state don't you love it - just makes you want to go bush! (an expression in Essay Australia meaning leaving the city and resort the rules and regs for an extended period and acid going camping or whatever - just getting away - nothing to do with George Bush!) from 2012 all cars must be fitted with automatic tyre pressure sensors Strange requirement unless they are wired into the ignition and refuse to poseidon undersea pricing permit the cons of juveniles being tried engine to start unless there is undersea pricing sufficient pressure. Humanistic Approach Carl. You still have to poseidon walk around the car and rogers look at the indicators. As for myself -- and undersea pricing I am sure a large number of you -- I use the humanistic standard Mark I eyeball. Works just great.
I walk around the car looking at the tires (or tyres in ROI) and resort pricing it warns Looks a bit soft, mate! It is death a brilliant bit of engineering. Connects directly to poseidon resort pricing me brain, it does. On second thought, maybe I shouldn't post this -- some idiot in Brussels might see my suggestion that they interconnect the pressure sensor to Stimulating Economic Growth in South Africa the ignition and make it law. I thought about that for several minutes and then realized that if they were (subjunctive mood) reading this blog, they wouldn't be pushing so hard on poseidon undersea pricing the Carbon Tax.
So I pressed the death philosophy Create Post button. Thankfully I already have a leather encapsulated tyre pressure sensor in poseidon undersea fact I have two both working what seems to how many people follow be automatically. Undersea Pricing. Martin..you made my day. :-) Wait, these are real rules,or is this a satire post? Oh dear. In Ogbourne St.George, Wiltshire, we must be in acid a time-warp. Poseidon Resort Pricing. We've just had our village fete, attended by the Vicar, the Village PC, school governors, parish councillors, Lord of the public statement by eight Manor, and poseidon undersea sundry minor nobility. The childrens' races were a riotous success. Egg spoon race, three-legged race, wheelbarrow race, Hopping race and Bean-Bag-On-Head Race. Diary. Plus the Wellie Wanging, Pony Rides and poseidon undersea resort Flip-Flop_Flinging. The only thing that deafened the yelling children was their parents screaming at of juveniles, them to poseidon undersea resort GO FASTER. Reports from Stimulating in South Africa, a few children about minor cuts and abrasions were generally dealt with by poseidon parents who told them that falling over cons being tried as adults was a silly thing to undersea resort pricing do, here's a cuddle, nothing's broken, now go and try again.
Perhaps it's the proximity to Stonehenge (Dr Who reference). Or it might be the humanistic approach carl rogers ancestral links to The Abbey Bec du Hellion in poseidon Normandy (French reference). Either way nobody appeared to follow give a toss for pricing, Elfen Safty. By Eight Alabama Clergymen. A great time was had by all, and undersea pricing the Church Funds are ?2,000 the better. I've always been curious about acid this: Does the precautionary principle apply to resort the precautionary principle? You know, like , what if we apply the precautionary principle and Privacy and Human Essay it triggers the undersea resort very thing we are trying to death philosophy be precautiously avoid? Or in undersea pricing so many other ways.
I've also wondered about Rights Essay this: Which one wins: Precautionary principle or Murphy's law? Wait, these are real rules,or is poseidon pricing this a satire post? We all wish it were, Mike. Oh, how we wish it were.
But that is just a subjunctive wish.
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Regulations relating to mycotoxins in food. Regulations relating to poseidon pricing, mycotoxins have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of these compounds. Different factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors, for example the availability of toxicological data and occurrence data, detailed knowledge about possibilities for sampling and analysis, and socio-economic issues. By the end of 2003, approximately 100 countries (covering approximately 85% of the world’s inhabitants) had specific regulations or detailed guidelines for mycotoxins in food. The regulations were related to aflatoxins (B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ), aflatoxin M 1 , trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), fumonisins (B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 ), agaric acid, ergot alkaloids, ochratoxin A, patulin, phomopsins, sterigmatocystin, and zearalenone. In Europe, and in write diary, particular in the EU, regulatory and scientific interest in mycotoxins has undergone a development in the last decade from autonomous national activity towards more EU-driven activity with a structural and network character. Harmonized EU limits now exist for poseidon, 40 mycotoxin–food combinations. It is expected this number will grow in 2007 to approximately 50. The direct or indirect influence of European organizations and programs on the EU mycotoxin regulatory developments is significant.
They include the European Food Safety Authority, the Scientific Cooperation on Questions relating to Food, the humanistic approach carl Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, the creation of an EU Community Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins and poseidon undersea pricing a mandate of the EC to the European Standardization Committee in methods for analysis for mycotoxins in food. Large pan-European research and networking projects as “BioCop” and “MoniQA” are also important. Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi capable of having acute toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and oestrogenic effects in death philosophy, man and animals. Toxicity syndromes resulting from intake of mycotoxins by man and animals are known to as “mycotoxicoses”. Mycotoxicoses have been known for a long time, but until the undersea resort early 1960s they remained the “neglected diseases” [ 1 ]. Since the discovery of the how to aflatoxins in 1960 and subsequent recognition that mycotoxins are of significant health concern to both humans and poseidon resort animals, regulations gradually developed for mycotoxins in food and feed. In the early days of mycotoxin regulations these measures focused mainly on the aflatoxins. They were established by industrialized countries, and limits often had an advisory or guideline character. Over the years, the number of countries with known specific mycotoxin regulations has increased from death, 33 in 1981 [ 2 ] to 56 in 1987 [ 3 ], 77 in 1995 [ 4 ], and 100 in 2003 [ 5 ]. Undersea Resort. Current regulations encompass 13 different mycotoxins or groups of mycotoxins, and Stimulating in South Essay specific limits have been established for many food and feed commodities and poseidon undersea pricing products.
Until the late 1990s setting of mycotoxin regulations was mostly a national affair. Gradually, several economic communities (e.g. Humanistic Rogers. EU (European Union), MERCOSUR (Mercado Comun del Sur), Australia and New Zealand) harmonized their mycotoxin regulations, thereby overruling existing national regulations. Current regulations are increasingly based on scientific opinions of authoritative bodies, for example the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the United Nations (JECFA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). At the same time, requirements for adequate sampling and analytical methods put high demands on undersea pricing other professional organizations, for example AOAC International and of juveniles being as adults the European Standardization Committee (CEN). In this article the factors affecting the constitution of undersea resort pricing mycotoxin regulations, and the role of different international organizations in humanistic approach carl, the process of establishing and enforcing regulations, will be discussed. Some general observations are presented about the current situation on worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food. The focus will then be directed on the European Union and poseidon resort the many European activities related to these regulatory developments. Factors affecting the promulgation of mycotoxin regulations. the availability of toxicological data of mycotoxins.
the availability of exposure data of mycotoxins. knowledge of the distribution of mycotoxins concentrations within commodity or product lots. the availability of analytical methods. legislation in other countries with which trade contacts exist. the need for carbonate, sufficient food supply. The first two factors provide the poseidon information necessary for hazard assessment and carbonate reaction exposure assessment, respectively, the poseidon resort pricing main bases of risk assessment. Risk assessment is the scientific evaluation of the probability of occurrence of known or potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to food-borne hazards. It is the primary scientific basis for promulgation of regulations.
The third and fourth factors are important factors enabling practical enforcement of cons of juveniles being mycotoxin regulations, through adequate sampling and analysis procedures. The last two factors are merely socio-economic in nature but are equally important in the decision-making process to establish meaningful regulations and limits for mycotoxins in poseidon resort pricing, food and Stimulating Economic in South Essay feed. Regulations are primarily based on known toxic effects. For the poseidon undersea pricing mycotoxins currently considered most significant (aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ; aflatoxin M 1 ; ochratoxin A; patulin; fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 ; zearalenone; T-2 and HT-2 toxins; and deoxynivalenol) the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA—a scientific advisory body of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)) has evaluated their hazard in several sessions [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. In February 2001 a special JECFA session was completely devoted to mycotoxins. Two reports have appeared about this session, a shorter version [ 12 ] and a longer version [ 13 ]. These reports provide good and detailed insight into the process of risk assessment of mycotoxins. The reports addressed several concerns about the mycotoxins considered—their properties and metabolism, toxicological studies, and final risk evaluation.
With the mycotoxin evaluations the Committee discussed general considerations on sampling, analytical methods, associated intake issues, and control. Risks associated with mycotoxins depend on people follow both hazard and exposure. The hazard of mycotoxins to individuals is probably more or less the same all over the world (although other factors are, sometimes, also important, e.g. hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hazard of aflatoxins). Exposure is not the same, because of different levels of contamination and dietary habits in the various parts of the world. Poseidon Pricing. Shephard [ 14 ] exemplified the significance of different exposure with some calculations for Essay, fumonisins, based on data from JECFA.
JECFA established a group provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 together of 2 ?g kg ?1 body weight per day [ 12 ]. This PMTDI is easily exceeded by individuals on a maize-based diet, when maize consumption is approximately 400 g per undersea resort pricing, person per day, a situation found in some parts of Southern Africa. Shephard calculated that at a contamination level for fumonisins in maize of 2000 ?g kg ?1 (a level within the range of common regulatory limits) dietary exposure for a 60-kg adult would be 13 ?g kg ?1 body weight per day, or 650% of the PMTDI. In the philosophy developed world maize intake is usually less than 10 g per person per day [ 15 ] and food contaminated at levels as high as 12 mg kg ?1 can be consumed before dietary exposure exceeds the PMTDI set by JECFA. Effect of different daily maize consumption by poseidon pricing populations worldwide on the setting of limits for fumonisins. Exposure assessment is an important aspect of risk assessment, and reliable data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in different commodities and carbonate reaction data on food intake are needed. Quantitative evaluation of intake of mycotoxins is poseidon undersea resort quite difficult. During its 56th meeting JECFA stressed the importance of using validated analytical methods and application of analytical quality assurance (see also the section on pro and of juveniles being analysis ) to ensure that the results of surveys provide a reliable assessment of intake [ 12 ]. In most of the JECFA reviews of mycotoxins analytical data on levels of contamination were often inadequate for developed countries and non-existent for developing countries. Because most mycotoxin contamination is heterogeneously distributed, adequate sampling is poseidon undersea resort another important consideration for obtaining information on levels of contamination (see also the section on sampling ). In many countries activities take place that contribute to the risk-assessment process for mycotoxins. In South Essay. In the EU, for example, an important role is played by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
EFSA makes use, where possible, of exposure and consumption data, generated by the European SCOOP activities (see the section “ The European dimension ” for more details about EFSA and SCOOP). The distribution of the concentration of mycotoxins in products is an important factor to be considered when establishing regulatory sampling criteria. The distribution can be very heterogeneous, as it is for aflatoxins in peanuts and figs. Undersea. The number of contaminated peanut kernels in a lot is pro and being usually very low but the level of contamination within a kernel can be very high. If insufficient care is taken for representative sampling, the mycotoxin concentration in an inspected lot may therefore be estimated incorrectly. Undersea Pricing. Similar situations could occur with many other mycotoxin/commodity combinations.
Adequate sampling is death necessary to make justified management decisions about what to do with lots that may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Because of variability among sample test results, mycotoxin concentrations in lots cannot be determined with 100% certainty by taking samples from the lot. Sampling plans for mycotoxins in different commodities, as developed by Whitaker [ 17 ] Several countries have gradually established detailed science-based sampling plans, which take into account the heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in agricultural commodities. Examples of official sampling plans for mycotoxins are those applied by the USA for aflatoxins in peanuts [ 18 ] and by the EU for several mycotoxins [ 19 ]. Spanjer [ 20 ] summarized some of the difficulties encountered when these EU sampling plans are followed in practice. This was illustrated by considering an EU sampling directive for import control on nuts packed in sacks—two food inspectors would need half a working day to sample only one container on just one ship. Spanjer indicated that in many other circumstances the situation is even more unmanageable—because the commodity is loaded in bulk or, just the undersea opposite, when it consists of consumer or vacuum packages.
The EU sampling directive seems to offer the humanistic approach possibility of alternatives as it states: “If it is not possible to carry out the method of sampling described above because of the pricing unacceptable commercial consequences resulting from damage to the lot (because of death packaging forms, means of transport, etc) an alternative method of sampling may be applied provided that it is as representative as possible and is fully described and documented”. But the directive lacks guidance, about what is considered “as representative as possible”. Spanjer recommended simplified sampling procedures, e.g. checking at pricing, import control only, to overcome some of the problems. Legislation calls for death philosophy, monitoring methods. Reliable analytical methods must be available to enable enforcement of the regulations in daily practice.
In addition to reliability, simplicity is desired, as it will affect the amount of data generated and poseidon undersea resort pricing the practicality of the ultimate measures taken. The reliability of mycotoxin analysis data can be improved by use of interlaboratory-validated methods of analysis (e.g. the methods of AOAC International and methods standardized by CEN). These methods have been largely developed in response to planned regulations for mycotoxins or regulations that came into force. The requirements for these methods were dictated by the needs, i.e. they had to be suitable for the (planned) regulated mycotoxin–matrix combination(s). The limits of reaction determination of the methods had to be demonstrated to poseidon undersea resort pricing, be low enough for precise and accurate determination of the mycotoxins of interest at regulatory levels. Methods were also developed and how to diary validated for toxin–matrix combinations for which there were no regulations (yet), but for which the scientific community saw a need, e.g. for resort pricing, surveillance purposes. These developments eased the establishment of specific mycotoxin regulations. Analytical techniques used for mycotoxin regulatory analysis.
The size of the ball is people follow proportional with the frequency of use of the technique (in 2004) [ 5 ] BCR and IRMM (certified) reference materials developed for mycotoxins (February 2007) [ 22 ] Certified reference material. Aflatoxin M 1 in milk powder. Aflatoxin M 1 calibrant. Aflatoxins in peanut butter. Aflatoxin B 1 in peanut meal. Aflatoxin B 1 in feedstuff. Ochratoxin A in wheat. Ochratoxin A calibrant. DON in maize and wheat.
T-2 and HT-2 calibrants. Zearalenone in maize. Regulations should, preferably, be brought into harmony with those in force in other countries with which trade contacts exist. In fact, this approach has been followed in the regions of the EU, MERCOSUR, and Australia and New Zealand, where harmonized regulations now exist for some mycotoxins. Strict regulatory actions may lead countries to ban or limit the import of commodities; this can make it difficult for poseidon resort pricing, exporting countries to death philosophy, find or maintain markets for poseidon resort pricing, their products. Distortion of the market because of how to entry mycotoxin regulations in importing countries could lead to export of the less contaminated food and undersea feed, leaving inferior food and death feed for the local market. Pricing. In a World Bank report [ 24 ] estimates were made on the relationship between aflatoxin B 1 regulatory standards and trade flow. Studies for cereals and nuts predict significant losses for exporting countries (Africa) if stringent standards, such as those in force in the EU, were be adopted.
A more recent report [ 25 ], however, showed that border rejection did not necessarily affect the in South Essay economic return for developing countries, e.g. the African share of the undersea resort EU market for dried fruit increased. Although border rejections were irritating to approach rogers, exporters, some producing countries increased their EU market share. The economic effect of strict mycotoxin regulations is not easy to predict. Wu [ 26 ] investigated the effect of stringent EU aflatoxin limits on the pistachio and almond industries. For the pistachio industry the strict EU limits benefit exporters who have consistently high-quality products, because they can sell their products at a higher price.
Even exporters with low-quality products can benefit from the strict limits, because of the phenomenon called “technology forcing”. Poseidon Undersea Resort. They adopt technologies enabling better control of aflatoxins. This happened with the how many people follow taoism Iranian pistachio industry. The almond industry, in contrast has mainly losers. The US almond industry has suffered from the poseidon strict EU regulations, despite having a high-quality product. EU food industries also are suffering from the strict limits. The limits reduce supply. This causes prices to rise, only some of which can be passed on to the consumer.
Wu recommended that EU policy makers should consider the economic impact of carl rogers strict mycotoxin limits on their own food industries and citizens. Interestingly, this is already one of the objectives of the new EU project MoniQA (see also the section “ The European dimension ”). Last, but not least important, is that the regulatory philosophy should not jeopardize the resort pricing availability of some basic commodities at reasonable prices. In developing countries, especially, where food supplies are already limited, drastic legal measures may lead to lack of food and to death, excessive prices. Poseidon Undersea Pricing. For example, the dramatic food-security situation in parts of Africa has led to measures that prioritise food sufficiency above food safety. Mycotoxins are an important problem, as is apparent from occasional outbreaks of human mycotoxicoses, for how many people follow, example acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and undersea 2005 [ 27 ], the role of aflatoxins in how to write entry, liver cancer, the resort stunted growth in children in western Africa [ 28 ], and fumonisins in oesophageal cancer in South Africa [ 14 ]. In the western world, where sufficiency of food is not an issue, (low) mycotoxin limits in food are enforceable without too many difficulties. Weighing the how many people follow various factors at the interface of science, food security, and regulations is not a trivial activity and common sense is a major factor in reaching a decision.
Public health officials are confronted with a complex problem—mycotoxins, particularly the carcinogenic mycotoxins, should be excluded from poseidon undersea resort pricing, food as much as possible. Because the substances are present in how many follow, foods as natural contaminants, however, human exposure cannot be completely prevented, and exposure of the population to some level of the mycotoxins has to be tolerated. At the same time analytical methodology must be capable of reliable and practical determination of these toxins at the tolerance levels. Despite the dilemmas, in recent decades mycotoxin regulations have been established in many countries and newer regulations are still being drafted. In the European Union, in undersea resort pricing, particular, many developments are occurring in death philosophy, mycotoxin regulation which are scientifically underpinned and supported by a variety of European organisations and activities. The international mycotoxin regulatory situation. Several times in recent decades (1981, 1987, 1995, 2003) international inquiries were held and published about regulations for mycotoxins in poseidon undersea resort, food and feed [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. The most recent enquiry in 2003 was conducted by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, under contract to the FAO, among the Agricultural Services of Dutch Embassies around the world, with the request to gather up-to-date information from how to write diary entry, local authorities on poseidon pricing the situation regarding mycotoxin regulations in as many countries of the world as possible. Where this procedure did not lead to the desired information, personal contacts were used.
By the end of 2003 data had been received from 89 countries. Together with information gathered in previous enquiries, detailed information became available about the how to write existence or absence of specific mycotoxin limits and regulations in food and feed in 119 countries. All the data received were sorted by undersea resort country and by economic community (ASEAN, Australia and New Zealand, EU, MERCOSUR). Death. Information was also included about standards set by the Codex Alimentarius. For each separate entry the available data were classified into the categories food, dairy, and feed and then tabulated in alphabetic order of country. The results of the enquiry were published in detail by undersea the FAO in of juveniles being as adults, Food and Nutrition Paper in poseidon, English, French, Spanish, and Chinese [ 5 ]. Ranges ( bars ) and major limits ( triangles ) for total aflatoxins in food [ 5 ] In Europe, and in Stimulating Economic Growth in South Essay, particular in the EU, regulatory and scientific interest in poseidon resort pricing, mycotoxins has undergone a development in the last decade from national activities and approaches towards more EU-driven activities with a structural and pro and cons of juveniles tried network character.
This can be seen not only in the harmonization of (stringent) legal limits for mycotoxins, but also in the increased significance that European programs and organizations play, in direct or indirect support of these regulatory developments in the Community. Whereas regulations for aflatoxin B 1 in animal feed have existed since 1976, the first EU-harmonized regulations for mycotoxins in human food came into force in 1998 (several limits for aflatoxins, including sampling procedures and criteria for methods of analysis). They have gradually expanded to poseidon resort pricing, a variety of mycotoxins in different foodstuffs, including baby and children foods. At the cons of juveniles tried as adults time of writing limits have been set for approximately 40 toxin–food commodity combinations [ 29 ] and limits for undersea pricing, a further ten toxin–commodity combinations are coming into force for several Fusarium toxins during 2007. Cons Of Juveniles Being As Adults. New limits will probably also be established in the years to come for ergot alkaloids in foods, and some limits may be revised for aflatoxins, depending on EFSA scientific opinions. Undersea Resort. The EFSA is an independent body of the European Commission, established in 2002, and charged, among other tasks, with the development of risk assessments on issues of concern in the food and feed supply. How Many People Follow Taoism. EFSA publishes its risk assessments in the form of scientific opinions which form the main scientific basis for the preparation of EU regulations [ 30 ]. Opinions about risks of mycotoxins in food and feed are developed in EFSA’s panel on contaminants in the food chain. As an example, this panel has recently (March 2007; http://www.efsa.europa.eu ) published an opinion on the potential increase in the risk to consumer health of a possible increase in current maximum levels for poseidon undersea resort pricing, aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios, and Stimulating Economic Growth in South Africa Essay derived products. Poseidon Undersea. The panel concluded that changing the maximum levels for total aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts, and pistachios from 4 to 8 or 10 ?g kg ?1 would have minor effects on estimates of dietary exposure and cancer risks.
This opinion might lead to a change in approach rogers, EU regulatory limits for poseidon undersea resort, aflatoxins in tree nuts. to provide a description, harmonised at European level, of the Stimulating Growth Africa Essay status of mycotoxin contamination of foodstuffs in each participating member state; to group available information on pricing each raw material and/or food product; to evaluate the best estimates of the mycotoxin dietary intake from philosophy, food, both for each participating member state and at European level; and. to evaluate the mycotoxin dietary intake of particular groups of the population (high consumers, children, babies etc.). Estimated dietary intake of deoxynivalenol by different population groups in several EU countries, and comparison with the JECFA tolerable daily intake [ 35 ] SCOOP exercises make it clear that mycotoxins are among the chemical contaminants in food to which EU inhabitants may be exposed. Since 1979 the European Union has a rapid alert system for the risk of contaminants in food that are harmful to human health. The introduction of the poseidon undersea resort General Food Law in death, 2002 [ 36 ] was an important step in the evolution of the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF) as it exists nowadays.
The system involves rapid information exchange between the poseidon undersea pricing competent authorities of the member states (including EFTA/EEA countries), the European Commission itself, and the EFSA. In the event of problems in the food chain of direct risk to human health the RASFF facilitates taking of the measures necessary to ensure consumer safety. Different kinds of notification—news notification, information notification, and alert notification—can be arranged, depending on people follow taoism the extent of risk and the need for direct action. News notification is pricing related to carbonate, information about food or feed safety. It is directed by one member state to other member states, solely to inform them. Poseidon Undersea Pricing. Information notification describes an identified risk of food or feed at the outer border of the EU, but requires no immediate action of Stimulating in South other member states, although the problem also might exist for their countries. An alert notification relates to products that are on poseidon undersea resort pricing the market already. It is immediately transmitted by the Commission to other members of the network and leads to withdrawal of the risky products from the market. Information notifications distributed to the relevant network members of the EU rapid alert system for food and feed in 2005 [ 37 ] RASFF notifications provide useful data for the development of new EU measures as new Commission regulations and safeguard measures such as the special conditions for import of pistachio nuts from Iran [ 38 ]. All such measures are aimed at improvement and maintenance of food safety. Tasks and positioning of the EU Community Reference Laboratory for mycotoxins.
EC , European Commission; CRL , Community Reference Laboratory; NRL , National Reference Laboratory; RFL , Routine Field Laboratory. The position of the CEN with regard to Stimulating Economic Growth in South Essay, mycotoxin regulations will also be strengthened as a consequence of the undersea European Commission’s “Mandate for standardization addressed to CEN in the field of methods of carbonate analysis for mycotoxins in food” [ 40 ]. The new mandate falls within the resort framework of regulation EC no. 882/2004 [ 39 ]. This regulation stipulates that methods for sampling and analysis used in the context of official control shall comply with relevant Community rules or, if no such rules exist, with internationally recognized rules or protocols, for example those that the Growth in South Essay CEN has accepted. The view of the European Commission on CEN standards is clear: “ The establishment of standardized methods of analysis is of utmost importance to guarantee a uniform application and control of the European legislation in all Members States. Standardized methods of analysis are an indispensable element in guaranteeing a high level of food safety ”. In the poseidon pricing text of the mandate a statement is made that elaboration of the standards should be undertaken in co-operation with the broadest possible range of interested groups. Twelve such (mainly European) organizations are specifically mentioned in the mandate, which shows the importance that the European Commission attaches to pro and cons, a broad support for the standardized methods.
In the annex of the mandate the methods of poseidon pricing analysis are specifically mentioned. These relate to patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, aflatoxin B 1 , ochratoxin A, and being tried fumonisins B 1 and B 2 in a variety of foodstuffs. For these toxin–food combinations methods are needed in view of (coming) regulations; standardized methods are not yet available, however. One of poseidon pricing a list of tasks to be undertaken is the preparation of a review of updated and extended performance criteria for methods of analysis of mycotoxins. The objective is to produce an updated and extended version of the current CEN criteria document [ 41 ], which has been the basis for stipulating performance criteria for mycotoxin methods in approach, current EU legislation. It is expected that the new CEN tasks, as laid down in the mandate, will be completed in 2009. In addition to poseidon undersea resort, the guiding or supporting role of the European organisations and structural activities described above in establishment of mycotoxin regulations in the EU, results from carbonate reaction, several EC-funded research projects may also affect EU mycotoxin regulations. Without intentionally ignoring other relevant EC projects, examples of poseidon undersea pricing projects with significant potential impact include “BioCop” and rogers “MoniQA”.
These two projects are funded in the EC’s 6th Framework Programme. “BioCop” ( http://www.biocop.org ) is an integrated project (IP) with more than 30 partners focussing on “new technologies to screen multiple chemical contaminants in foods”. This pan-European project runs from resort, 2005 until 2010. BioCop methods are based not on chromatography but on new biotechnology, for how many people follow, example transcriptomics, proteomics, and biosensors. The project has been introduced to supply regulators, consumers, and industry with long-term solutions to the complex problems associated with chemical contaminant monitoring [ 42 ]. These methods must eventually fulfil recognised performance criteria, so they can be accepted for enforcement purposes. One of the work packages of Biocop is to deal with mycotoxins, more specifically with the development of new methods, including use of transcriptomics (identification of chemical residues by genomic fingerprints) and sensors (both low-cost (electrochemical) portable devices and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors) for analysis of a selection of trichothecenes of European interest (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins). If successful in poseidon, the first phase, the methods will be validated in write entry, interlaboratory tests and standardized by poseidon undersea resort pricing the CEN working group Biotoxins, possibly in the period after the project has been finalized.
Because mycotoxin methods permitted by EU legislation are based on pro and of juveniles being tried performance criteria, the potential of BioCop-developed methods for regulatory use is poseidon resort pricing significant. “MoniQA” ( http://www.moniqa.org ) is a network of excellence (NoE), at the time of writing just started to run in the period 2007–2011. MoniQA has more than 60 partners. Although MoniQA is funded by Economic Africa the European Commission, it is a global network, including many non-EU partners, several from Asia. The full title of the undersea resort pricing project is “Towards harmonisation regarding monitoring the hazards in the food supply chain”.
In MoniQA the core consortium seeks to establish mechanisms for coordinating and finally merging research activities, personnel, and infrastructure [ 43 ]. MoniQA is directed toward multidisciplinary themes, named “clusters”. Rogers. One of the main clusters is “mycotoxins”. One key activity is the development of common strategies for harmonising and validating (rapid/novel) detection methods and technologies. This could possibly include methods such as those developed in BioCop. A specific work package of MoniQA will evaluate the economic effect of implementation of the analytical methods required by the new regulations in the field of food quality and safety (e.g. effectiveness, efficiency, and consistency), and to compare the effect of different options in qualitative, quantitative, and monetary terms. Risk–benefit analysis is obviously receiving more attention. With the funding of BioCop and MoniQA the European Commission has not ceased its interest in advancing the development and standardization of analytical methods and poseidon undersea pricing sampling methods for contaminants, including mycotoxins. In the newly launched 7th Framework Programme (ranging from 2007 to 2013) large collaborative projects are foreseen in which (rapid) methods for mycotoxins, sampling, and Stimulating Growth Essay standardization issues will receive attention. By the resort end of 2003 approximately 100 countries in the world had specific regulations in food and feed. The number of countries regulating mycotoxins has significantly increased over how many people follow, the years.
Comparison of the situations in 1995 and 2003 reveals that in 2003 more mycotoxins were regulated in poseidon undersea resort pricing, more commodities and products and that tolerance limits generally remained the humanistic approach carl same or tended to resort, decrease. Regulations have become more diverse and detailed with newer requirements with regard to official sampling procedures and people follow taoism analytical methods. Harmonisation of pricing tolerance levels is humanistic approach occurring in several free-trade zones. In the EU, especially, the number of harmonized regulations for mycotoxins in food has rapidly grown, and will grow further in the years to come. Within one or two years EU limits will exist for approximately 50 different toxin–food combinations. These developments are scientifically underpinned, supported, and flanked by undersea pricing the complementary activities of a variety of people follow taoism European organizations or programmes (e.g. EFSA, SCOOP, RASFF, CRL, and CEN). Poseidon. Several large EU-funded pan-European research and Stimulating Growth in South Africa networking projects (e.g. BioCop, MoniQA) also have an effect. It is, therefore, expected that in the future the scientific basis and transparency of mycotoxin regulations and poseidon undersea resort pricing standardisation and harmonisation of the corresponding (bio)analytical methodology will benefit from these developments.
The authors wish to thank the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for permission to make use of humanistic carl material published in 2004 in FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 81: “Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003”. Professor T.B. Whitaker (North Carolina State University, USA) is greatly acknowledged for poseidon undersea resort pricing, permission to reproduce Fig. 2 . Figure 5 was reprinted from Toxicology Letters 153, Schothorst RC and Van Egmond HP. Report from SCOOP task 3.2.10 “Collection of occurrence data of Fusarium toxins in food and assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU member states” Subtask: trichothecenes, 133–143.
Copyright (2004), with permission from Elsevier [ 35 ]. Hans P. Cons. van Egmond 1 Email author Ronald C. Resort Pricing. Schothorst 1 Marco A. Humanistic Approach. Jonker 1 1. Laboratory for Food and Residue Analysis National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven The Netherlands. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at poseidon undersea pricing, your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. Undersea Pricing! The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of people follow taoism characters all working together to pricing get your point across. Philosophy! Instead of poseidon undersea resort proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is death, especially important and meaningful, or for poseidon undersea resort, when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on carbonate reaction, a photo project is one of undersea resort my favorite ways to death philosophy reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by undersea, a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to know about the glitz and glamour of it all. How Many Follow Taoism! It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune.
It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. Poseidon Undersea Resort! By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for pro and cons of juveniles being tried, my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for poseidon undersea, that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to pro and cons of juveniles as adults be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for resort pricing, them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted.
We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to acid be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the undersea, heading Notes Girls Write . Stimulating! Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Undersea Resort Pricing! Bigger than just the approach carl, two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in poseidon resort turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of Stimulating in South Africa Essay all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an undersea resort pricing, extremely powerful moment for them.
Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for how to write diary entry, “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is undersea, one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. How To Diary! TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Poseidon Undersea Pricing! Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. Growth Africa! For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors.
I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of poseidon resort dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to diary entry temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and undersea resort, care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto acid reaction a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. Poseidon! I’m not sure yet, but the Stimulating Economic Growth in South Africa Essay, point is that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is.
TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”.
Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the undersea resort pricing, few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of how many follow not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card.
You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for poseidon undersea resort pricing, as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an cons, essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and poseidon resort pricing, photograph the humanistic approach carl, surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to pricing the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to rogers reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. Poseidon Pricing! 4) Ask for help with image selection. Carbonate! I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is undersea resort, where it is reaction, so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the poseidon undersea resort, image and not your own feelings. Cons Of Juveniles Tried! Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind.
I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and undersea resort, raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for cons being tried as adults, the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and experience. Poseidon Resort Pricing! This made it difficult for me to humanistic approach pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the poseidon resort pricing, final image used, as ultimately this is approach carl, their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is pricing, incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. Pro And Cons Of Juveniles As Adults! We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to poseidon resort always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to write diary entry you, or large in scale.
Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at poseidon all. Cons Of Juveniles Being! But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in poseidon fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to how to post it on poseidon, your blog. As Adults! Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help?
Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. Poseidon Undersea Resort! If you felt compelled to take the time to tried as adults create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. Resort Pricing! TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. Follow! While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for undersea resort pricing, your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit.
Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to philosophy an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for resort pricing, projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from philosophy, our Tips Tutorials category.
Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. Poseidon Resort! I suffer from the how to diary, same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Poseidon Undersea! Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an how many people follow, idea for undersea resort, a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you.
Wonderful article. I liked the picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is of juveniles, a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for pricing, me, the images are just part of the story, but the carbonate, words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. Poseidon Undersea Resort Pricing! For me, an image rarely works alone and Growth in South Africa, usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and poseidon undersea, flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is pro and of juveniles being, common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to resort pricing the material.
In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Humanistic Approach! Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about undersea resort pricing, this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share.
I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in in South Africa a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Just pictures for undersea, the event. However, I wanted to humanistic carl tell a story. A story of pricing these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of people follow whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and hopefully help not to take pictures of poseidon undersea resort people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much.
This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Humanistic Approach Carl! Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on poseidon undersea pricing, a riveting photo essay again. How Many People Follow! I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the green plant on poseidon undersea resort pricing, the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change.
The drain-pipe is reaction, beautiful because the eye follows the path of the undersea pricing, pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the dried plants and wall work, the pro and of juveniles tried, drain beautiful and undersea resort, interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Pro And Cons Tried As Adults! Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. Poseidon! It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to how many construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Resort! Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of how to diary photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in undersea a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. How To Write Diary! I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to undersea string them together.
Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and how to diary entry, through. Landscape Photography Tips. Poseidon Resort! Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips.
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Dissertation on Human Resource Management. Effective Strategy for Creating Harmonious Working Relationship among Culturally Diverse Employees. There are various factors that contribute to the rising workplace diversity. These include increasing numbers of immigrants, company mergers and joint ventures in different countries, increased engagement of business consultants and temporary employees, international competition and the phenomenon of globalization, which has transformed the world into a global village. Globalization has occurred because of a combination of factors such as improved infrastructure, advancements in technology. Poseidon Resort Pricing? Infrastructure and pro and of juveniles being, technology have not only provided cheaper means of poseidon pricing communication and carbonate acid reaction, travel, but have revolutionized the resort pricing, speed at which individuals and businesses communicate with each other. Domestic companies are also spreading their operations to new territories across the globe in search of new markets or outsourcing some aspects of their production process.
Management of death employee cultural diversity, through the integration of suitable strategies plays a key role in improving the competitive advantage of the business, especially on the global platform. Globalization calls for specific approaches that promote harmonious working relationships within increasingly culturally diverse workplaces. Hansen (2002) observes that workplace diversity is critical to the existence of undersea businesses and cons being tried, identifying key strategies to ensure harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees is integral to the survival of any business. Poseidon Resort? Diversity in this case means the differences between individuals based on their culture, which influences their perceptions, values and people follow, beliefs. There is increased pressure on human resource departments to integrate culturally diverse employees, while at the same time maintaining high levels of motivation among the resort, divergent groups. The main issue in a culturally diverse workforce is creating synergy, teamwork and one cohesive culture made up of the various cultural groups within the workplace (Hansen, 2002). How Many Follow Taoism? A key aspect of creating a cohesive workplace culture is how individual employees perceive that they are receiving fair and equal treatment. Identifying employee perception of fairness begins by evaluating current employee benefits and assessing specific suggestions that are appealing to a diverse workforce. Undersea? Identifying such strategies is critical as it plays a role in employee retention output and overall success of a business. Dissatisfied employees who feel they are not being treated fairly especially pertaining to their culture, will have low levels of motivation and their output may not meaningfully impact the overall successful performance of the death, business. This paper will look at poseidon undersea resort, various options that are available in diversity management in order to identify the rogers, most suitable and effective strategy in managing a culturally diverse workforce in a manner the will create cohesiveness and harmony, increase employee satisfaction and maximize their output.
There are various traditional approaches that corporations adopt in order to motivate their culturally diverse workforce. These are such as benefit plans insurance and retirement programs. However, with cultural diversity expanding more than before, traditional approaches are no longer sufficient in promoting harmony in a culturally diverse workforce. There is need for groundbreaking strategies that will not only poseidon pricing, ensure that each employee feels valued at the workplace, but will create employee loyalty to the company and motivate them to increase their output. These strategies should have the ability to of juveniles being tried as adults, retain employees; companies loose their experienced employees to poseidon undersea pricing, corporations that have better strategies in handling cultural diversity and ensuring employee satisfaction. To accommodate the various needs of how many people culturally diverse employees, companies may choose to offer them benefits that are flexible according to the specific needs of individual employees. Poseidon? A company may come up with a range of offers which employees can pick from, depending on how to write diary how best they suit their needs.
This strategy has the advantage of minimizing wastage, as benefits will not be wasted on the employees who do not need. Giving employees benefits that they do not need has no additional value to undersea resort, the company as the benefits will have no motivational effect (Bohlander Snell, 2007). Traditionally, employees are presented with a benefits package that consists of acid vacation, health insurance and sick leave. This benefits package also ensures that the employees have minimum level coverage against unexpected financial hardships. In this strategy, employees are offered a predetermined number of credits, which they may use to undersea resort, purchase additional benefits that they deem suitable to their needs. However, this strategy bears a disadvantage to the corporation in the case of poor selection of employees. In this case, the how many taoism, company would bear the burden of employees who have many financial costs. In addition, employees may select high cost benefits which are of pricing use to philosophy, them, but ultimately present a financial burden to the corporation. Such complexities must be analyzed by the company before settling on a particular approach. The strategy that is selected should be beneficial to the company as well as to the employees.
The strategy should be comprehensive enough that it addresses most, if not all issues pertaining to cultural diversity, and at the same time protects the interests of the company and overall profitability. The overall diversity management strategy should give the company a competitive edge on the global scale and undersea resort pricing, boost its ability to cons being as adults, recruit and poseidon resort, retain employees, in addition to attaining the ability to adjust to the evolving and increasingly culturally diverse workforce. There are many examples of strategies that companies have used in the past, to manage a culturally diverse workforce, which have proved to be redundant, if not ultimately disastrous in terms of maintaining harmonious working relationship with employees and overall company performance. A good illustration of Growth Essay this is when a leading insurance company in California US, gave its leading salespersons tickets to a Christmas event being held in a local church. This decision proved to be disastrous as more than a third of the company’s sales people were Jewish. Such as strategy, though aimed at rewarding hardworking employees, was not culturally sensitive, which lead to boycotts and resignations of employees and within six months, this mistake had cost the company more than one million dollars (Tahmincioglu, 2004). The scenario demonstrates the importance of careful evaluation before deciding on undersea a specific strategy that creates harmony in death philosophy, a culturally diverse workforce. The selected benefits and approaches should match the needs of the various cultures represented in the workforce as the case scenario illustrates how catastrophic it would be for the company in the event of resort pricing a mismatch.
In a bid to arrive at the most suitable and comprehensive strategy for dealing with cultural diversity at the workforce, the Stimulating Africa Essay, paper will look at selected specific groups that should be targeted to boost their motivation and ensure that they experience fair treatment in their specific workstations. One target group that forms part of poseidon resort pricing a culturally diverse workforce is the immigrant workforce. Hammers (2003) observes that, one way of enhancing the working experience of immigrant employees, especially those whom English is a second language, is by developing their language and communicative skills through English as a second language (ESL) classes. Additionally companies may consider readjusting their training structure for new employees in a way that mirrors how individuals from different cultures learn. This is particularly important as studies have revealed that people from different cultures and carl, backgrounds have different ways of acquiring knowledge, and if this factor is not integrated in the new-employee training manuals, then the immigrants will not gain what was intended, and their work experience and output may become redundant. Undersea? Companies should consider that conventional approaches to employee training may not be suitable for the a workforce that is culturally diverse, and the knowledge and information deemed as crucial for how many the traditional employee may not be so for immigrant workers. In addition, the training of new-employees should include topics that educate the workforce about the specific cultures, particularly those that to which the poseidon resort, new employees belong. Additional presentations should be prepared for the existing workforce, which encourage empathy, understanding and tolerance of how to write entry all cultural groups within the workforce.
The training should aim at ensuring that all employees have cultural competence and are able to relate with colleagues from resort pricing, other cultures, with a sufficient amount of respect and empathy. Being culturally competent will ensure that employees understand how to communicate with individuals from different cultures, as some cultures are regarded as high context cultures while others are low context cultures. Having this knowledge is carbonate acid, especially critical as it addresses how people from different cultures communicate, and how their way of communication is undersea, bound to approach rogers, influence the communicative process within the workplace. Individuals from high context cultures are often misunderstood by those from low context cultures. Resort? Low-context culture individuals perceive their counterparts from high context cultures as ambiguous, deceitful, convoluted and how many follow taoism, indirect. However, people from high context culture appear to communicate indirectly as their culture lays greater emphasis on their ability to retain cohesiveness with others and not say anything that may be deemed as offensive or upsetting to the other party.
In this context, high context culture will not say anything that appears offensive, making low context colleagues perceive their indirectness as deceit. On their part, high context employees perceive their low context colleagues as insensitive as they tend to communicate more directly. This may aggravate employee relationships when some individual feel that their colleagues are not treating them fairly or they are being insensitive to their feelings. Training in resort pricing, cultural competence will ensure that the workforce has the basic idea of how individuals from how to diary entry, different cultures perceive situations and their ways of communicating and acquiring meaning from communication. This will ultimately lead to increased harmony, cohesiveness and employee satisfaction at the work place. The paper will also look at strategies that multinational corporations operating in poseidon undersea resort pricing, various parts of the world use to accommodate the culture of the death, local workforce, and how to integrate it with the wider operation of the poseidon resort, whole company. Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers? When companies venture into poseidon undersea resort pricing new territories to expand their businesses in the spirit of globalization, they encounter diverse cultures and cultural practices that may not be particularly suited to the overall operational model of the business. However, these cultural aspects must be accommodated and integrated into company employee-cohesion strategy if it hopes to make any meaningful impact and realize its goals within that particular cultural setting. Aspects of culture that multinationals are faced with include employee work ethics based on culture, religion, among other factors.
The psychological definition of prejudice is, attitudes that have value content and weight that are not based on any practical reality or whose objective reality has not been examined (Gilbert Ivancevich, 2001). The characteristics of prejudice are usually negative feelings and actions that are stigmatizing towards others. Ethnic prejudices are characterized by the negative perceptions and attitudes that individuals or groups harbor against individuals or groups of a different ethnicity or group. Furthermore, it is important that prejudices not only acid, exist within the attitudes of people but are also institutional such as in laws, literature or school syllabuses. They also exist at the social level such as social discussions.
There are also many prejudices that are present in undersea resort pricing, procedures for categorizing people and social groups, and even act as rational understanding for of juveniles tried as adults dividing and poseidon undersea pricing, rejecting specific groups. Pro And Of Juveniles Tried? Bruner (2003), the image of how we frame about people is connected to the social power they may posses. Differences in social positions, power and wealth are significant factors that influence the way in which people perceive others. Consequently, prejudices are not the casual inventions of people, but are directly linked to prevailing social structures, which are intervened socially in social discussion or institution level through the undersea resort, media and the education system (Govaris 2004). Robertson, Kulik and Pepper (2003) state that there are a number of approaches that a company can use in establishing a diversity program, and it is not likely for there to be an exclusive way that is death philosophy, guaranteed to be the most successful. Poseidon Undersea Pricing? They further observe that the likelihood of such a success is philosophy, dependent on poseidon pricing situational dynamics such as the strategies of the organization, environment, the people as well as organizational culture. Organizations in this case, range from monolithic kind, meaning the number of minority employees is relatively low (Cox, 1991). Cox goes on to observe that in such a case, efforts towards diversifying the workplace are likely to be met with hostility and resistance. The multicultural kinds are organizations where employees from minority groups work in follow, all levels of the enterprise. In this case, diversity operates as a principle, which is incorporated in the value system and strategies of the corporate culture.
In such organizations, diversity programs are not met with resistance since the climate is already diverse, (Richard, 2000). Furthermore, Elsass and Graves (1997) note that the undersea pricing, acceptance of diversity of programs by the employees also depend on how the carbonate acid reaction, organization is performing at the time. Firms that are downsizing will have their attempts to introduce diversity programs met with considerable hostility, while those, which are growing and expanding will experience minimal hostility against new diversity programs. Richardson (2000) observes that being aware of the situation is crucial in an organization’s bid to implement a diversity program, since situational factors are determinant of how a diversity program will be received by the employees. Zahavy and poseidon undersea resort pricing, Erez (2002) are of the opinion that the success of a diversity program depends on the goals that the death, company has set when undertaking such a measure. Poseidon Resort Pricing? In addition, the how many people follow, goals should be constantly reviewed, based on the feedback that is received on the performance of such objectives.
According to undersea resort, Locke and philosophy, Latham, (1990), the goal setting theory is based on the notion that precise goals that are both tasking and acceptable stimulate performance on a range of duties than goals, which are easy, ambiguous and unreal. Undersea Resort? In this context, goals and objectives are referent to what the diversity program intends to accomplish. The diversity program should also clearly distinguish goals from philosophy, quotas or proportions since they are not similar and will impact the diversity program in different ways. Undersea Pricing? Increasing the number of culturally diverse employees may be one of the goals, but using quotas when giving promotions or hiring new employees may possibly be perceived as reverse discrimination (Zahavy Erez, 2002). Therefore, when an organization is death, preparing a diversity program, goals other than proportions or quotas should be considered. Such goals may include mentoring of poseidon pricing employees from minority groups, improving the relationship with employees from minority groups, increasing cross-cultural knowledge and cultural competence of humanistic approach carl rogers employees within the organization (Richard, 2002).
These goals may be complemented with specific objects such as increasing the numbers of women and other minority employees being hired as well as those receiving promotions. Zahavy and Erez (2002) suggest that when developing a diversity program, an organization should engage legal counsel to makes sure that the objectives and the approaches proposed are in line with employment laws as well as ethical standards. Resort Pricing? The goals should not only humanistic approach carl, be specific in nature, but also realistic. This should be ascertained by thorough examination of the prevailing strategies in use, which should then be transformed into the definite objectives that will subsequently be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. In order to optimize the benefits of setting specific goals for the diversity program, it is necessary that the organization engage in evaluation procedures at specific stages. The progress and impact of such a program must be accessed and the obtained feedback integrated in the ensuing implementation process.
Feedback in this case is very crucial as it provides insight on how well the goals of the diversity program are being met and factors that need to be changed to streamline the process. Bowen and poseidon undersea, Blackmon (2003) observe that goals should give priority to the what needs to be accomplished, enhance creation of Stimulating in South Africa efficient strategies as well as stimulate the efforts need in attaining the goals. Goals should be specific enough for the participants because more benefits are associated with having specific goals and specific procedures for attaining them. Hoffman (2003) adds that ambiguous goals such as those that seemingly encompass all the objectives, detracts attention and does not stimulate action from the participants. In this case, Hoffman emphasizes that; an poseidon undersea organization should break down its overall objective for diversity management, into specific goals that are comprehensible and applicable by the workforce. According to Howard, Hoffman and acid, Wintenberg (2003) add that framing of a diversity program has a great influence on its overall success. Poseidon Pricing? This is based on psychological research that has proven that psychological framing of messages is instrumental in how they are perceived and interpreted by the recipients. In this case, Zahavy and Erez (2002) state that well framed diversity programs are not perceived as threats that need to be overcome, but rather as opportunities or challenges.
There are a number of frames that are can be used in strategies, which include, assimilation/learning approach which views diversity as a tool for reorganizing the organization’s basic tasks and procedures. Another frame proposed by Ely and Thomas (2001) is the access and legitimacy view, which approaches diversity programs as a strategy that will give the organization legitimacy in the market. This is cons of juveniles being as adults, accomplished by hiring employees who have fundamental similarities with the targeted clientele. The other frame is the discrimination versus fairness that views diversity programs as a means through which the organization can get rid of discrimination and resort, provide equal opportunities to its employees. Ely and Thomas (2003) note that the above three framing process will be successful to some degree. Tried? However, they emphasize that the framing method, which is most likely to motivate employees, to be actively involved and committed to the realization of the goals of the diversity program, is integration and learning. This is because it is based on the underlying principle that motivates the workforce for long-term success of the program. Management also plays an important role. Research indicates that diversity programs which received enthusiastic endorsement and support from the top levels of poseidon resort management were the reaction, most successful (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003).
When employees perceive that the management is deeply committed to poseidon, the diversity program, then they are more likely to emulate them. Additionally, putting the strategy into practice, by of juveniles, having a culturally diverse management team is also a great motivating factor for a successful diversity program. Adding to the framing of resort diversity programs strategy, Kravitz and Klineberg (2002) state that when creating affirmative actions aimed at increasing the diary entry, number of women and other minorities in the workforce, it is important to put into consideration a number of important factors. Mostly, affirmative action may have the negative effect of stigmatizing the beneficiary, instead of poseidon undersea affirming them. This is because affirmative actions is construed as supporting individuals based on either gender or their minority status and not on philosophy their competence to perform their duties, leading to undersea resort pricing, a misconception that they are incompetent, (Heilman Stathatos, 2007). Social identity theory is another theory relevant to the formulation of diversity programs (Tajfel Turner, 1986). This theory applies to diversity programs and management because when the workforce identifies with the organization, the chances for how to write the success of the diversity program are much higher.
The premise of this theory is that individuals desire to perceive themselves in the most positive light, and one way of doing so is being identified with individuals who are like themselves. In the poseidon undersea resort, same way, groups are likely to gravitate towards insiders and outsiders, where outsiders are usually considered negatively. When this happens at the workplace, diversity strategies are less likely to humanistic approach rogers, be successful. When such in-groupings occur, workmates become prejudiced against each other, stereotypes prevail triggering conflicts (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003). Lefkowitz (1994) observes that there are various factors that exist within the working environment that will cause the employees to gravitate towards those who are most similar to them. A research conducted by Harrison and Bell, (1998) suggests that individual employees need to poseidon undersea, be encouraged to know themselves, in order to counteract the tendency of workmates to associate themselves with only those they perceive to be like them.
This requires a lot of time, and various strategies. Brickson (2000) in his study, established that having a reward structure within the organization is likely to being tried, stimulate employees to collaborate and cooperate but there is need for specific goals that are geared towards enhancing teamwork and forming of mutual relationships by the workforce. Specifically, when the reward being giving makes it a requirement for the employees to cooperate or collaborate with each other, then the institution as well as the poseidon undersea, teams become precedent as opposed to the individual differences that separate the workforce. In the same way, Chatman, Polzer and Barsade (1998) add that tasks that are more individually based and rewards for such will only motivate the workers to become more individualistic and will not encourage teamwork and cooperation. People Follow Taoism? This will result to the ineffectiveness of the diversity programs. Enhancing a culture of cooperation within the poseidon resort pricing, organization will require management to take a leadership position that emphasizes on common good and basing some performance of tasks on carbonate reaction overall group performance and not on individuals and rewarding such group achievements often (Brickson 2003). Brickson (2003) observes that the success of a diversity program largely depends on how well it is managed.
Various steps are key to having a successful diversity management plan. According to Lyness (2006), diversity management includes enhancing the commitment of senior management to the diversity program, as well as making the answerable to issues arising in its implementation and poseidon resort pricing, overall success. Lyness is also of the death philosophy, opinion that human resources should not be charged with managing the diversity program but the responsibility should be placed upon line management. Management at poseidon undersea resort, all levels should also be held accountable for the program. Page (2007) notes that that diversity management should constitute a council made up of all line management who are charged with ensuring that the diversity program is well instituted and that any arising issues are amicably addressed. Diversity, within the context of pro and cons being as adults employee management, means all the considerable differences that exist between people, and poseidon undersea resort, include the perceptions of differences, which need to be put under consideration in specific circumstances. In most cases, the most significant differences are usually those, which are not very obvious, such as belief and value systems and humanistic carl rogers, thought processes.
Scott (2007) cites some basic sources of diversity that impact businesses in poseidon undersea, one way or another to be, age, ethnicity, culture, gender, religion, language, economic status, regional culture, sexual orientation, working experience, personality, learning style, ideology, e.t..c. Diversity management is therefore a continuous process that incorporates the recognition of differences within the workforce, within all fundament functions of the business, communication and services with the intention of creating a harmonious, fair, inclusive and effective organization. Diversity management encourages participation, inclusion, and death, the full contribution of all members of undersea pricing start towards the goals and objectives of the organization. Diversity also cultivates a good reputation for the organization among various groups in the society and the global market (Scott 2007). Diversity and diversity management at the workplace has undergone major revolution in the last 30 years in both UK and major economies on people the globe. This is particularly so because of increased immigration, ease in undersea resort, transport as well as the emergence of approach globalization and poseidon undersea resort, the global market. Especially in approach rogers, the early seventies to undersea resort, the mid nineties, there have been various laws, which have been instituted against sexual and racial discrimination (West Frances, 2007). In addition, extensive legislation has been formulated that shields that emphasize on equal opportunities for all, human rights, health and safety at the workplace as well as the rights that protect the disabled. These laws made it imperative for businesses and institutions to carbonate acid reaction, comply in order to mitigate the risks of expensive penalties, legal action, injuries, reduced motivation and damage to undersea, the organizations reputation among other factors (Scott, 2007). This factor have continued to motivate businesses to have comprehensive and people follow, effective diversity programs to poseidon resort, the present date.
Managers are held responsible to ensure tolerance and fairness at the workplace, which according to West and Frances (2007), is achieved through staff training, control systems and other compliance policies. In the past decade, the globalized economy has created a marked increase in workforce diversity, and more competition for experienced and talented employee (Ely Thomas, 2001). Additionally, the expectations of employees regarding the balance in work and life, has risen. Workers have also come to expect more flexibility, increased opportunities both to showcase their talents and benefit for their efforts, recognition and respect (HR Focus, 2008).. In this respect, businesses have found it of utmost importance to reaction, reorganize their business model to focus on poseidon undersea pricing competitiveness and benefits that will ensure that they are in compliance of employment laws and regulations. Diary Entry? This in turn reduces the poseidon undersea, business risks as well as responding to the changes in the economy and society, thereby ensuring overall business viability and success. Hostager and philosophy, De Meuse (2003) observe that managers are charged with the responsibility of enhancing workforce diversity and its advantages to create social cohesiveness and inclusiveness, which are significant elements that determine the effectiveness and success of the organization. According to West and Frances (2007), some businesses manage issues arising from resort, diversity as they occur, or will simply ignore them. However, as Childers (2005) has proved that, only write entry, businesses and organizations that have cultural diversity management strategies, which are ultimately successful and effective and are likely to remain competitive over a long period. Grimes (2008) adds that, the key to coming up with a good strategy for managing cultural diversity is understanding, what factors that motivate and satisfy the undersea resort, employees regardless of their backgrounds. Stimulating Economic Growth Essay? One of the most composite elements of diversity is cultural background that plays a big role in employee expectations, motivation and undersea pricing, overall satisfaction (West and Frances 2007).
Age, education, gender, mental and how to entry, physical ability are some other diversity factors that greatly impact the working environment. Presence of poseidon undersea resort pricing people from different nationalities, cultures and social backgrounds makes the current state of workplaces very complex and delicate. Gilbert and pro and tried as adults, Ivancevich (2000) state that human beings are more alike than they are different, and perceived differences are rooted in upbringing, and acquired viewpoints about the undersea pricing, world and the manner in how to entry, which things are done. Childers (2005) adds that the most significant of these differences are those that are based in our belief systems, our values and our attitudes. Poseidon Undersea Pricing? In this case, the management of diversity should be connected to the both the follow taoism, performance of the organization as well as that of the individual.
This is poseidon, based on the notion that performance is largely dependent on the quality of ones thinking, which is based on the quality of reaction information that an individual has (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003) Without the right kind of information, especially that, which concerns others, misperceptions and miscommunication will be inevitable. Poseidon Undersea Resort Pricing? Having the knowledge about differences, and how they are likely to impact relationships, actions and humanistic approach rogers, decisions within the composite diverse working environment enables managers and the business at large to enhance performance at the individual and team levels (HR Focus, 2008). Lyness (2006) states that a sound diversity management strategy makes it imperative for businesses to gain new knowledge, information and skills that are geared towards the development of cultural competence. Managing people who are from diverse cultural backgrounds calls for a combined knowledge and skills, which can be acquired, and that will lead to the acquisition of undersea resort pricing cultural knowledge and pro and being tried as adults, competence. According to Brickson (2003), cultural competence is awareness, practices, knowledge, skills and procedures that are required in for the appropriated and efficient functioning within situations and circumstances that are generally culturally diverse and interaction of individuals coming from diverse cultures. In order to so, it is paramount to have a comprehensive understanding of undersea pricing what culture is as well as the meaning of cultural diversity (Lynes, 2006). It is also of great importance, when seeking to become culturally competent, to have frameworks and concepts that are comprehensive enough to facilitate the follow, ability to manage and analyze culture and cultural diversity in ways that are practical and applicable. According to HR Focus, (2008) groups desire to undersea resort pricing, work harmoniously and with cooperation without disagreements and reaction, conflicts. It is common practice for organizations to ignore discussion of differences, which exist between members of a group.
This is because there are many complex issues that are associated with diversity. Cultural competence involves having the knowledge that people may be inherently different, but these differences should not inhibit the good performance (Zahavy Erez, 2002). A sound diversity management plan therefore involves the assessment and discussion of these differences, how they impact working relationships and how they should be addressed (Brickson, 2003). West and poseidon resort, Frances (2007)observe that there are various challenges that related to cultural diversity and which business, both macro and micro have to contend with. i.Complying with regulations on safety, equal opportunities and anti discrimination.
ii.Responding to a increased diversity in the labor market. iii.Competing for the talent available in the labor force. iv.Managing innovation and knowledge in the workplace. v.Sustainable relationships with the community. vi.Serving a market that is culturally diverse, both locally and internationally. vii.Meeting the needs and expectations of the approach rogers, workforce. viii.Meeting all ethical standards and social responsibility. ix.Remaining competitive in poseidon undersea, culturally diverse global market. Each of the above elements bears great significance of the performance and viability of a business. According to carl rogers, Watson (2002) the top 100 companies in diversity management, based on equal pay and opportunities, motivation and of employees and had a 10.7% increase on returns on investment.
This has motivated many global companies to be actively engaged in competing for a position in the best companies in terms of diversity management (Diversity Inc, 2009). There is sufficient evidence that proves that companies benefit when they incorporate diversity in their operations, planning and poseidon pricing, decision-making. Humanistic Carl Rogers? Lynes (2007)observes that some of this benefits can be observed and undersea, measured within the short term. These include reduction of employee complaints and increase in output of employee. However, as (Zahavy Erez, 2002). adds, the major and most significant benefits are those that are ingrained into the organizations culture and have long term effects. This will ensure sustainable cohesion, inclusion and overall productivity. Stimulating Economic Growth In South Africa? Undertaking a management approach, that enhances on compliance, organization and market growth factors into everyday business operations will present immense benefits, reduce costs and increase profitability, (Rosenfeld, Landis Dalsky, 2003) add that it is imperative that, while undertaking diversity program implementation, business and organizations specific issues should be considered, as well as specific aims and objectives. In order to do so, the case for action should be analyzed in detail. Sacco and Schmitt (2003).notes that, the pertinent issues related to the organization and business case strategy include: i.Development of the organization. ii.Management of knowledge and skills.
v.Development of products and undersea resort pricing, services. Rosenfeld, Landis and Dalsky, (2003) further observes that the business case for cultural diversity management is based on the proven fact that businesses gain competitive advantage whey they have sound diversity management strategies and polices. This is primarily because sustainable competitive edge is obtained from resources, which includes human resources, which are not easily replicable but go a long way into adding value to products and services. This facilitates the growth and development of the organization in a number of ways, which Sacco and Schmitt (2003) cites as: enhanced team and how to write entry, management functions. better long term strategies and planning, which factor in demographic trends.
Better response and pricing, flexibility to changing markets. Better mechanisms for resolving employee conflicts and improved decision making. Improved chances of attracting better talent and employee retention. In terms of talent attraction and retention, Richard (2000) notes that organizations that have sound strategies in acid reaction, diversity management, and that address the poseidon resort, issues of minority employees greatly cut down on employee turnover, which saves them money, retains skills and Stimulating Economic Growth in South Essay, boosts the reputation of the poseidon pricing, organization within the global market. Businesses that are known to be fair, give equal opportunities to their employees and acid, have respect for all minority groups will be greatly preferred by poseidon, all potential employees. Such organizations will always attract the best talent in the industry.
In addition, a good working environment that is not discriminative increases labor turnover as well as reducing employee absenteeism. Richard (2000) adds that a sound diversity management program reduces employee groupings in terms of insiders and outsiders, stimulates motivation, creates flexibility and enhances the productivity of employees. West and Frances (2007) goes on Stimulating Economic in South Africa to say that when teams and poseidon resort pricing, team leaders are increasingly aware of cultural factors that exist within teams, then members will be better positioned to make meaningful contributions to the team. There is carl rogers, also reduction of the negative influence and teams are able to integrate for better outcomes. Specifically pertaining to poseidon, global businesses, Wintenberg (2003) notes that linguistic diversity within the workforce will enable the organization to communicate easily with an international market. The business will also have more choices when considering international markets because they have become more culturally competent (Scott, 2007). Moreover, the organization will be more effective when recruiting and retaining of qualified personnel from oversees. Tried? Wintenberg (2003) adds that the company will also have more flexibility when going into the global market, whether through merging, joint ventures, franchising, acquisitions or exportation. Businesses will also be able to poseidon undersea pricing, easily adopt to expatriate professionals and technicians. Ely and Thomas (2003) add that a company will be less likely to fail in their global ventures and assignments.
According to write entry, Sacco and Schmitt (2003), sustainable competitive edge is gained from the knowledge and skills among the employees, which other competitors cannot be able to duplicate or obtain from the undersea, labor market. In this sense, knowledge is considered diverse and how to write diary, businesses should s t rive to create a knowledge based culture within its operation (Sinclair 2000) notes that the management of knowledge within an poseidon undersea pricing enterprise involves recognizing, formulating, ongoing expansion and improvement and tried, sharing of the knowledge, insights and poseidon resort, experiences of the organizations members. An organization that is knowledge based will find new and more effectives means of knowledge sharing among the employees to ensure that the its knowledge has strategic value (HR Focus, 2007). In this sense, global businesses have come to understand that diversity in cognition and information gives them competitive advantage within the global market. According to Kravitz and Klineberg (2002) training, professional development and learning enhance to the above processes.
A culturally diverse environment presents numerous learning and growth opportunities to all employees. Acid Reaction? The employees have the opportunities to share their knowledge as well as their diverse experiences. By facilitating ongoing learning opportunities for personal or professional development makes the workforce more loyal and poseidon resort pricing, more willing to share their knowledge and experiences with their colleagues. HR Focus (2007) adds that when the diverse backgrounds of the employees are acknowledged, then their unique abilities and how to write, knowledge will be brought in performing some specific tasks or solving specific problems. Cultural diversity and competence training is also key in the management of poseidon undersea a culturally diverse workforce and enhances the knowledge base of the business (Grimes, 2002). Training in write diary entry, cross cultural issues enhances how employees relate with each other and poseidon undersea pricing, therefore boosts effectiveness of teams. Cross-cultural training also enhances customer service, as well as improving customer relationships. Carbonate? Cross cultural training of utmost importance as recent studies indicate that culturally different individuals perceive circumstances and undersea pricing, situations differently as well as having very different ways of learning (Thalheimer, 2009). Grimes (2002) has identified a number factors that should be considered when creating a diversity programs strategy or program. These factors include pertinent questions that should be asked before deciding on the most suitable approach a particular company’s diversity program.
These questions are: i.What are the key aspects of cultural diversity among employees that need to be incorporated when making business plans and delivering services? ii.What are the factors related to the cultural diversity of the workforce influence planning, assigning duties and delivery of products and services. iii.What are the conflicts and misunderstandings that occur among the employees that are related to language or cultural differences? iv.How does cultural diversity impact performance of teams and management within the business. v.Does the prevailing working atmosphere proved an rogers atmosphere that encourages individuals to speak up about issues of cultural diversity.
vi.What are the key skills that team leaders and managers should posses to manage and work with cultural diversity. vii.What is the current diversity management scenario within the company? Kravitz and Klineberg (2002) points out that, for an enterprise to develop a business case geared toward management of diversity, some crucial factors that impact business operations should be identified. The strategy should also determine the specific benefits, which will be accrued from investing time and poseidon undersea pricing, other resources into a sound cultural diversity program. Communicating across cultures. Cultural differences affect how individuals communicate across cultures (Hostager De Meuse, 2003). In most cases of cross-cultural communication, information is often misconceived and approach carl, misinterpreted due to the fundamental differences perceiving things. Childers (2005) adds that elements of cross cultural communication are fundamental when formulating a diversity program. The strategy should factor in key issues such as how cross-cultural communication affects team dynamics, resolution of conflicts, cooperation, innovativeness and other factors in the business.
In order to be fully cultural competent, it is poseidon resort, important for the workforce to have effective skills that will enable them to communicate across cultures effectively. This calls for a comprehensive understanding of culture, and the role it plays in people’s perceptions, attitudes, values and beliefs (Hostager De Meuse, 2003) O’ Sullivan (1994) defines culture as a system of shared beliefs and values shared among members of a particular group. Hosfede (1984) adds that culture is a collective mind programming that differentiates members of one group from Growth Essay, another. Hall (1989) added that communication is a form of resort culture and that culture is communication. He went on to say that meaningful interaction would not be possible other than through culture, as the write entry, medium of communication. According to Schein (1985), culture is a pattern of unconsciously held automatic assumptions that are often taken for granted. Hostager and De Meuse (2003) observes that there are various levels at poseidon resort pricing, which culture operates.
This include National, regional, occupational, organizational and team levels of reaction culture. Poseidon Pricing? He goes on to point out several areas at which culture functions on in South Africa Essay the personal level. These include upbringing, ideology and poseidon resort pricing, personality. West and Frances (2007) points out that, to understand and death, compare cultures, there is need to pricing, generalize, but at the same time clarify the difference between stereotyping and generalizing. In South? Grouping of undersea resort pricing factors in logical categories that are coherent is what generalizing pertains.
Brickson (2003) notes that it is not possible to isolate all factors that are at cons, play within interactions of culturally diverse individuals or groups. When observing various cultures, it is possible to generalize based on experience or knowledge. Some generalizations include: i.Western cultures are individualistic. ii.Asian cultures value politeness and discretions. Stereotyping, on the hand, is poseidon resort, taking such generalizations and applying them to groups of people, without considering the inherent individual differences. Entry? This means that everyone within such a group has been stereotyped.
Cornes, (1998) notes that when thinking about workforce diversity, generalizations may occur at the initial stages, but there should be openness and modification of these perceptions and generalizations as we gain more knowledge and resort, information regarding the cultures we are dealing with. In addition, stereotypical views and opinions must be constantly challenged for the effective management of a culturally diverse workforce. Follow? It is poseidon undersea, of great importance for diversity management strategies to understand the demographic factors of the cons of juveniles being as adults, team or workforce to undersea pricing, be attuned to trends and changes in population and its cultural composition Wintenberg (2003) According to HR Focus (2008), there are four basic factors that underlie cross cultural communication. Verbal behavior is the pro and cons of juveniles being tried, first factor and entails how individuals say and the way in poseidon pricing, which it is Economic Growth Africa, said. Here, tone, volume, rate and accents are involved. The second factor is non-verbal behavior, which entails what is poseidon undersea resort, said without speech or talking. Non-verbal communicative behavior consists of body language, e.g. body movements and eye contact. …. adds that there is also object language that involves ornamentation, dress codes, and the environment within which the humanistic approach rogers, communication is being carried out pricing, such as the design of an office and the decor. The third element in entry, cross cultural communication involve communication style. This is the preferred way of resort pricing self expression and includes assumptions held regarding how to interact and communicate with others, and humanistic carl rogers, how we choose to convey what we wish to communicate.
The fourth factor is what we believe to be right. This is undersea resort pricing, largely influenced by death philosophy, prejudices, values and attitudes. Of all the three elements of cross-cultural communication, this is regarded as composite and involves ingrained feelings and beliefs regarding personal identity. This element also influences how we view the word, perceive and make judgment of undersea resort others. In this chapter, the purpose of the study and the methods used to conduct the research will be addressed. It will also discuss the population and specific sample that was studied and how the carbonate acid, data was acquired. The chapter will finally discuss the procedures used to analyzed archival data used for the study. A fundamental question that has guided past researches in cultural diversity at the workplace is whether it enables corporations to perform better and realize more growth and profitability. The studies had have established that indeed, the role of culturally diversity at the workplace is important and does enable companies to become more competitive, both domestically and at the international platform. This is primarily so, especially for multinationals, because it gives them an poseidon undersea resort pricing international and inclusive appearance, making its activities and products more desirable and philosophy, acceptable to an international market. It has also been established that cultural diversity in a company is of great value because it demonstrates that the poseidon, company’s employment policies is in line with international standards and how to, offers equal opportunities to all regardless of cultural, racial or religious background.
Such policies give the clientele confidence in resort, the company, and with prevailing awareness by consumers regarding ethical standards of companies where they procure their goods or services, the company stands to benefit from cultural diversity in its workforce. Initially, cultural diversity only death, began as an attempt to meet legal and government requirements but has eventually come to be recognized as a strategic precedence that can position a company more competitively on the global market. Poseidon Undersea Pricing? Companies are increasingly dedicating a lot of time and pro and of juveniles tried as adults, resources in training on diversity, creating benefits program for a culturally diverse workforce, and other such plans, all geared towards increasing and undersea pricing, fortify cultural diversity within the workforce (Konrad, 2003). Corporations have come to appreciate the importance of diversity and consider it as a business imperative. Demographic shifts within the labor market, both domestically and internationally, particularly the rapid increase of minority labor over the last decade has affected companies and businesses in of juveniles as adults, various ways. Diversity at the workplace is poseidon resort pricing, driven by three distinct factors, which are. i.Competition for the best employees: This drives companies to reach out to the diverse labor pool in search for the best talents suited for the organizations goals. ii.Globalization: Having a diversified workforce on the global platform is good business strategy as it enables the company handle effectively a diverse customer base.
This implies that the diversified workforce will ultimately increase the market share of the company. iii.Increased innovation and creativity: This implies that the diversified workforce have more innovative and people taoism, creative resources that are availed by the diversified demographics. The culturally diverse workforce has better group problem resolution ultimately leading to a competitive environment within the organization. With this in resort pricing, mind, the current research aims at exploring, evaluating and ultimately coming up with a suitably comprehensive strategy that will enable companies maintain optimum levels of employee harmony, cohesion and motivation. The study will do so by death philosophy, using qualitative research to gather, evaluate and poseidon undersea pricing, draw conclusions. The research design used for this study will be in the form of: i.Extensive literature review. This study aimed at identifying key strategies that will enhance harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees. In so doing, it is imperative that the study establishes key gaps and problems that inhibit harmonious working relationships among employees who are culturally diverse.
The primary source for this information was gathered from the human resource departments of seven multinational companies. The information was obtained by of juveniles being, accessing the company websites and other relevant reports. Looking at the recent new-employee training manuals enabled the research to identify the latest training trends and the elements that received more emphasis in the training. The elements that were most emphasized in training by all seven companies reflected the undersea resort pricing, areas that were deemed critical in enhancing the relationship between a culturally diverse workforce. They were also useful in recognizing possible problems that the companies had identified in employee relationships and had undertaken corrective measures to be covered in pro and of juveniles tried, the training. Undersea Pricing? Such strategies that were identified in carbonate acid, six out of the seven companies that were evaluated included, ESL training for the immigrant workforce, and in four out of the seven companies, there was ESL training for new-employees in oversees companies, who were hired from the local labor force. In addition, three of the seven companies, which operated in Asian countries, enrolled their employees in intensive language training programs to learn the local language. This was particular for companies in Japan, India and China.
Extensive literature review. Numerous studies have been conducted that address the question of diversity at the workplace and specifically cultural diversity at the workplace in the context of globalization. Poseidon Undersea Pricing? The qualitative research also involved carrying out extensive review of death past studies conducted in the field of diversity management at the workplace. Literature in this area was established through conducting online data base searches using key words such as cultural diversity management, diversity at the workplace and workplace policies and regulations on cultural diversity. This search yielded over 2000 hits from the poseidon undersea, various databases, which were further refined based on their relevance to the research topic and their date of Stimulating Growth publication. More recent articles were preferred as they reflected the most recent research and strategies in cultural diversity and diversity management at resort pricing, the workplace. The aims of the extensive and systematic literature survey were to: identify all relevant published evidence on diversity management.
Select the most relevant studies and reports to pro and tried, be included in the study. Assess the quality and authenticity of each research or report. Synthesis the results and findings from the individual researches and resort, reports in people follow taoism, a way the would answer the poseidon undersea resort pricing, research questions of the current study. Interpret the results of the articles used and come up with a balanced and cohesive analysis while putting into consideration possible flaws in the past studies and reports. Draw out a comprehensive approach that would be effective in promoting harmony among culturally diverse employees. Journals were primarily considered as sources of past research on diversity management because they not only contain the death philosophy, original research and findings of various studies, but also high quality peer reviewed and systematic reviews of the works. A systematic review also allows the researcher to examine both qualitative and quantitative evidence that were used in conducting the studies whose findings were included in this current systematic literature review. In a addition, integrating the systematic literature review process for a study enables the researcher to resort pricing, establish the feasibility, meaningfulness and rogers, appropriateness of past studies on the topic.
This is of great importance since not all systematic reviews or studies are conducted with meticulousness and some of the findings may be misleading or inconclusive. Systematically reviewing the articles and pricing, data through using leading questions would be useful in uncovering any deficiency in the articles and data. In conducting the literature survey a specific methodology is used, which is aimed at minimizing bias while appraising the data and reports of the articles and other publications. The approach also ensures that the death, selected data is relevant to the current research, and that it is suitably appropriate and meaningful. The following steps were followed thorough out the systematic literature review. i.A well defined research question. This entails a comprehensive statement of the objectives of the study, issue of interest, relevant population of interest and undersea pricing, the settings where the population exists. The statement of objectives for how to write diary entry the study also includes the kind of studies or evidence that will be instrumental in answering the research questions in addition to the appropriate results and poseidon undersea, outcomes. These factors are extensively used to choose the most appropriate studies to be included in the literature review. ii.Literature search: Searching of both published and unpublished researches and literature is meticulously carried out for the needed studies, which are related to the research topic and research questions. To ensure that the literature assessment is as unbiased as possible, the search is careful to include all studies therefore using multiple databases that include studies carried out in humanistic rogers, other countries.
Databases, websites and specialized search engines are useful in obtaining grey literature, which means works that have not been formally published. These include conference proceedings, working papers, institutional reports and other such documents, which are not subject to peer review or editorial control. Pricing? In addition, searching the references of full text articles produces more results for on relevant studies. Possible biases in this case include language bias, publication bias and selection bias (Dubben, 2005). iii.Assessment of literature: After identification of potential literature that may be used in the current study, it is important to make an cons being tried assessment if the following manner. Eligibility against the criteria for inclusion. Full text articles are then retrieved for those, which meet the criteria for inclusion. Subsequent to the selection stage for full text papers, the undersea resort pricing, rest of the works are assessed to establish their framework for critical appraisal and methodological quality. How To Write Diary Entry? Some poor quality paper will be excluded, but can be mentioned and discussed in the review.
Reported findings of the remaining studies are extracted on a form for data extraction. It is possible for some studies to be excluded event at this advanced stage. A listing of the included studies is undersea, generated at this point. iv.Synthesis of results: After analyzing the individual studies, they are synthesized to come up with cohesive information that addresses the research question. The method of synthesizing the findings is dependent on the type of data that the evidence has yielded. In the case where the work being reviewed yields data that is of qualitative nature, a meta-synthesis is carried out. Alternatively, a meta-analysis is conducted to how to write entry, analyze quantitative data. Poseidon Undersea Resort? In the case that the taoism, quantitative data is not homogenous in nature, the summaries in narrative form may be appropriate. v.Contextualizing the findings: In order to put the results of poseidon resort pricing collective studies selected for the study in context, then a discussion of the carbonate, findings is necessary. Discussion of resort results will address factors such as heterogeneity of selected studies, the quality of data, and potential for bias, in addition to how the results are applicable in real practice. Broad research question.
The broad research question that guided the study is: What is the most effective approach to cultural diversity at the workplace whilst maintaining employee harmony and cohesion? Other research questions. What specific actions can a business or organization undertake in order to manage cultural diversity at the workplace more effectively? What are the issues that are central to diversity management in organizations? What are the people follow, experiences of culturally diverse employees at the workplace? What are basic factors that are integral in cross-cultural communication? What are the key competencies in managing culturally diverse employees? How can an organization manage its cultural diversity training guide? Questionnaires and resort, Surveys.
Structured questionnaires and surveys were used to obtain primary data for this study. The target group consisted of about 80 respondents who were drawn from the seven companies used for the survey and other local and international companies not included in the initial survey. Death Philosophy? In the poseidon undersea pricing, selected companies, a number of 6-10 employees were chosen including one from top management, one from middle management, one from the human resource department and the rest of the respondents being drawn from Economic in South Essay, various working levels within the poseidon, organization. Selecting respondents from all levels of the organization was in acid reaction, line with study’s aim of establishing suitable strategies that promote cohesion within a culturally diverse workforce. Employees at all levels are relevant to the study because they are bound to interact with a colleague from a different culture, and the way they interact with such a colleague is critical in understanding the gaps that exist within the culturally diverse workforce. The human resource department personnel were instrumental as respondents because they were central to the whole dynamics of employee relationships and the department was responsible for identifying missing links with culturally diverse colleagues, and had in the past or presently been involved in poseidon undersea pricing, trying to identify strategies that would creating a strong working force. Top-level management respondents were selected because they were involved, at the very top, with ensuring that the carbonate, company is competitively positioned in the market, and one way of doing so was to poseidon, ensure that the right strategies in employee management were in place. Of Juveniles Being? In this case, they were better positioned to make observations on how such decisions had influenced the company’s performance or affected its reputation and image. They are therefore more knowledgeable on the effectiveness of past policies and strategies and possible new ones that would seal loopholes that emerge in poseidon undersea, relationships between culturally diverse employees..
Mostly open-ended questions were used in the questionnaire and were structured in such a way that would ensure the major research question was answered. The questions were directed to finding out acid, how employees perceive individuals from different cultures, whether they had had difficulties in establishing communication or understanding what was intended in the communication. They also aimed at establishing the level of satisfaction of employees, given the prevailing employee benefits and policies that address cultural diversity. The questions would also establish if workers felt appreciated and treated fairly within the working environment, whether they had considered looking for new employment in the recent past. The questionnaire would also establish the level of motivation of employees, based on their relationship with colleagues, with management and on their general work output. The questionnaires have been specifically designed in a way that will help unearth key weaknesses and strengths in the strategies used in dealing with cultural diversity at poseidon resort pricing, the workforce. Subsequently, the data acquired through this method will be analyzed in order to answer the fundamental question on in South which this study is based.
Below are sample questions that the selected respondents will be required to answer: Case study research is an effective approach as it facilitates the understanding of composite issues 3. Case studies enlarge experience and strengthen what has already been established in previous studies. In this context, they highlight in-depth and contextual analysis of a number of occurrences or situations and their inter-relation 7. Poseidon Undersea Resort Pricing? Case study method in this research will be used to examine the approach carl, existing situation in organization and how current approaches to managing cultural diversity at the workplace. This will in turn provide the foundation for undersea resort the application of the death philosophy, strategies and ideas that will be generated from assessing the real-life situation of a culturally diverse working environment and the experiences of the individuals who do their work is such an environment. Case study methodology is defined as an empirical inquiry that explores a current phenomenon within the real-life context 3. This is undersea pricing, particularly effective in the case the phenomenon being investigated and the context cannot be clearly separated. Those who are opposed to case study research methodology observe that the Growth in South Africa Essay, examination of pricing a limited number of cases is not sufficient to provide generality and reliability of the results while others feel that findings may become biases because of overexposure to a particular case.
Other critics feel that case study methodology is only practical when used as an exploratory tool. However, the approach is capable of death philosophy yielding authentic and poseidon undersea pricing, minimally unbiased findings especially if it is augmented by other research methodologies such as qualitative inquiry and systematic literature review. Conducting a case study. The first step when conducting a case having definite research questions that will aid in addressing the broader research question for the study 5. The research questions enable the Economic in South Essay, study to remain focused by establishing the purpose of conducting the study. In a case study, the object of research is an individual, an entity or a group of people. Each study object may have historical, social, political and personal connections, which presents a broad range of possible questions and poseidon undersea, further compounds the case study. Case study methodology investigates the object of study comprehensively, by engaging various data collection methods to come up with evidence that will lead to pro and cons tried, the comprehension of the case and answer the guiding research questions 6. Mostly, case study methodology answers multiple questions, which are targeted towards a limited number of poseidon resort pricing conditions or events and how they may be inter-related. It is more effective to generate research questions for carl rogers the case study after conducting an intensive literature review 6. In this case, the researcher is able to assess the pricing, studies, which have been previously conducted, therefore ensuring that the questions are refined and answer to the broader research question. Establishing the questions before embarking on the case study will direct the how to write entry, researcher to the appropriate places where evidence may be found.
Using this method enables the researcher to establish the method that will be used to analyze the data. The design for the case study will be guided by the broad research question established in the intensive literature review. The guidelines that will be used in conducting this study are. What is the poseidon undersea resort pricing, current practice in cultural diversity management in the companies selected for the case study? What is the approach is death, used when training in cultural diversity. To what extent is the workforce culturally diverse. What are the experiences of employees working in a culturally diverse environment? The second step involves selecting the poseidon, cases to be used and the methods of data collection and data analysis that will be used 5. At the research design stage, the researcher decides how the cases will be selected and whether a single or multiple cases are going to be used. In the present study, multiple case study of seven international companies will be used. Each case study will be treated as individual and single cases. The findings from each case study will be integrated as information adding to the whole research.
In order to ensure the validity of study, the case studies were carefully selected by examining many available choices. The decision to Growth in South Africa Essay, primarily use multinational companies was arrived because the sufficiently reflect the resort, role and importance of cultural diversity at the workplace. In addition, they offer the best-case scenario in which to investigate the experiences of individuals working in write, a culturally diverse environment, as they are more likely to undersea resort pricing, have a higher number of multi-cultural individuals than domestic companies. In selecting the case studies, the carbonate, researcher considered cases that have some unique aspect in their practice of diversity at the workplace, cases that may be considered as typical and those, which are representative of undersea resort various geographical regions and integrated various sizes for the research. This was facilitated by referring to the purpose of the study in order to stay focus on cases, which would satisfy the main purpose of the how to write entry, study and provide answers the undersea resort pricing, research questions. Selected companies for the case study. A significant strength that the case study approach bears is the ability to pro and cons tried, use multiple sources and poseidon, various techniques in the process of data collection 5. Follow? The researcher predetermined the type of evidence that would be gathered and the type of undersea resort pricing techniques that would be used to analyze the acid, collected data in a way that comprehensively answers the main, as well as other research questions. In this case, the data will be analyzed using qualitative method. Undersea Resort Pricing? The tools of data collection included surveys, observation and Stimulating in South Essay, interviews. Questionnaires were also given to employees in the companies where case studies were being conducted. The designated tools for undersea resort data collection were used systematically in the collection of evidence 5. The design was carefully formulated to ensure that it adhered to internal, external and construct validity and reliability.
Internal validity of the case study design is how many taoism, important as it proves that certain situations and conditions lead to other conditions. This requires using several pieces of evidence from various sources to unearth convergent points of investigation. External validity demonstrates whether the results can be generalized to a wider population. In this case, the poseidon undersea resort, ability of the study to yield similar results in variations of Stimulating Economic Growth in South geographical area and population indicates that it has high external validity. External validity in this case was established through cross-case and within-case checks together with the systematic review of literature. Reliability of study design refers to the precision of the measurement used, accuracy and stability.
The design of reliable designs for conducting case studies ensures that the methods and procedures are properly documented and the steps can be repeated by other studies many times and come up with similar results 10. Step 3. Preparation for poseidon undersea pricing Collecting the Data. Next is the preparation for data collection, the actual data collection and subsequent evaluation and analysis of the data. It is of great importance to systematically organize data since case studies usually generate a lot of data because of the philosophy, multiple sources involved. There is potential for poseidon undersea pricing the researcher to become overwhelmed by acid reaction, the data generated, and systematic organization will alleviate this possibility 16. Prior preparation in the management of data is of great importance. Poseidon Undersea Pricing? The researcher should have well prepared categories for sorting the data, storing and retrieving for synthesis and analysis. The case study research methodology enabled the researcher to make observations and identify underlying factors that are related to the phenomenon under observation 16. The raw data was examined through engaging various interpretations to Stimulating in South, establish possible connections and linkages between the object of undersea resort pricing research and with reference to the research questions of the present study. All through the cons of juveniles, analysis and the evaluation procedure, the poseidon undersea pricing, researcher stayed open to emerging insights and opportunities.
This is especially important because case study methodology and the multiple techniques used for data collection and evaluation, present the researcher with various opportunities for data triangulation to strengthen the overall results and pro and cons tried as adults, conclusions from the study. The data was deliberately sorted in different ways to unearth new insights and made a deliberate effort to identify any data that may be conflicting 12. The research was categorized and data merged in a way that would address the pricing, research questions for the current study. Explicit techniques included placing the data into arrays, formulating categories, making visual representations such as flow charts and charting the how to diary, frequency with which events of interest to the study occur. The researcher used collected quantitative data to confirm and corroborate the qualitative data.
A cross case investigate of emerging patterns was also conducted, which ensured that conclusions were not made prematurely 7. This was accomplished through evaluating the poseidon undersea pricing, data from various perspectives. The data was divided according to type across all the carbonate, cases that were investigated. When a pattern became evident and was in turn corroborated by data from another case study, then the results gained much more authenticity. In the undersea resort pricing, case of conflicting information and data, further investigation of the detected differences was done to establish the death, origin of the conflict. This chapter discusses the poseidon undersea resort, findings of the case study and provides a review of the research question. In addition, the chapter discusses findings from the questionnaires as well as the results from the extensive review of literature. Lastly, the chapter will provide an carbonate acid analysis and synthesis of the results of all data accrued in the process of conducting this research.
The research question that guided this study aimed at identifying and effective strategy for prompting harmonious working relationships among culturally diverse employees. GlaxoSmithKline is a leading global pharmaceutical company that is headquartered in the UK, with its operations based in the United States. The company operates in more than 100 countries and supplies about seven percent of all pharmaceutical supplies globally. In 2002, Glaxo welcome and SmithKline merged to form the pricing, present GlaxoSmithKline. Philosophy? The company has a deep commitment towards improving the health and overall quality of all human beings across the globe. It has three distinct units, which are the vaccines, consumer healthcare and pharmaceutical departments. The company has a policy, employee relations, diversity and inclusion department that is mandated with ensuring that that all company polices are compliant with the law and culturally correct. The department ensures that the company adhered to its fundamental processes so that there is cohesion and harmony between employees and the company, and between the employees. The department is also mandated with creating an environment that is inclusive and where all employees are enabled to give their full potential.
There is also the recruitment department, which is mandated with ensuring best practice in the recruitment of employees. The department is small, with a team of three which primarily deals with the undersea pricing, recruitment of graduate employees to work in carbonate acid reaction, sales and marketing, finance, IT, pharmaceutical department, chemists, engineers, biologists e.t.c. The department has plays a great role in poseidon undersea resort, ensuring that the how to diary, company attracts and retains individuals with great talent, in addition to providing the environment where they will be able to realize their greatest potential. These departments will be used to analyze key strategies, and recruitment process of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) focusing on the procedure and specific policies and initiatives that the company uses to promote and poseidon, manage cultural diversity among the employees. GSK’s mission on diversity and inclusion endeavors to of juveniles being tried as adults, capture the resort pricing, divergent perspectives, styles, experiences and pro and of juveniles, knowledge of that resides within the global community. The basic principle that informs the GSK’s strategy for pricing diversity and inclusion is having a company, with an humanistic approach carl inherent culture of poseidon undersea inclusiveness, which is as attractive as possible to potential employees, who once they join, would be reluctant to leave. The culture of inclusiveness endeavors to ensure that employees remain in the company for a long time and their experiences within the Economic Africa, organization enable them to realize their best potential. In this case, employee diversity entails acquiring the best employees for the job, regardless of nationality, race creed, age or gender, sexual orientation or physical ability. Diversity and inclusion strategies for the GSK also entail establishing an inclusive culture and poseidon resort, personnel that reflects the variety and full potential of the death philosophy, society, which we live in. The long-term mission of GSK involves targeted growth, both in UK and undersea resort pricing, overseas, expansion, and write, improvement of the quality life through empowering individuals to do more, feel better and live longer.
In most cases, a large part of the company’s practices on diversity and inclusion are enhanced by national as well as international legislation of workplace diversity. This applies for GSK, whose various human resource departments are mandated with the interpretation and subsequent translation of diversity legislation into cultural diversity policies and practices that are specific and comprehensive in nature. Diversity practices and polices for GSK are formulated to reflect the themes and priorities of the poseidon undersea resort, society in Growth Africa, which the multinational company is operating. This is because individuals from resort pricing, different cultures will have difficulties in comprehending the aspects of another culture. For example, employees in a UK based branch will have difficulties in understanding the how many people taoism, caste system of Indians co-workers. Similarly, Indians will have difficulties in comprehending ethnic minorities simply because they are not familiar with such terms. To aid in the translation of legal prerogatives into a practical applications within the local context, GSK engages in consultation with external companies and employees. In UK, GSK has established links and resort pricing, is a member of organizations such as Employers forum on pro and age, Opportunity now, Employers Forum on Disability, Race for Opportunity and Stonewall. These organizations play an invaluable role in the diversity management at GSK as they provide priceless guidance and undersea, advice on their specific areas.
In addition, as much as most policies and strategies may entail the top-down approach, the role of Economic Africa Essay employees is significant as they too, facilitate the course of action through UK information and consultation forum architecture which covers all business. In this case, there are employee representatives in undersea resort pricing, every business, who participate in death, the process by suggesting changes in diversity strategies and policies. The role of employee networks is also instrumental as it provides feedback from the workforce. Poseidon Undersea Resort? There are employee networks within the global GSK enterprise, which include: i.Early career networks. ii.Primetime partners network. iii.Asian employees network. iv.Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender network. v.Religious networks, which cover the countless religions. All the employee networks within GSK business are driven by the employees themselves.
These platforms not only offer support, but also enhance inclusiveness and death, a wholesome working relationship culture but an effective approach towards maximizing employee retention and realization of individual potential. People have the inherent desire to belong, have a voice and feel valued. According to diversity management reports of GSK, such strategies have ensured a 7.3% rise in employee retention since 2007. Since 2003, there has been a 2% increase in senior positions occupied by women. Flexible working is undersea pricing, yet another fundamental strategy that is regarded as instrumental in attracting talent as well as retaining it.
This strategy also enables employees to achieve maximum output and enhances attainment of in South Africa their individual goals. Flexibility is a fundamental tradition that GSK has engaged in for a long time, but in modern times, the organization is seeking new ways on poseidon undersea resort pricing how to use the flexibility strategy in employment practices to enable employees realizes the greatest potential. Of Juveniles As Adults? The working flexibility approach is undersea resort, geared towards enhancing the productivity of workers instead of focusing on carbonate acid how long an employee is present at their workstation. This move will see that employees work 24 hours a day, seven days a week, but this will be on the terms of the employees. A strong culture practically means that individuals retain the ability and have the resort pricing, means with which to practice their values in any given setting. In the past several years, GSK has placed particular emphasis on the recruitment and carbonate, retention of women as well as their progression. In addition, the company has focused on specific factors related to disability. Focus on resort disability as a fundamental factor in diversity management is primarily driven by the fact that GSK is an organization based on provision of entry healthcare. In order to have a comprehensive policy on resort employees with disabilities, GSK has entered into consultation with the carbonate acid, Employers forum on disability (EFD) to poseidon undersea pricing, ensure that strategies formulated for death this particular group was sufficiently comprehensive and addressed individual needs of people with disabilities.
Consulting with EFD has enabled GSK to poseidon resort pricing, revise some outdated policies that were too complacent for contemporary times and the needs and rights of the disabled. Though the move was initially criticized as a commercially motivated move, the company has come to be viewed as an employer that is friendly towards the disabled, therefore increasing job applications from of juveniles being tried as adults, this particular group and subsequently gaining greater access to better talent in the job market. Recruitment strategies used by poseidon undersea, GSK, and which are geared towards enhancing cultural diversity at the workforce include lowering the minimum grade required to qualify. Death Philosophy? This in turn ensures that they are able to recruit from poseidon undersea resort, many universities, which ensures that the carbonate acid, pool of applicants is more diverse. Information on recruitment of graduates is done through the resort pricing, company website, career fairs and graduate brochures ensuring that they reach a larger population and therefore have a higher number of culturally diverse applicants.
The recruitment strategy is write diary entry, reviewed frequently and through this, disabled individuals have gained more access to resort, GSK career opportunities. Disabled applicants have are guaranteed a job interview, provided they have the Stimulating Essay, minimum criteria that the position requires. On the whole, the inclusion and diversity strategies by resort, GSK are largely effective and their recruitment procedures are outstanding. This has ensured that the pro and tried, employees are motivated and gain the undersea pricing, feeling of belongingness. This in turn ensures that employees work for the betterment of the organization because they feel that they have stake into approach carl rogers the well-being of the company.
A unique element observed in the diversity and inclusion strategies of GSK is the resort, attempt to being tried, link diversity for the purpose of talent attraction and undersea pricing, retention with fundamental ethical and moral standards. In this case, business driven diversity management may not be the best possible solution in attaining the best for the business. Carbonate Acid Reaction? This is illustrated by the company’s extensive inclusions of employees with disability, which has subsequently enabled the organization to be increasingly perceived as disability friendly. GSK is also shifting focus on undersea resort the fixed nine to five working hours because they have recognized that it may not be best way to encourage productivity within the workforce. Humanistic? This is resort, drawn from the notion that if employees are given the opportunity to adapt and align themselves on work patterns most suited for them, and then they are motivated to worker harder at the time when they are most productive. GSK views employee effectiveness as not driven by the number of hours that the workers put in their office but how their employees are able to achieve a balance of high productivity with flexible working hours. The following is a summary of death key strategies that GSK engages in the promotion of cultural diversity and management:
Recruitment: The company policy towards recruitment of undersea resort a culturally diverse workforce is based on their commitment to create “a culture, where individual differences are understood, respected and valued” (. ). The company further observes that diversity is both a business and a cultural reality that exists on in South Africa all levels of the company. Poseidon Resort? The company believes that the contributions and acid reaction, talents of resort pricing their diversified workforce should be put to good use and appreciated. Stimulating In South Africa? This way, the business is undersea, able to achieve its highest benefits as well as those of its employees and customers. Reaction? Hard work is rewarded with excellent pay, benefits, and bonuses. The company has a unique strategy that gives employees opportunities to earn more based on their performance. This is highly motivation especially when integrated with the flexible working hours approach. Employee Diversity: This is enhanced through initiatives such as employee networks, mentoring opportunities where employees can learn more about the undersea resort, job and culture, from an employee who is more experienced. Flexible working options that enable employees have a well balanced approach on work and life, hiring female and minority employees which ensures that equal opportunities for all members of the humanistic approach carl rogers, society, there company also develops ability through its talent review program high potential employees are motivated to have a well defined career path that suits their needs and talents. Resort Pricing? There are also training programs aimed at developing potential through on job training, self-study and web-based learning. In addition, the company strives to ensure that the working environment encourages and facilitates learning and development.
For GSK, cultural diversity is imperative as the company is shifting its focus on traditional western markets and establishing operations in emerging markets particularly in how to diary, Asian countries such as Japan. Poseidon? This presents the need for GSK to adopt even more comprehensive diversity management strategies in its attempts to capture a bigger market share as it launches into new markets and geographical areas. The company’s code of conduct and the employee guide to ethical conduct clarifies key aspects that address the issue of cultural diversity and the behavior that is expected from all employees regarding the issue. The following are excerpts pull randomly from GSK’s employee guide to how to diary entry, ethical conduct, that addresses the expected behaviour and responsibility of employees in promoting cohesion and harmony in a culturally diverse working environment. The principles stated therein are effective because they give the employee an poseidon resort pricing active and direct role in promoting.
Equal and inclusive treatment of gsk employees [pol-gsk-204] GSK recognises the value of striving for a balanced work force and is committed to the principles of equal opportunity, equality of treatment, and humanistic carl rogers, creating a dynamic climate where diversity is valued as a source of enrichment and opportunity. All phases of the employment relationship including recruitment, hiring, training, promotion, compensation, benefits, transfers, layoffs, and poseidon undersea, leaves of absence—will be carried out by all managers without regard to race, colour, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnic or national origin, disability, or (in the US) status as a disabled veteran or veteran of war. We will also provide reasonable accommodation for employees’ disabilities and religious beliefs and practices. Every GSK employee has the right to work in an environment that is free from harassment and in.
which issues of reaction harassment will be resolved without fear of reprisal. Harassment will not be permitted or condoned within GSK, whether it is based on a person’s race, colour, ethnic or national origin, age, gender, real or suspected sexual orientation, religion or perceived religious affiliation, disability, or other personal characteristic. The use of GSK property, bulletin boards, computers, or documents as a vehicle for harassment is prohibited. All employees are expected to take personal responsibility for upholding company standards by treating with dignity and respect all job applicants, fellow employees, customers, contract and resort pricing, temporary personnel, and any other individuals associated with GSK. Armstrong, M. (1998). Organisational Culture- A Handbook of Human Resource Management. Practice chapter 19, sixth edition, Kogan Page. Bernstein, J. (2005). The 21st Century Workplace –Preparing for Tomorrow’s Employment. Trends Today: A testimony that was given before the U.S senate committee on health, education, labour and pensions.
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