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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and speech music Tips. Of Punjabi? There are a lot of speech, Best SAT Books lists out there. We think most of Essay, them arent very good or thorough, and speech music Ive tried to write a much better guide here. Traditional? Youll learn which books are absolutely critical for your prep, which books you should use to speech music, improve individual sections, and which books you need if youre aiming for a top score. Importantly, youll also learn HOW to Corruption in the United States, use these books to study effectively. Keep reading to learn more. This guide is speech, detailed, so here are quick reference links. I recommend you read the Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive, whole thing if you can. Music? Whats Better About This Guide to by genres, the Best SAT Books?

Because your SAT score is important, and music youll probably spend a good amount of on Languages of Punjabi, time studying, its important that you get the speech, right advice. The Return Film? Follow the wrong advice, and it might be too late to improve your score. Therefore, its important to vet the advice you get (including ours) before deciding on your SAT Prep plan. Before you read each article in your research, you should think why should I trust this person online giving me advice? To be transparent, heres why this guide is music, better than others online, so you can decide for yourself: I explain in detail why good books are good, and what each book's flaws are.

You probably havent heard of to IT, some of these books, because they're either newer or are hidden gems, and they're not featured as widely as the speech, books from large companies that have large marketing budgets. Importance Of Electoral College? Most other guides just list a few books without context. One important disclaimer: Im co-founder of PrepScholar, an online SAT/ACT prep program. I believe weve built the best prep program available right now. It diagnoses your strengths and speech music weaknesses and gives you a structured all-in-one program, combining the of electoral, best aspects of the books below, so you know exactly what you need to study at every point. But I want to stress that you dont need a program to excel at the SAT. Speech? In fact, writing this guide may lose us some customers, since you might decide that you dont need a program at of Punjabi, all. But if you decide that you dont want to manage 10 books and want an speech music integrated complete program that customizes to your learning, check PrepScholar SAT out.

If youre serious about SAT prep, keep reading. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Tired of wasting time prepping in Essay on Languages, ways that don't work? We have the music, industry's leading SAT prep program. Of Electoral? Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the speech music, program learns your strengths and Judicial United States Essay weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to speech, you so you get the clothing, most effective prep possible. It's the best prep program available right now. Best of speech music, all, we guarantee your money back if you don't improve your score by My Path, 160 points or more. Check out speech music, our 5-day free trial today: First, this guide is for My Path, students who are serious about their prep . Speech Music? You need to be motivated to college, get a high score, and you need to music, be willing to put in hard work. Getting through these books will take dozens of college, hours, simply because the SAT covers so much material. If you just plan to study 5 hours, your choice of music, book doesnt make any difference . Search Anime? You should focus your time just on speech music taking a sample practice test and reviewing your answers.

Your score wont go up much, and you shouldnt expect miracles. Buying the books is the france, first and easiest step of SAT prep. You'll need to put in speech music, serious work to importance of electoral, actually get the score improvements. Well explain below the best way to get the most out of music, these books. Secondly, this guide is for students who want to improve their score by over 100 points. Of The? To make consistent improvements of speech music, this level, you need more than just tricks. You need to understand the content of whats being tested the Corruption Essay, underlying math concepts and grammar rules rather than just tricks that make you feel like you learned something but are actually not effective. Again, if youre just looking to improve by 50 points, its possible for speech, you to Corruption in the Essay, do that just by retaking the speech music, test, especially if youve taken the Essay, test only once. Finally, to music, improve by by genres, studying books, you need to have a great study strategy . It is NOT enough to speech music, just read a book cover by clothing, cover.

So many students spend dozens of speech, hours cracking through book after book without improving their score. Why? Because they're not understanding what their weaknesses are and Judicial Essay focusing their time on their weaknesses. If you don't focus your time on your weaknesses, you won't improve! It sounds obvious, but it's pretty hard for many students to speech, actually do this well. I write a lot more about of Punjabi, this in my Perfect SAT Score guide, and that's how I designed our PrepScholar SAT program to speech music, do all the hard structural work for you. If youre serious about score improvement, and france traditional clothing you want to study with only books, this is the guide for speech, you. Were going to to IT, divide the music, best SAT books into pistol schurman, a few categories: Critical Books : Must have books as part of speech, your prep program, no matter your skill level or weaknesses. Subject Training Books : The best books to use to Corruption United Essay, train Reading, Math, and speech music Writing.

Books for My Path Essay, Top Scorers : Books that will push you over speech music the top. Books for clothing, Low Scorers and Low Motivation : If you only want to speech, study for 5 hours and improve a little bit, this is OK. Otherwise avoid. France Traditional? The #1 Book to Avoid : New for this year - a book I always used to recommend is now squarely in speech music, the Do Not Buy list. Of Electoral? Find out which. Because the format of the speech, test is changing so much, I do NOT recommend using Old SAT books to study for the New SAT. While the on Languages, tests are more similar than not, you can waste a lot of speech, time studying for the wrong thing, if you don't precisely know how the the return of the, tests are different. Speech Music? Instead, use New SAT books, like the ones below, or use our PrepScholar SAT program.

We rebuilt the Essay, program from the ground up and speech dissected the test to understand it fully. These are books that I believe everyone should have, regardless of importance of electoral, their current score, regardless of speech, where they need to anime, improve. This is extremely hard to speech music, qualify for, and in fact there are only two books out of dozens that Ive tested: Weve written at length about the of Punjabi, importance of music, official SAT practice questions. The SAT test is weird and tests concepts in ways that youve never seen in school before. Traditional Clothing? This means that you need to train with realistic questions so you learn the patterns of the speech music, SAT. Official SAT tests released by the College Board are the gold standard for SAT practice questions. Each test released by the College Board contains real questions given to real students at previous administrations of the SAT. The quality of official questions is far better than questions written by unofficial sources like Kaplan and Barron's. My Path To IT? Even better all of the Official SAT Practice Tests for the New SAT are FREE ! You can download the PDFs, then print them out to get the realistic on-paper testing experience. Speech Music? Visit our Complete Official SAT Practice Tests guide to download all the practice tests and answer keys for yourself.

The best set of practice tests you can get anywhere, period - especially since the New SAT is so new. Search Anime? If you want to speech music, take a practice test, these are the ones to use. Essay Of Punjabi? Answer explanations are not helpful for self-learning for speech music, most students. Most of the explanations read like this: A is My Path, wrong because A is wrong. B is speech, correct for these reasons rather than showing you how to solve the question from of electoral step 1. Music? If you don't know strategies for Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive Behavior, how to approach reading passages or alternative math strategies, you'll need more help. Now that the Black Book has finally been updated for the New SAT, it's only other Critical book I'd recommend. Its not sufficient by itself, and speech even with the practice tests above youll likely need more supplemental help, as I explain below.

But what it does have is clothing, so good that I believe every student studying only with books should read it. What youll get from the speech music, Black Book is a way to think about the SAT. What does this even mean? Here are a few examples: You learn that the SAT is designed to be a predictable, standardized test . It needs to test basic concepts so that it can be administered nationwide to importance college, all students, but it also needs to speech music, make it difficult, so it distorts the importance of electoral college, questions in a weird way. Speech? The concepts in Judicial States, this book were things I understood intuitively when I took the SAT and speech was studying for and Their Supposedly Behavior Essay, a perfect score. Speech Music? Its influenced the way that I think about pistol schurman, teaching our students at PrepScholar. Music? Of all books on of electoral the market, this book aligns most closely with my personal philosophy on the SAT and speech how to Judicial States Essay, succeed on music it.

Very lucid take on the SAT. The ideas within will change your view on the SAT and Judicial hopefully motivate you to speech, work harder, knowing that any student can excel on importance college the SAT. Requires a ton of self-discipline and insight to speech music, use effectively. Because youre learning from Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay your mistakes and no one is music, there to guide you, you need to Judicial Corruption in the United Essay, be self-driven to experiment with different strategies and find which one works best for you. Speech? For some students, following a set of france clothing, straight guidelines could be less confusing. Speech? Once again, I highly recommend these two resources for france traditional clothing, all students studying purely through books.

We cover most of the important concepts in speech, the Black Book in our SAT prep program and provide focused practice on individual skills. As I mentioned above, most likely you'll need specific training on each subject to france traditional clothing, shore up your weaknesses. Music? Next, we'll provide specific resources for individual subjects. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at speech music, improving your score. Download it for free now: Beyond the Critical books above, youll most likely need extra supplemental help on specific sections. The following section discusses the My Path to IT Essay, best books for speech music, Reading, Math, and Writing. These books all follow my SAT prep philosophy: divide SAT content into skills, and to IT Essay get focused training on those skills use realistic, high-quality questions that prep you well for the real SAT cover only what you need to know, not advanced material not on the SAT. In my experience with thousands of music, students, SAT Reading is the most difficult section to Essay of Punjabi, improve. It uses logical reasoning skills that arent as easily mastered as math concepts or grammar rules. Music? Its very important to of the native film, drill down on what types of speech, questions are asked, and Judicial how to speech music, approach these questions in a systematic way.

My recommendation for best SAT Reading book is The Critical Reader 2nd Edition, by france traditional clothing, Erica Meltzer . Speech? This book dissects the Essay, SAT Reading section by question type and skill. She does a great job of teaching the speech, core of My Path, what the question is music, asking, and United States how to work with the speech, passage to arrive at anime by genres, the correct answer. Of all writers, Erica Meltzer aligns most closely with my personal philosophy of speech, drilling questions skill-by-skill to recognize patterns to questions. Great breakdown of the Reading section on a skill-by-skill level. Essay Of Punjabi? Helpful strategies for every type of music, question. Exactly the same approach we use in Pit bulls Agressive Behavior Essay, our PrepScholar program.

Pricey for a book that covers just one section ($26-$35) My philosophy on speech SAT math is that the best way to significantly improve your math score is to learn the underlying math content . Getting familiar with the questions and My Path learning some simple strategies like plug in speech, the answer choices can get you a little progress, but youll quickly run into a ceiling if you have gaps in My Path to IT, your underlying math skills. Your best bet is therefore to find a book that can both teach you math content in speech music, an organized way and give you practice problems to focus on individual skills. Pistol Schurman? It should also tailor to speech music, your skill level , since math questions that are too hard or easy for you are a waste of time. For these reasons, I recommend Steve Warners series of SAT Math books . He has multiple books out for Beginner, Intermediate, and of the native film Advanced students, as well as a set of speech, 240 SAT Math problems organized by topic and Judicial Essay difficulty. Speech? Lessons teaching math concepts are clear and helpful. College? They suggest ways to speed up how you solve questions and identify what the question is really asking. The books split into speech music, the College Board's 4 major topics Heart of Algebra, Geometry and Trig, Passport to Advanced Math, and Problem Solving and Data. This is too broad. Of Electoral College? I prefer splitting these larger topics into even more specific subjects - for example, within Algebra, PrepScholar teaches linear functions, single variable equations, systems of equations, and more.

By focusing on speech music each skill, you are able to more accurately pinpoint your weaknesses and of electoral college drill them. Speech? If youre really struggling with math at a basic level (say, scoring 500 and below), Id recommend that you supplement your work with Khan Academys math modules. Its a free program and it provides an engaging way to pistol schurman, train your most basic skills. Music? I believe the core Khan Academy program has better instruction than their SAT prep program, even though it's not focused on the SAT. The best way to importance, excel at music, SAT Writing is to pistol schurman, understand the music, grammar rules and how they appear on the SAT. Then, you need to Supposedly Agressive Behavior, do a lot of focused practice questions to make sure you learn the patterns of the music, SAT. Thats how we designed our PrepScholar online program to search anime, teach you grammar.

Once again, Im returning to speech music, Erica Meltzer for her SAT Grammar books . Ericas fantastic at My Path to IT Essay, distilling all of grammar into speech, what you need to know for the SAT. Behavior Essay? You wont learn arcane grammar concepts that arent tested. For the rules that are tested, she presents them clearly and covers the foundation if youve forgotten the speech, grammar rule from Judicial Corruption United Essay school. Unlike her Reading book, for music, Writing she has two books . The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar covers all the grammar rules you need to know. Native Film? The SAT Grammar Workbook gives hundreds of practice questions as training material. Speech Music? Neither book is sufficient on importance college its own, which is a big drawback. The first book doesnt have enough questions to really drill the grammar rules. The second book doesnt teach the grammar rules, and the questions arent organized by music, grammar rule. This really complicates the importance college, studying for speech, the student, but I still believe this is the best Writing-focused book out Supposedly Behavior, there. Music? Clear writing and search articulation of speech, grammar rules. There's no guidance on study strategy.

It's a nice breakdown of the SAT, but you don't get instruction on HOW to use the book to france clothing, best maximize your score. Reading cover to music, cover isn't the france traditional clothing, most effective way. Speech Music? Learn more about focusing on your writing weaknesses in my Perfect SAT Writing Score guide. Once again, the Essay, price is high - $50 to $60 for both books . Its good content, but I believe she could get a lot more customers by lowering her prices. Speech Music? Bonus: Looking for the very best guides to My Path to IT, every SAT section? Check out our top guides for every single section of the speech, SAT. Pistol Schurman? Choose the score level you're aiming for: Choose these guides if you're scoring a 600 or above on a section, and you want to get the highest SAT score possible.

Choose these guides if you're scoring below a 600 on speech a section, and you want to pistol schurman, boost your score to speech, at least a 600 level. These are the very best guides available on boosting your SAT score, section by section. Search Anime? They're written by Harvard grads and speech perfect SAT scorers. Don't disappoint yourself - read these guides and improve your score today. Of Electoral College? Best Additional Book for Top SAT Scorers. With all the books above, you already have your work cut out for speech music, you. With 8 full-length practice tests and 5+ books at your disposal, you will be studying for Essay, well over 50 hours. If you go through all your practice using the speech music, guidelines we recommend, youll likely have made huge improvements. If you still want additional practice, I recommend the Barrons SAT books , especially if youre aiming for near a perfect score. I remember using these books during my own prep in high school, and while their questions are inferior to anime, real SAT practice tests, theyre a good backup source when you finish everything else above.

A lot of content. Thousands of speech music, practice questions and search anime detailed lessons with many examples. Music? Topics can get too difficult for what you need to anime by genres, know on music the SAT. Some questions are too hard in Pit bulls and Their Behavior, the wrong way they can get unrealistically hard in a way that youd never see on the SAT. Music? If youre not an on Languages of Punjabi SAT expert yet, you wont be able to detect when this happens and music you can waste time studying things that dont matter. Best All-In-One Book for Less-Motivated Low Scorers. My recommendations have so far been for the ambitious student who really wants to improve his or her score. I know there are some students who just want to put in search anime, 5 hours, get some exposure to music, the test, and then take the SAT and forget about native, it. I personally believe that for speech music, most students, improving your SAT score is, hour for france traditional clothing, hour, the best way to music, improve your chances of Judicial Corruption United States Essay, college admission.

So I would say that if you feel this way, you should question your philosophy. But if youre stuck in this mindset, the speech music, book I would recommend is Kaplans SAT book . Importance Of Electoral? Its an all-in-one book that covers the speech, three sections and contains practice questions and search by genres practice tests. It doesnt excel at music, any of what its doing , but it covers the important bases. It also tends to have more reasonable content than other all-in-one books like Princeton Review. I dont love this book. Essay? I dont even really like it. I dont recommend it if you at all want to speech music, improve your score seriously and traditional clothing are willing to put in study time. But if you just want a single source that can do an OK job and is easily digestible, this is the best one out there.

Covers all three sections and speech contains practice tests. The Return Of The Native? Practice questions tend to music, be unrealistic they often dont phrase questions the Essay, way the SAT would, and speech music they dont test concepts in Judicial Corruption United Essay, the right way. The questions also dont trick you in speech music, the same ways that the Supposedly, SAT does. Speech Music? Want to Pit bulls Behavior, improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to music, have a shot at Pit bulls Supposedly Behavior, improving your score.

Download it for speech music, free now: The #1 SAT Prep Book to AVOID Buying. The Return Of The Film? Unlike every other section on this guide, I'm making one specific recommendation against buying a book. Speech? This is the return of the native, unusual because, prior to speech, 2015, this is the #1 book you would DEFINITELY buy. Importance Of Electoral? College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2018 Edition. It feels really weird to speech music, recommend NOT buying this book, because for years and year, this was THE book to Pit bulls and Their Supposedly Agressive, use to study. It used to contain 10 practice tests that you could get only through buying this book. Music? Why release these tests for free? This is My Path to IT, all part of speech music, College Board's moves to make the test more accessible and to reduce educational inequality. Importance? This is music, great and Essay I support them - but it also means the music, Official SAT Study Guide is now a waste of money . Essay Of Punjabi? The educational material outside of the speech, practice tests is very superficial and to IT Essay unhelpful (we've written far better guides on speech Reading, Math, and Writing - all online and the return free).

Has eight practice tests pre-printed for music, you, so you don't need to print them yourself. Traditional Clothing? Everything in this guide is available for free online. More important than buying the music, books is Judicial Essay, knowing how to use them effectively. The more books you have, the speech music, more important it is to understand how to importance, build a unified study system. Speech? We've written thorough guides to traditional clothing, help guide you through how to study.

Build a study plan across your high school schedule so you know when to speech, take the SAT. Is Book Studying the Essay of Punjabi, Best Option for You? There are a lot of prep methods available to you, and book studying is just one of them. Just to speech music, explore all our options, let's quickly examine whether book studying is right for you. People who choose to Pit bulls and Their Agressive Behavior, study by speech music, books do so for france traditional, different reasons. Some so it for cost reasons. As I noted above, the best SAT books can get expensive. Music? If you buy all the france clothing, top books, you'll be spending around $200 . This is speech, already close to the cost of our online SAT prep program, which goes beyond books by guiding your study step-by-step and and motivating you to pistol schurman, put in music, study time.

Others study with books because they're self-motivated, and they like teaching themselves. If this isn't you, books can be a disappointing way for you to spend time and Judicial Corruption United Essay not improve . If you don't have good study strategy, you can put in music, dozens of hours and make zero improvement, because you're not understanding your weaknesses and solving them. By far one of the most important ways to improve your SAT score is to study your mistakes and search anime learn from them. If you can't do this reliably, you'll need extra help to get you started. Speech Music? We've written a free guide to compare other methods of of electoral, prep. Download this to speech, compare the Judicial Corruption in the Essay, different methods and see which one is music, best for you. Want to college, improve your SAT score by speech, 160 points or more? We've put our best advice into a single guide. Essay Of Punjabi? These are the 5 strategies you MUST be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download this free SAT guide now: Check out speech, our industry-leading online SAT program. Pit Bulls And Their Agressive Behavior Essay? We've designed it to cover all the advantages of speech, books and france traditional tutors at an affordable price.

Featuring in-depth strategy lessons and music thousands of anime, practice questions, we have the content from the speech music, leading books. We include the critical Official SAT Study Guide above. Beyond that, the program acts like your personal tutor. It guides you step-by-step through what you should be working on of electoral college at every moment to best improve your score. It customizes to your strengths and music weaknesses, then gives you focused practice so you learn the patterns on the SAT. Furthermore, it motivates you to on Languages, study so that you put in speech, enough time. France? There's a 160 point guarantee - if you don't improve your score by speech, 160 points, you get all your money back.

Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As co-founder and Essay of Punjabi head of speech, product design at pistol schurman, PrepScholar, Allen has guided thousands of students to speech music, success in pistol schurman, SAT/ACT prep and college admissions. Speech Music? He's committed to providing the highest quality resources to help you succeed. Pit Bulls Agressive Behavior Essay? Allen graduated from Harvard University summa cum laude and earned two perfect scores on the SAT (1600 in speech, 2004, and 2400 in pistol schurman, 2014) and speech a perfect score on anime by genres the ACT. You should definitely follow us on social media. Speech Music? You'll get updates on pistol schurman our latest articles right on speech your feed. Follow us on search anime by genres all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

Ask below and speech music we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Corruption in the United States Essay Each SAT Section: Series: How to music, Get to traditional, 600 on speech Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in importance of electoral, a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the speech, latest articles and Judicial Corruption in the test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015.

All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the music, owner or any content of clothing, this site.

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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to speech music, argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into pistol schurman, common grounds for belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on music nondirective therapy for search by genres building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the potential to offer students an speech music opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to pistol schurman, Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in speech practice, or even possible.

Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of pistol schurman these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents. Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of music persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by to IT Essay, Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into speech music, Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for france traditional this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and speech, explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and on Languages, outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of inquiry and speech music, an ethic of Corruption States inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.

However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Speech Music. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the france clothing, therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the client to adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in music the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of pistol schurman influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by speech music, offering a new way of thinking about the pistol schurman, means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to music, refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.

Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. Judicial Corruption In The States. When Rogers began to speech, explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of Judicial States evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for that politician, but the closer the subject of argument comes to speech music, the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to search, change the role of the therapist. Music. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of anime by genres view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and music, emotions and does his own healing. For the art of rhetoric, the most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.

This technique is called restatement or saying back. Rogers is to IT quite explicit that this is speech not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in Judicial Corruption in the order to speech, check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is anime by genres that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to music, express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is Essay both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into speech music, an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of discourse in which the Corruption Essay, speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the rubric of communication rather than rhetoric.

In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the ideas and feelings of the previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is speech music aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for Judicial in the United States her point of speech music view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to search anime, the reader's position.

This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and speech music, therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. Pistol Schurman. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the music, contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the writer's position, including the contexts in Essay of Punjabi which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the speech, opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the writer's position.

If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the My Path to IT, better. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to speech, be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by pistol schurman, an incomplete understanding of the role of the music, enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.

This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at france clothing, a third party who will judge the speech music, case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is trying to convince, but the audience as third party. The process of pistol schurman inquiry claimed for speech the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of My Path to IT Essay dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of speech music course, is how to to IT Essay, teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice.

Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to use, too difficult to teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the music, rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. On Languages Of Punjabi. But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Speech. Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of invention. The Return Native. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in music sufficiently rich complexity that it is france clothing possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in speech music a much worse position than the the return of the film, therapist, for music writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for students to learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in writing.

To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to Essay, think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by speech music, finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the native film, writer must imagine the speech, entire worldview that allows those arguments to france traditional, exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the printed words of another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the music, mere looking-up of facts, research in pistol schurman a Rogerian context emphasises the speech music, looking-up of facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in of the the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.

In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in music which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for the return of the film which Rogerian principles were originally designed. Music. The oral, face to to IT, face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in music one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. In The. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways.

As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of speech music seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on Corruption United the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the music, other. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in the return film a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate). The discussion is organized according to speech, Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). The Return Of The Native. Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in speech summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to correct it.

This goes on until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to the return of the native, pay the entire cost of music their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in the International Centre and Judicial Corruption in the States Essay, felt strongly that it was unjust to speech music, require foreign students to pay more than local students. France Clothing. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.

Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for music the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in Corruption States Essay this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. Speech Music. But this is exactly the point. I want students to search anime by genres, see the music, difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the entire class in discussing whether a particular response is the return film genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. Speech. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:

So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the pistol schurman, obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to music, go on Corruption to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and usually the class is over before the first exchange of views is complete. But by the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of speech argument and the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of france clothing another's point of speech music view.

The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for a particular piece of writing as to get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the hang of anime by genres this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for speech their own point of view on a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the Essay on Languages, reflected image of their ideas. Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the music, YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for traditional prostitution. A slap on the hand prevents nothing.

If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in speech no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and pistol schurman, should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an speech music attempt to get at france traditional clothing, underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for speech music a person to be ruined for pistol schurman life as a result of a crime committed at music, an early age. But her response was moderate, and native film, had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of speech society and on Languages of Punjabi, protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.

The effect of the speech music, restating process was not simply to soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of france traditional mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of speech view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to improve their ability to reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and search by genres, math.

She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and music, how little most of Essay of Punjabi them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to speech music, economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the world is Essay of Punjabi passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by speech music, telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to see that Ford is france clothing not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an music entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by Judicial States, implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is speech as a person. In The United. Nobody in music the class ever knows much about pistol schurman, her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to speech music, think about the implications of search anime being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.

From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on speech pulling no punches, who is easily angered by My Path to IT Essay, behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the form of being disgusted by speech music, girls who cut themselves off from the the return native, opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. Speech. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the search anime by genres, evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. There is speech music not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and native film, could very well be inaccurate. The object of this part of the exercise is simply to sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and speech music, if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to My Path to IT, produce their actual written responses:

From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and speech music, science is an My Path enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for music themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to ask you this--what about all the successful women in fields other than math and science?

I think there are many opportunities in to IT math and science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in speech the field of search anime by genres journalism is a prime example of the speech music, fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to by genres, enter a non-science field. But I guess the point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and music, every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in Corruption in the United States honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!

More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from speech, somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to pistol schurman, hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at music, all?

My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is the return of the native film driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic. If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end. Dialogic communication is speech only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to of the native, build them, and in some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to underline only one's own point of view.

Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the music, course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and valuing, not as an My Path Essay isolated technique. One criticism of speech Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at Essay on Languages of Punjabi, the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in manipulative practices. (In an music interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is Judicial Corruption in the United States a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.

Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to speech music, be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. Anime. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of music Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the pistol schurman, benivolentiae captatio (securing of music good will) recommended in pistol schurman medieval and modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the music, ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the anime, form, the mutual exploration rather than the music, attempt to convince an Essay opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in effective knowledge- making.

It is a way of activating the speech music, Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the france traditional, price we pay for speech living in Essay on Languages an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from feminist approaches to language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in speech conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the building of on Languages relationships over the winning of an argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and music, other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.

The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of My Path doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Music. Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the of Punjabi, conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to speech, understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at search anime by genres, the expense of understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the challenge is to speech, connect with others. For women, brought up to Judicial in the United Essay, see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Speech Music. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the My Path to IT, more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.

Here, the music, therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. Judicial Corruption States Essay. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration. Even for the therapist, this is risky. Speech. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by pistol schurman, definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by speech, the client's is not necessarily an Essay on Languages of Punjabi attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into speech music, the private world of Corruption United States a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to speech music, use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of pistol schurman most women's preferred ways of knowing. Speech. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on Essay on Languages a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to music, feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of Essay rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the speech music, purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional.

Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. Pistol Schurman. One tenet of speech music Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the Essay of Punjabi, first problem, it is important to speech, keep in mind the film, differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy. Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in order to make contact with other points of view. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.

This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of speech music view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the Essay, others they take in. In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the music, roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for search by genres instance, explored not only speech music what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of their understanding of self. I do not, however, wish to buy into Essay, the politics of separation by speech music, setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.

As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an overstated viewpoint deserves. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the to IT, reaction that is committed to music, paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the opposing viewpoint. Search. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of speech music Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of france Rogerian rhetoric result from speech music, insufficiently complex uses of the technique and Corruption United States, a failure to bring it into music, line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to to IT Essay, the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of new paradigms of communication.

To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and speech, Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the Essay, promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the speech music, work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the My Path Essay, spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an speech music attitude than a technique. Pistol Schurman. The specific form of music Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of traditional view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of music a process of mutual discovery.

I believe, in consequence, that the pistol schurman, benefits of Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of speech a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in My Path Essay society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to speech, communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for Essay of Punjabi the fulfilment of music his own desires. He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of others is frequently placed under the heading of to IT cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for music the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is Essay certainly a cognitive act. But it is also an ethical act.

Cognition is concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. Speech Music. We do not have to native film, value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. Speech Music. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of the return view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. Speech Music. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of Corruption in the our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by music, contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is a precondition to virtue.

This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to of Punjabi, carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of speech music our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.

With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an eloquent testimony to the need to pistol schurman, develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in music the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of on Languages students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to speech, discuss drunk driving. My Path To IT. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for speech music drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and its consequences. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of Essay on Languages of Punjabi opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of position was much fuller than usual.

In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man. The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in speech music another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the drunk.

This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. Judicial In The United Essay. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of speech music her; the one that stands out in my memory is pistol schurman her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago.

We never talk about what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and speech music, drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and the anger contained within it. But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to Judicial in the States, be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.

Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from music, a different perspective than you, Lisa. Essay. I too was the victim of speech music a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.

From that day on, my life was never the to IT Essay, same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to music, plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the My Path, same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about speech music, his feelings about that night. Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the pistol schurman, one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of my being.

I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the music, pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.

At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by random number draw. It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in france clothing the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.

Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in speech music talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and clothing, with their families. Speech. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to Corruption United, her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is music lauded for its power to build bridges. But in by genres this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to speech, work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.

The bridges were already in place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. But the more important news is that the of the native, power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. Music. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is traditional instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.

I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to speech music, a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to pistol schurman, make the transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of speech music any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and concentrating on the return of the less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.

Perhaps the main criterion for music choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is france traditional clothing fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to speech music, dissuade us from teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and france traditional, Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. 1992. Speech Music. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.

In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and traditional clothing, Written Communication, ed. Music. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the Judicial in the States, American Business Communication Association. Speech. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.

Coe, R. M. Pistol Schurman. 1974. Music. An apology for native film form, or, who took the music, form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28. Coe, R. M. By Genres. 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed.

Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.

Composing as a woman. College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. Speech. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Judicial in the Essay, Women's Place. New York: Harper and Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Music. Beyond argument in feminist composition.

College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. Clothing. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication. 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. S. Speech. Ede. 1984.

On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. C. Search Anime. 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers?

Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. Speech Music. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. Essay. 1956. Phaedrus, trans. W. Speech. C. Helmhold and to IT Essay, W. Speech. G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Rogers, C. R. 1961. This is me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. Pistol Schurman. R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.

Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. Music. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Ryback. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.

The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.

Women in search anime by genres communication studies: A typology for revision. Music. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. My Path To IT Essay. 1992b.

Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for speech music Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and the return of the film, K. L. Pike.

1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to speech music, Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is specifically for Essay you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to speech music, your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)

The world is Corruption in the United States passing you by, while you're all out speech there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and on Languages, wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about music, it. There's a whole great world out here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to the return, prepare for it. Stop taking bubblegum courses and crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to your future. Speech. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and pistol schurman, cook gourmet meals. But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work.

If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. Speech Music. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at home and bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. You will work for about 30 years of your life and pistol schurman, if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per speech, cent of women spend up to 30 years in the work force. On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men.

Half of france clothing Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in music clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is by genres handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in speech music that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and Essay of Punjabi, math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is no difference between the brains of men and women.

You think they're difficult because a society which tries to keep you in your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to speech, that ghetto reserved for women who still believe it's cute to pistol schurman, be stupid. There is only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in speech music a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over. By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for the future, and if that isn't frightening, consider the economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at of the film, a conference on Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence.

Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only speech 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance. But it's even more unfair to condemn yourself to always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.

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Case Study Purchasing Management. As a Privileged Fly I have been allowed to be on speech music, the wall of a corporate boardroom to observe the proceedings during the high-powered discussions. The case study is about a manufacturing and engineering firm that has been doing very well in terms sales but has a serious challenge of escalating freight costs. On Languages Of Punjabi! The case study reveals that the root cause of the problem is insufficient inventories and lack of planning and fragmented purchasing process. The case study will provide a detailed analysis of the basic inventory problems confronting the firm.

The case study will also highlight management of forecasting, purchasing, inventories and Production with a view of indicating that the firms management in these areas is inefficient. Furthermore, the case study will look at speech music, inventory management, inventory control and whether the Purchasing Manager should build up her inventory. Need essay sample on Case Study Purchasing Management ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. It will reflect the need to Essay, hold inventory as well as dangers and consequences for poor inventory control. The case study will reflect on materials management as a concept that is applied nowadays in order to streamline process and ensure system efficiency, its advantages and whether the firm must adopted the materials management approach. Finally, the case study will provide other recommendations that can be used to resolve this problem. Speech Music! 1. WHAT ARE THE BASIC INVENTORY PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THIS FIRM? In every organization the traditional purchasing department forms an integral part of the success of the speech department in meeting the sales, production and distribution demand and has a critical role to play in order to ensure that the organization meets and possibly exceed the expectations of the customers. It is therefore imperative for communication to flow between the Purchasing Manager and other Managers around the orders received and the status of the Corruption United production department with regards to materials/parts required for a particular order. The basic inventory problems confronting this firm have been identified as ollows: The lack of communication between the Production Manager and other Managers creates a problem in terms of establishing whether materials/parts are available as well as to enable the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and well in advance to meet the music requirements of the Production Manager in terms of the return of the native film materials/parts or spares. The Purchasing Manager seems to be listening to the words of the Managing Director around cost-saving on limited inventory and unilaterally reduces stock on inventory without proper consultation with other Line Managers.

The Purchasing Manager does not seem to music, understand the role/responsibility of the purchasing department within the firm. According to Hugo, Badenhorst-Weiss van Rooyen, (2002) purchasing and supply management is My Path to IT responsible for the continuous supply of all kinds of materials needed by production in the right quantity, at the right time and at a competitive price. It is therefore clear that the speech purchasing department is the main player in Judicial Corruption United States ensuring customer satisfaction while enhancing the image and reputation of the firm. It is clear that the Purchasing Manager is only focusing on cost-cutting measures by reducing inventory and at the same time ignoring the fact that such process must implemented with great care and consideration. Speech! As much as the firm wants to cut down on inventory it is important that the exercise is Essay of Punjabi not implemented to speech music, the detriment of the firm.

In this regard the Distribution Manager has mentioned that the Purchasing Manager never has anything in stock and this is compounded by the small orders that she places. Obviously the Purchasing Manager should have taken note that the Essay freight costs are going up and music impact that her cutting down on inventory has had to the firm. Insufficient stock on inventory reflects lack of proper inventory management and also taking into account the manner in which orders/parts/stock are ordered. There is Corruption United States Essay no indication whether a policy exist where consultation will be entered into between the Purchasing Manager and other Line Managers in order to ensure that orders are consolidated which would result in a saving on freight costs. As the firm is manufacturing company it is therefore necessary to reflect on reasons for holding inventory. Sufficient inventory ensures that production is continuous and at an economic level, contributing to a lower manufacturing cost per product through efficient use of equipment and music labour (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It therefore means that sufficient inventory and production of orders timeously will result in the organization getting more orders/customers because the reputation of the firm will grow. The firm runs a risk of losing a lot of money if inventory management is not exercised and Essay applied properly. This can result in large inventories being carried and speech kept in stock thus increasing inventory costs which cause the Managing Director to Judicial in the United States, raise a concern regarding the speech need to carry inventory, considering the costs. My Path! However, with proper consultation and communication between the Purchasing Manager and other Line Managers a decision can be taken with regards to materials that must be carried on inventory as well as the acceptable quantities to be carried on inventory.

The aim of speech inventory is to hold inventories at the lowest possible cost, given the objective to ensure uninterrupted supplies for ongoing operations (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It is clear that consideration must be taken into account when a decision is taken on inventory, i. e. the materials that must be kept on inventory as well as drawing a comparison between the costs involved to Essay on Languages, hold inventory and the loss resulting from non-availability of materials. For inventory management to speech, be efficient and effective it is important and necessary for the Purchasing Manager to have an understanding of all elements and costs that are involved in inventory-holding. United Essay! According to Hugo, et al. (2002) the elements of inventory-holding are inventory-holding costs, ordering costs, costs of shortages and speech set-up costs. From this statement it is clear that the Purchasing Manager is not familiar with these elements as there is nowhere during the meeting that she displayed her understanding of inventory management and control. It appears that the Purchasing Manager has never conducted an analysis and/or compared the savings of operating on low inventories against the freight costs as there is no argument during the meeting justifying that. It is also clear that the Purchasing Manager has never bothered to pistol schurman, reflect on the cause of high freight costs and maybe consider that the following might be the cause of the escalating costs: low/insufficient inventories, split orders in small quantities and short lead times. The good example is reflected by the argument of the Managing Director to the effect that the music freight bill is R955 whereas the france cost of the part itself is less than R955. It therefore goes without saying that the speech music firm could have saved more money in freight costs has extra care been taken when orders were placed in that consolidated orders result in saving in freight costs.

It is also clear that there is lack of communication between the Purchasing Manager and other Managers with regards to forecasting. Forecasting of the expected inventory consumption is an Essay on Languages, important aid for effectively anticipating the influences of speech music uncertainties about the future inventory requirements (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). Forecasting of inventory consumption should begin from the time the search anime by genres order has been concluded by the Marketing Manager, with the latter providing relevant information regarding lead times for the order, to the Production Manager giving an indication materials and speech turn around time required for production, to on Languages, the Purchasing and Distribution Managers. In this regard this does not seem to happen as the Purchasing Manager is pointing a finger at the Production Manager, and music the lack of communication might be a deliberate act by the Production Manager who wants to capitalize on the situation and pistol schurman seize control of music both Purchasing and Distribution in the process. It is therefore clear that the power games that are being played by pistol schurman the Production Manager are affecting the firm as some of the shipment deadlines are not met and customers have began to complain which also poses a serious reputational risk. . WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SITUATION? DOES THIS COMPANY REFLECT EFFICIENT OR INEFFICIENT ON MANAGEMENT OF FORECASTING, PURCHASING, INVENTORIES, AND PRODUCTION? There are various factors that have contributed to the growing of freight firms both in numbers and rand value of freight transported.

INBOUND FREIGHT The increase in inbound freights is speech music caused by insufficient materials on inventories which have forced the Purchasing Manager to place orders whenever materials are required by production component. The other contributing factor is the My Path to IT Essay lack of planning and proper buying approach in that the Purchasing Manager has no ordering process in speech place as orders are placed in smaller quantities which is pistol schurman compounded by speech lack of early communication between the Purchasing Manager and the Production Manager regarding required production materials. This failure to communicate creates a problem for the entire Management team as shipment deadlines are not met if materials are not in pistol schurman received in time, a situation that forces the use of freight firms frequently thus resulting in the increase in inbound freights. In short the more the use of freight the increase in freight costs. OUTBOUND FREIGHT In this regard the increase in outbound costs can be attributed to an effort by the distribution component to meet shipment deadlines.

The shortage of materials in inventory and speech music late deliveries of My Path materials due to late ordering result to the production component having to work long hours in speech order to complete orders as well as having to in the Essay, use the speech fastest possible freight available in order to meet deliveries or to make up for the already passed deadlines. It also means that the firm is faced with a situation where there is on Languages no systematic approach to speech, the handling of search orders which can result in orders being delivered within the stipulated deadlines. The more the late deliveries/shipment that need to be made as and when they are ready, the more the use of speech freight and the increase in pistol schurman freight costs. The efficient or inefficient management of Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and Production can be described as follows: FORECASTING The firm does not reflect effective and efficient management when it comes to forecasting. Sound and efficient forecasting involves sharing of music information between Managers in order meet the customer demand, which does not seem to be happening in this regard. The firm is faced with a situation where there is massive communication breakdown between Line Managers which has resulted by in costs escalating, customers complaining and a possibility of pistol schurman losing orders. An effective communication structure enables the speech firm to operate in an organized manner as communication flow from end to end and the shortcomings and/problems are detected and resolved at any early stage with minimum disruptions to production. Participative meetings of the management team assist the france traditional clothing firm in ensuring that all activities are discussed properly where each Manager provides an indication of their requirements in order to enable the Purchasing Manager to have sufficient time to identify all required materials/parts that need to be ordered and to agree with the Production Manager on production materials that must be kept on inventory before orders are placed. PURCHASING. From my analysis I have concluded that the Purchasing Manager is not in total control of the purchasing process as there is no indication that any interaction exist with regards to the requirements of the marketing/production teams. It is also clear that there are no policies/procedure manuals clearly defining the purchasing process that must be followed.

According to van Weele (2005) a lack of a well defined purchasing policy and a lack of structure in the purchasing (decision-making) process and the resulting lack of control on purchasing costs may lead to an unforeseen financial loss. Purchasing policies are fundamental and they contribute to business in various ways in that they can significantly improve sales margins through realizing substantial cost savings. Speech Music! It therefore clear that the purchasing department plays a vital role in the success of the organization provided there are clear and well purchasing policies/manuals in place. In this particular case there has to be an improvement in the manner in which the management team communicate and purchasing policy must be developed in order to france traditional, assist the Purchasing Manager to maintain and manage a buying process that is both efficient and ffective. INVENTORIES The management of music inventories in this firm is very poor and pistol schurman very much inefficient. The shortage of materials is caused by the fact that the firm has cut down on speech music, inventory which has resulted in materials/parts not available when required thus leading to downtime which is costing the firm dearly as production department must work overtime and fastest modes of freight (which are mostly expensive) must be utilized in order to meet production and in the United States Essay shipment deadlines. The Purchasing Manager does not understand and speech music is not worried by the cost implication the reduced inventories and small orders has on the freight budget.

It appears that the traditional clothing instructions of the Managing Director regarding operating on low or no-inventory are implemented without careful consideration of the implications and/consequences. The Purchasing Manager must develop an Inventory Management policy that will reflect sound control measures with regards to acceptable quantities that must be carried on stock as well as the turn around times required for the supply of requested materials. PRODUCTION Production management within the firm seems to speech music, be inefficient. However, failure to communicate production materials requirement reflects a lack of effective communication between the Production Manager, Marketing Manager and Purchasing Manager which is pistol schurman also compounded by the Production Managers personal view to speech music, having purchasing and distribution components, a view which seems to have contributed to problem the on Languages of Punjabi firm is faced with. For effective management of production there is a need to hold inventory of critical materials at minimal level in order to ensure uninterrupted supply of production, and production forecasting must be communicated to the Purchasing Manager in order to ensure that sufficient materials are on hand for the duration of the operation. The Production Manager must establish a working relationship with other Managers and communicate in good faith with the interests of the firm at speech, heart. . WHAT SHOULD JOAN GLASS DO? The important aspect is for to IT Essay, Joan Glass to acknowledge the importance of inventory management and inventory control. Music! In order for inventory management to by genres, be a success it is important to conduct and analysis in order to determine materials that must be classified as inventory items.

This process involves planning and there are planning aids available to assist the Purchasing Manager during this process. According to Hugo et al. (2002) the aims and uses of the planning aids may be expressed as follows: To arrange, classify and interrelate the full range of stock items (the inventory) To carry out an estimate of the real demand for speech music, different stock items To obtain an estimate of the expected inventory requirements of the enterprise To make an the return of the native film, objective calculation of the quantities required, while considering inventory costs and inventory consumption. From the above it is music clear that the required information for search by genres, estimates must be obtained from other Managers and it is therefore necessary to develop a policy that is going to specifically address the issue of providing information to the Joan Glass. The policy must also address the music issue of production forecasting by the Production Manager based on the orders issued in order to ensure the uninterrupted supply of materials. The re has to be an improvement in interaction between Managers and the policy must define the roles and responsibilities of each component and encourage co-operation. . Traditional Clothing! SHOULD JOAN GLASS SUGGEST A MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION? Materials management can be defined as a concept that is aimed at ensuring that systems are efficient. It acknowledges the fact that supply activities are dependant on each other and that the problem with one activity has an influence on other activities linked to it. Materials management consolidates all activities under the control of a single Manager and aligns the music processes (purchasing, inventory management, distribution and transport). An organization, which has adopted materials management organizational concept, will have a single Manager responsible for planning, organizing, motivating and controlling of all activities principally concerned with the flow of materials into an organization (Leenders Fearon, 1997). From the above it is clear that the france traditional firm in this case will have one Manager, as opposed to four Managers the firm currently has, responsible for all activities with the exception of production if the concept is adopted. It is speech music also clear that the adoption of materials management approach will require the firm to undergo a restructuring process and organizational review, a process that will include review of business/supply processes.

As much as materials management has its advantages it is important for the firm to conduct an analysis and research in to IT order to speech music, determine whether such approach will reduce costs and increase profit margins as opposed to to IT, the total costs for organizational restructuring. I do not think that Joan Glass should suggest a materials management organization. The firm has a challenge to ensure that there is flow of communication and information sharing between Managers in order to cut down on freight costs. The approach in handling production and materials supply needs to be re-aligned and improved. 5. SHOULD GLASS BUILD UP HER INVENTORY? The decision to speech, hold inventory should not be taken lightly as that might have a huge financial implication if the approach is fragmented. Inventory management cannot succeed if necessary controls are not in place as the costs for holding inventory might rise, shortage of space for of the native film, inventory, obsolete inventory due to bulk buying. In this case there is a need to speech music, hold inventory considering the fact that the company is Corruption States faced with a challenge in terms of ensuring uninterrupted supply of material to production and also meet shipment deadlines; which is contrary to music, the current situation. Joan Glass should not just build up her inventory without any basis, such decision must be supported by the result of an analysis conducted as well as the forecast of the Production Manager. The ABC analysis, also known as the Pareto analysis, will assist Joan Glass to determine the items that must be kept on stock.

According to Hugo et al. (2002) the ABC analysis is primarily aimed at providing management with information on the importance of the different inventory items in terms of money value. The ABC analysis can only be attempted after a thorough investigation has been carried out on aspects such as price, demand for different inventory items, delivery times and the particular problems related to the purchasing of different inventory items (Burt and pistol schurman Dobler, 1996). Speech Music! The carrying of inventory at a minimal level coupled with sound forecasting will reduce freight costs and also keep inventory costs as low as possible, which means that there has to be a balance between inventory carrying costs and ordering costs. 6. WHAT OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS COULD YOU MAKE TO RESOLVE THIS ISSUE? The case study shows that there is a communication breakdown between the management team and communication forms an integral part of the success of the organization. The communication model stipulates that communication goes both ways and there has to be feed back. There has to be frequent communication between marketing, purchasing and distribution departments in france clothing order to ensure that the required materials for orders do not fall short before the final production of an order. This will also assist the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and place consolidated orders which will minimize the freight costs.

There is also no indication that there is a purchasing/distribution policy in place in order to ensure that relevant processes are clearly spelt out. There is speech music a need to be up to date with what is happening in the industry in order to ensure that the organization keeps up with the changes that takes place all the time and to Essay on Languages of Punjabi, make a meaningful contribution of the company. In this regard Joan Glass has to be aware of what is going on within the firm, there has to be structured communication between Managers in music order to ensure that production and supply is not hindered because of materials shortage. Implementing decisions or suggestions made by management without consideration can have reaching consequences as it is the Essay case here with the cutting down on inventory because of the suggestion by music the Managing Director. Whenever changes have to france, be implemented an analysis and speech research needs to france clothing, be conducted and justified by statistics/facts including costs that the organization will save. However, in speech music this case no analysis was made except that Joan Glass decided to Essay on Languages of Punjabi, cut down on inventory without considering the impact the non-availability of music inventory will have to production, distribution and marketing. Inventory management goes hand in hand with sound inventory control. The organization can also look at having contracts for certain materials in order to ensure that materials are delivered timeously. Judicial Corruption In The United States! The organization must also look at formulating the purchasing policy in order to eliminate the fragment ordering approach that result in small orders being placed thus building up freight costs. The entire management team has to speech music, acknowledge the fact that planning is crucial in every successful organization and that organizational interest is more than individual interest as that can impact negatively on the success and growth of the organization. The case study has also highlighted the need to explore other options aimed at addressing the problem the search anime organization is faced in order to provide the speech music management team with valuable information coupled with well researched facts so that an informed decision can be taken.

CONCLUSION The case study has reflected on the problems and the importance of inventory management and sound inventory control. It also highlights the importance of good and efficient management of Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and Production. The case study has highlighted the importance of Corruption in the Essay planning and communication between the speech music management team and the consequences of poor planning. REFERENCES Van Weele, A. J. 2005. Purchasing Supply Chain Management: Analysis, Strategy, Planning and Practice. 4th Ed. London: Thomson Learning. Hugo W. M. J. , Badenhorst-Weiss J. A. van Rooyen D. C. 2002. Purchasing and Supply Management.

4th Ed. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik Publishers. Burt D. Corruption In The! N. , Dobler D. Speech Music! W. Starling S. L. 2003. World Class Supply Management: The Key to Supply Chain Management. 7th Ed.

New York: McGraw-Hill.