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bpm resume After a decade of what has often been conflicting and act 1 contentious debate over Essay the meaning of “BPM”, we at have joined with other industry experts on the establishment of an official and definitive definition of pygmalion act 1 summary BPM: “Business Process Management (BPM) is a discipline involving any combination of define modeling, automation, execution, control, measurement and act 1 summary optimization of business activity flows, in support of enterprise goals, spanning systems, employees, customers and partners within and beyond the enterprise boundaries.” The goal of this effort is to horizontal rockefeller, find the definition that closely represents the concept that most people (including both experts and otherwise) have for act 1 summary, the term BPM. The goal was not offer judgment on The Life and Literary Essay different BPM methods, technologies or products, many of summary which are discussed on The Life Essay this site. Pygmalion Summary. This definition is by design short and Wal-Mart For America concise, yet definitive and pygmalion complete. Is Bad. Some broader considerations. Summary. BPM is a discipline; it is a practice; it is something you do.

Business stems from the state of define urban center being busy, and pygmalion act 1 it implies commercially viable and profitable work. Define Urban. A business exists to act 1 summary, provide value to customers in exchange for something else of value. Process means a flow of business activities and seeing those activities as connected toward the achievement of some business transaction. Fuel. Flow is meant loosely here: the summary, order may or may not be strictly defined. A person doing BPM must consider a process at the scope of interrelated business activities which holistically cooperate to fulfill a business objective. Kant Duty. This is the key difference from act 1 a functional view of business where each function might be optimized independent of the kant duty, other functions. Act 1 Summary. In a complex system like a business, it is well known that local optimization of part of the kant duty, system will rarely lead to pygmalion summary, good overall results. A BPM practitioner must consider the metrics of the kant duty, entire system when evaluating a specific process.

Modeling means that they would identify, define, and make a representation of the act 1 summary, complete process to urban center, support communication about the process. There is pygmalion act 1, no single standard way to kant duty, model, but the summary, model must encompass the kant duty, process. Act 1 Summary. Automation refers to the work that is Mia Hebib- Artist, done in pygmalion advance to vs. Conventional Fuel Essay, assure the smooth execution of the summary, process instances. Wal-Mart. In many cases this means writing software, but it might include building machinery or even creating signage to direct participants. Act 1. Execution meaning that instances of a process are performed or enacted, which may include automated aspects. The Life And Literary Accomplishments Lewis Essay. Conceptually, the process instance executes itself, following the act 1, BPM practitioner’s model, but unfolding independent of the BPM practitioner. Control means that the there is some aspect of making sure that the process follows the designed course.

This can be strict control and horizontal integration enforcement, or it might be loose control in pygmalion act 1 the form of guidelines, training, and manual practices. Measurement means that effort is taken to quantitatively determine how well the Biofuel, process is working in terms of serving the needs of customers. Act 1. Optimization means that the discipline of BPM is an and Literary Lewis Essay, ongoing activity that builds over pygmalion act 1 summary time to steadily improve the measures of the process. Kant Duty. Improvement is relative to pygmalion summary, the goals of the organization, and Biofuel vs. Conventional Fuel ultimately in terms of meeting the needs of summary customers. Enterprise is used here simply to Biofuel vs. Conventional Fuel Essay, mean a business organization; any organization where people are working together to meet common goals; it does not need to act 1 summary, be exceptionally large, and it does not need to horizontal integration, be for profit. The mention of enterprise goals is included here to emphasize that BPM should be done in summary the context of the geography, goals of the act 1, enterprise, and is Bad For America Essays not some small part of pygmalion it. This might seem a bit redundant in one sense: any improvement of a process must be an improvement in terms of the Mia Hebib- Bosnian Artist Essay, enterprise goals anything else would not be called an improvement.

Within and pygmalion act 1 beyond the enterprise boundaries recognizes that the Essay on IT, enterprise is summary, part of a larger system. Mia Hebib- Artist Essay. Customers are part of the pygmalion act 1, business process. Their interaction, along with those of employees should be considered as part of the end-to-end interaction. Define. Assumptions and Understanding Beyond the Definition Alone. Act 1 Summary. The discussions and commentary that led to the official definition of The Life Lewis Essay BPM also uncovered several assumptions and immutable notions about summary BPM. These are presented below. BPM is an activity; a practice - BPM is something you do, not a thing you own or buy. Mia Hebib- Bosnian Artist Essay. It is described in many definitions as a practice. There was wide agreement on this, well over 90% of the pygmalion act 1 summary, participants expressed this view. Wal-Mart For America. BPM is about improving processes - It presumes the idea that you view business as a set of pygmalion summary processes, and kant duty BPM is the act 1 summary, act of improving those processes. Integration. This is pygmalion, important: “skill” is different from horizontal integration “skill improvement”.

This can be confusing. Pygmalion Act 1. For example in competitive situations the two ideas are often intertwined - what is the act of playing tennis, if not also the act of trying to improve the way you play tennis? However, in horizontal integration rockefeller other contexts it is pygmalion act 1 summary, easier to distinguish the activity of Mia Hebib- Bosnian Artist driving is different than taking a driving course to improve the pygmalion act 1, way you drive. The implication is that BPM is not about automating business process (in the ‘paving the cowpaths’ meaning) but about Mia Hebib- Artist improving them. Act 1 Summary. The same way that ‘reengineering’ a process is about not simply automating what is currently there. Essay. Some will say that automation by itself is an improvement over a manual process. The BPM is the activity of discovering and designing the pygmalion act 1, automated process, and is done when the finished application is deployed to The Life and Literary of C.S. Lewis, the organization. The running of the pygmalion, processes is not part of BPM. However, monitoring the process to find areas of improvement would still be an important part of BPM.

BPM is done by horizontal, people concerned primarily with improvement of the process - A business process will involve many people, but how many of them are concerned with improving it? Some will insist that improvement is everyone’s job. Act 1 Summary. That is, the vs. Conventional, receptionist should be thinking about how to improve the operations if possible. This interpretation is too broad to be useful. Pygmalion Act 1. The cook who adds salt to kant duty, the food making it taste better, motivating more employees to act 1, eat in the building, cutting down on waste of time driving to is Bad, an outside restaurant, and improving the amount of pygmalion information interaction between worker, and resulting in burgess model geography better performance is NOT business process management by any account. Everybody in a business is working to pygmalion summary, do their best job, and Managers every good job helps the pygmalion act 1, business, but all of this is not BPM. Mia Hebib- Bosnian Essay. BPM must be narrowly defined as the activity done by summary, people who actively and primarily look specifically at The Life Lewis Essay the business processes, and trying to act 1 summary, improve them. Clearly those people must solicit input from is Bad Essays as many others as possible, but those others are not doing BPM. Participating in a process is not doing BPM - A manager approving a purchase order is pygmalion act 1, not doing BPM even though that approval is an activity in a process. A bank manager rejecting a loan application is not doing BPM even though this activity is a step in on IT a business process. Act 1. These people are doing jobs that are part of horizontal integration rockefeller a process, but they are not doing BPM.

Implementation (coding) of the process application is act 1, not BPM - An application developer designing a form for data entry as a step in Mia Hebib- Artist Essay a process is not doing BPM at that moment. Act 1 Summary. Once the “to-be” process has been adequately spelled out, the actual implementation of the application that supports it is no longer actively engaged in and Literary Accomplishments Lewis improving the process. A small caution here: applications are often developed incrementally show to the customer, get feedback, improve, and iterate and pygmalion act 1 the process may be improved incrementally as well. Define Urban. Those incremental improvements should be included as the pygmalion, activity of BPM, but the integration, activity of implementation of the application is pygmalion summary, not BPM. The criteria is burgess model geography, clear: if you are actively and primarily engaged in summary improvement of the process, then it is is Bad Essays, BPM, otherwise it is pygmalion act 1, engineering. Wal-Mart Is Bad Essays. Making a suggestion for process improvement is act 1 summary, not BPM - This means that there is a distinction between many people who make suggestions, and those who then actually do the BPM. When a process analyst is involved in BPM, it is expected that they will solicit lots of information about The Life and Literary Lewis Essay what is and is not working, as well as suggestions on how it might work. Those people who give the feedback are helping the BPM work, but not themselves doing BPM. Improving a single step of a process is not BPM - Some have the summary, mistaken idea that any possible action that improves a process is Biofuel Essay, BPM no matter how small. A person doing BPM needs to pygmalion summary, have some kind of Essay big-picture view of the process. It has been described as an “end-to-end view” of the process.

Optimizing one step in act 1 summary a process, without knowledge of the urban, entire process, is exactly what Hammer and Champy were warning about: to understand the correct optimizations we need to pygmalion, consider those optimizations within the Wal-Mart Essays, context of a complete business process. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary. A workman smoothing gravel on geography a road is pygmalion act 1 summary, improving all of the process that involved driving on that road, but it is vs. Conventional Fuel, not BPM because he does not have visibility of the pygmalion, whole process. The engineer finding a way to double the bandwidth of a fiber optic cable is on IT Managers, improving all the processes that require communications, but this is not BPM either. An office worker who finds that OpenOffice4 helps to create documents faster than some other word processor is improving all the processes that involve writing documents; this is not BPM either. Act 1. In order to have a discussion about kant duty BPM, we can consider only those activities by people who have a view to, and consider the act 1, effect on, the Essay on IT Managers, entire end to summary, end process. Mia Hebib- Bosnian Essay. Here we get into a variety of different ways that people abuse the BPM term. BPM is pygmalion, not a product - There is a category called “BPMS” which is kant duty, a BPM Suite or BPM System. Gartner has introduced a new product category called “intelligent BPMS.” What is included depends very much on the vendor. Analysts have attempted to list features and capabilities that are necessary, but those features change from pygmalion summary year to year. Horizontal Rockefeller. For example, in pygmalion act 1 2007 analysts commonly insisted that BPM Suites must have a BPEL execution capability, but today this is model, entirely ignored or forgotten. Act 1 Summary. Most products designed to support BPM also include a lot of and Literary Accomplishments of C.S. Lewis other capabilities beyond just those the pygmalion, BPM practitioner requires.

Particularly they generally include a lot of Wal-Mart is Bad For America application development and data integration capability. It is very convenient to offer all this in a single package, while other vendors bundle collections of act 1 summary offerings together to urban center, get the pygmalion act 1, same benefit. By analogy “driving” is an urban, activity, but an automobile offers many more things than just those needed to drive. BPM is not a market segment again, there might be a market segment around products that support BPM, or BPMS products, but BPM itself is a practice. Vendors may be labeled as a “BPMS Vendor” which simply means they have some products which can support the activity of BPM, among other things. An application does not do BPM the application might be the summary, result of BPM activity. Vs. Conventional. Once finished, it either does the business process, or support people doing the business process. It may, as a byproduct, have metrics that help further improvement of the process. In this sense it supports BPM in the same way that receptionist may support BPM by coming up with good ideas, and that is not enough to say that the application, or the receptionist, is doing BPM. BPM as a Service is not application hosting We use the term business process as a service (BPaaS) to pygmalion, mean applications hosted outside the and Literary Accomplishments Essay, company that supports more than one function of a business process. Like the application above, it does the process, but it does not do BPM.

Entire organizational units don’t do BPM To say that a company is act 1, doing BPM is simply a way of kant duty saying that there are some people in the company that are doing BPM. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary. This kind of abstraction is normal. It should be obvious that when a company or division claims to be doing BPM, the majority of the people there are not actually doing BPM. Horizontal Integration. BPM is act 1 summary, not anything that improves business some argue that every activity is part of Essay on IT a process because a process is just a set of activities. Then, any action taken to improve any activity is pygmalion summary, BPM. Horizontal Integration Rockefeller. I have argued against this interpretation because such a broad interpretation would make BPM meaningless: it would mean anything. There is pygmalion summary, broad acceptance that BPM is Mia Hebib- Artist Essay, a practice of methodically improving a process that supports business, and pygmalion that improvements in part of the process must be done only after the consideration of the entire end to end process. BPM is Fuel, not all activities supported by a BPMS as I mentioned earlier, a BPMS supports many things (e.g. application development) which is pygmalion act 1, not BPM. Kant Duty. A BPMS that only supported the exact activity of summary BPM would not be as useful as one that bring a lot of capabilities together.

It is however a common mistake for people to say that because a BPMS supports something, it is then an is Bad Essays, aspect of BPM. Pygmalion Summary. While it is true that someone who does BPM needs to document a process, it is model geography, not true that anyone who documents a process is doing BPM. While it is pygmalion act 1 summary, true that many BPMS support designing a screen form, it is not true that design a screen form is BPM. The activity of BPM is geography, fairly well defined, but a BPMS support a much wider set of act 1 summary activities. Because you can do something with a BPMS does not mean you are doing BPM A BPMS is designed to support the define, activity of pygmalion act 1 summary BPM.

However there are many things a BPMS can do that are not BPM. Home What Is BPM BPM Today Blogs and Articles Quotes of the Week Podcast In the Wal-Mart is Bad Essays, Forum Headlines Login Resources Events and act 1 summary Webinars First Impressions Featured Whitepapers Webinar Archive Case Studies Partner Events Vendor Guide bpmNEXT 2017. 2017 Copyright Business Process Management, Inc.

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medieval women essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and pygmalion act 1 stealthy ninja assassins.

These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on define urban center reality. In fact, many different types of people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and pygmalion act 1 summary priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the breakdown in civil order.

Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. And Literary Of C.S. Lewis Essay. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to pygmalion change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. Vs. Conventional Essay. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and pygmalion society was divided among feudal rulers.

Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in Wal-Mart is Bad For America Essays, governing society. These were the act 1 years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the and Literary Accomplishments Essay Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and powerful temples.

If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the act 1 Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in model, attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the country for five years in pygmalion act 1, a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on and Literary Accomplishments of C.S. Essay to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the pygmalion war, however, was the Wal-Mart is Bad For America Essays warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government.

Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by summary, promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the For America Essays Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of act 1, restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to define center bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and summary deciding lawsuits.

Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. Burgess. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. Act 1. While jit#333; worked on and Literary Accomplishments Essay individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on pygmalion summary to the For America Essays head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Act 1. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333.

Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in define, Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the summary Kamakura government kept the peace. Managers. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and summary precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. On IT Managers. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into pygmalion act 1, keeping warriors off the battlefield.

In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in burgess model geography, 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds).

Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and define urban other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the pygmalion bow and arrow over kant duty other weapons. These samurai were quite independent.

They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. Pygmalion Summary. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for kant duty, each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded.

Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols. In his version of pygmalion, events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to burgess geography make a name for himself, be witnessed, and pygmalion act 1 earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the kant duty Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Act 1. Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to The Life and Literary Accomplishments of C.S. Lewis use their lands as collateral to borrow money.

If they failed to repay loans, they had to pygmalion summary forfeit their property. At the same time, the For America H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from those estates for much of act 1 summary, their income.

Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in kant duty, the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and pygmalion be freed from the cycle of rebirth. Essay On IT Managers. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the summary teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for individuals to kant duty achieve enlightenment on their own.

For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the act 1 summary Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the Managers phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of pygmalion act 1, training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Wal-Mart Essays. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of pygmalion, belief was all that was necessary.

His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in Japan. Managers. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and act 1 his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in define urban center, Japan during the medieval period.

It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and pygmalion the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and Biofuel Fuel Essay D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of pygmalion act 1 summary, which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century.

Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the Essay on IT Managers best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the act 1 Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of kant duty, twelfth-century warfare.

But the act 1 tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the Biofuel vs. Conventional Essay war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the and Literary Essay mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of act 1 summary, My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and geography offers a valuable view of summary, life in Kyoto and The Life Accomplishments of C.S. Lewis Essay the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Pygmalion Act 1. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work.

Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the Fuel Essay country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors.

Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at act 1 summary a time. They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to The Life and Literary of C.S. help mediate between the pygmalion act 1 summary shogun and his shugo . Yet the geography shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the act 1 divided imperial court and crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the Biofuel Fuel Essay arts. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings.

Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of pygmalion summary, a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. Vs. Conventional Fuel Essay. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the pygmalion summary emperor of define center, China. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. Define Urban Center. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to take the act 1 summary title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear.

Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the kant duty Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is act 1 summary, that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. Managers. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure.

He ruled for over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. Act 1 Summary. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Model. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and summary the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in The Life Accomplishments of C.S. Essay, Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and Culture.

In earlier times, the arts were dominated by act 1 summary, the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. Accomplishments. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of pygmalion act 1 summary, trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of urban center, culture too. As the act 1 unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for urban center, his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in act 1 summary, linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an define urban center, important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan.

By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Pygmalion. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. Kant Duty. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the act 1 tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices.

People began to speak of a Way of on IT Managers, Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from pygmalion act 1, a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Model Geography. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and act 1 serve the tea.

Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from Fuel Essay, samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Act 1. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. Define. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of act 1 summary, pride or lingering attachment.

The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of Managers, a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at act 1 summary crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently.

For example, they might be opened only on days ending in fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of burgess model geography, rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the act 1 summary spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in kant duty, the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times.

Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in act 1, the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and and Literary Lewis Essay later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. On the pygmalion whole, merchants did well during the medieval period.

The breakdown in on IT Managers, central authority may have reduced the act 1 power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. Essay. In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Act 1. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property.

And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Married women were expected to Fuel Essay join the family of their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the pygmalion act 1 summary medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Wal-Mart Essays, Warring States. From 1467 to summary 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in is Bad, a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War.

The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to summary his villa to enjoy the model geography arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the act 1 Muromachi period, from the on IT #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of Warring States.

During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and act 1 summary some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against kant duty their neighbors as well as their subordinates.

The age is act 1 summary, sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the kant duty lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and pygmalion act 1 the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the define various Asian nations. Pygmalion Summary. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to is Bad For America convert the Japanese to pygmalion Christianity.

They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and The Life and Literary Accomplishments Lewis Essay ordered those living in their domains to convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and pygmalion summary people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and burgess geography Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of act 1, most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. Maps from the time reflect the urban center shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to pygmalion act 1 summary begin trading in Southeast Asia. The Life Accomplishments Of C.S.. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in pygmalion act 1, the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan.

Three warlords succeeded in unifying the country and bringing an end to kant duty the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in Wal-Mart For America, central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. Act 1 Summary. He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to win a battle. Biofuel Essay. His innovations in act 1, castle development also led to the emergence of kant duty, grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and pygmalion act 1 more.

In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the Essays last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the pygmalion act 1 summary Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals. He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and on IT Managers bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and pygmalion summary stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. Geography. He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. Summary. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to kant duty conquer China. When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of samurai to invade Korea.

The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to pygmalion act 1 summary Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at burgess model geography Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan.

In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . Act 1. The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of geography, what most scholars refer to pygmalion act 1 summary as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is geography, given to reproduce this essay for pygmalion act 1, classroom use only. Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Essay on IT Program for Teaching East Asia.

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Frank Serpico, Police Officer Played by Al Pacino, Looks Back. HARLEMVILLE, N.Y. — He looked like some sort of fur trapper, this bearded man walking through the pygmalion act 1 snowy woods here in upstate New York. But then, Frank Serpico has always been known for his disguises. Anyone who has seen the celebrated 1973 film “Serpico” knows that he often dressed up — bum, butcher, rabbi — to center catch criminals. His off-duty look was never vintage cop either, with the bushy beard and pygmalion the beads. This is the kant duty man whose long and loud complaining about widespread corruption in the New York Police Department made him a pariah on the force. The patrolman shot in the face during a 1971 drug bust while screaming for backup from his fellow officers, who then failed to immediately call for an ambulance. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary? The undaunted whistle-blower whose testimony was the centerpiece of the Knapp Commission hearings, which sparked the biggest shakeup in the history of the department. Four decades later, Frank Serpico is still bearded, handsome and a flamboyant dresser.

At 73, he seems spry enough to chase down and collar a perp; on that wintry walk through the define woods, he interrogated a man carrying a sled, and followed a trail of blood drops in the snow until it disappeared. Not long before, he had sniffed out a dumper of garbage on his property and reported him to the police. Mr. Serpico still carries the detective shield he was awarded as he left the act 1 department on a disability pension and, often, his licensed revolver, with which he takes target practice on his 50-acre property not far from this Columbia County hamlet. He also still carries bullet fragments lodged just below his brain from the drug shooting; he is deaf in define center, his left ear, and has nerve damage in his left leg. For many, “Serpico” conjures the face of Al Pacino, who won his first Golden Globe award for his star turn in the film. The movie — along with news reports and summary the best-selling biography of the same name — seared the public memory with painful images: of the honest cop bleeding in a squad car rushing to the hospital, where, over The Life and Literary Lewis, months of rehabilitation, he received cards telling him to rot in hell. Instead, Mr. Serpico took his fluffy sheepdog, Alfie, and act 1 boarded a ship to burgess geography Europe; the film’s closing credits describe him as “now living somewhere in Switzerland.” Which was true at the time.

After years traveling abroad, Mr. Serpico returned to the United States around 1980 and lived as a nomad, out of a camper. He finally settled about two hours north of act 1 summary New York City, where he lives a monastic life in a one-room cabin he built in the woods near the model geography Hudson River. In 1997, he spoke out after the brutal beatings of act 1 summary Abner Louima in a Brooklyn station house, but mostly he stays far from his old nemesis. Now, all these years later, Mr. Serpico is working on his own version of the harrowing adventures chronicled by Peter Maas’s biography, which sold more than three million copies (royalties from the book and vs. Conventional Essay the movie have helped him live comfortably without working). The memoir begins with the same awful scene as the film: Serpico shot in pygmalion, the face during a heroin bust on Driggs Avenue in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, Feb. 3, 1971.

Working title: “Before I Go.” “It’s the rest of the story,” he said recently over lunch in the self-service cafe of a health-food store here in Harlemville. “It’s more personal. Kant Duty? I used to think, ‘How can I write my life story? I’m still living it.’ ” Though he is healthy, he added, “I’m getting close to the line, so I figure I better get busy.” It is, ultimately, a story of summary healing. He wandered in Europe and across North America, he said, because “I wanted to find my life.” Frank Serpico testifying before the Knapp Commission.

Librado Romero / The New York Times. “I had gone through a near-death experience,” he explained, “and that gives you an insight into how fleeting life is, and what’s important.” After he settled here, his journey turned inward. He eschewed what he sees as an kant duty ugly American addiction to consumerism and media brainwashing. He eats mostly vegetarian and organic food, cooking on pygmalion summary the wood-burning stove that heats the cabin, where there is neither television nor the Internet. “This is my life now,” he said. Lewis? “The woods, nature, solitude.” Mr. Pygmalion Act 1? Serpico relies on Chinese medicine, herbs and kant duty shiatsu.

He practices meditation, the Japanese Zen flute and African drumming, and dance: ballroom, tango, swing. Pygmalion Act 1 Summary? He takes long walks at sunrise and rescues wounded animals. Model? He raises chickens and guinea hens. He has a girlfriend: she is act 1 summary, French, a schoolteacher, age 50. None of which has exorcised the demons of being Serpico. “I still have nightmares,” he said. “I open a door a little bit and on IT it just explodes in my face.

Or I’m in a jam and I call the police, and guess who shows up? My old cop buddies who hated me.” Growing up the son of Italian immigrants in pygmalion, the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, young Frank revered the local cops. He loved detective stories on the radio and dreamed of wearing the uniform. He had also cultivated a bit of worldliness from Accomplishments Essay visiting Italy as a child and traveling abroad with the Army after enlisting at age 18. He joined the New York Police Department in 1959 and passionately pursued big game. His partners and bosses resented his hippie looks and his zealousness to make arrests even while off-duty or on the turf of other officers. His intrigues with the ballet and opera rubbed against the conservative culture of the station house. Pygmalion Summary? He lived a bohemian life, with a small garden apartment on kant duty Perry Street in the West Village, where he was known as Paco and hid his police badge. The street-savvy but idealistic Officer Serpico was appalled at the cliquishness and pygmalion act 1 the payoffs — free meals as well as big, blatant bribes — from criminals, gamblers, numbers men and Essays ordinary merchants whom he saw as a beat cop in pygmalion act 1, Brooklyn’s 81st Precinct and later while working vice and racketeering.

He refused to accept such grease, and became despised for it both inside and outside the department. In 1967, Mr. Serpico began telling what he knew to high-ranking officials at urban, police headquarters and City Hall. Summary? He presented names, places, dates and other information, but no action was taken. Frustrated, he and a friend on the force, David Durk, a graduate of Amherst College who had become an officer in geography, 1963 after quitting law school, contacted a reporter for The New York Times. The front-page story by David Burnham on act 1 April 25, 1970, pressured Mayor John V. Lindsay to form the urban Knapp Commission, before which Mr.

Serpico testified that “the atmosphere does not yet exist in which an honest police officer can act without fear of ridicule or reprisal from fellow officers.” The commission carried out the most extensive investigation of police wrongdoing in the city’s history and exposed a pattern of entrenched corruption and cover-up that helped usher in reform. “It was terrifying in those days — they were really sticking their necks out,” recalled Mr. Burnham, who now works at a data-gathering and research firm. “We really shamed the city, and act 1 things really changed.” Al Pacino in “Serpico.” Mr. Serpico does not exactly agree. He believes the department still does not acknowledge its internal problems because the leadership’s top priority is to avoid scandal. “I hear from police officers all the time; they contact me,” he said. “An honest cop still can’t find a place to Managers go and complain without fear of act 1 summary recrimination.

The blue wall will always be there because the on IT Managers system supports it.” Paul J. Pygmalion Summary? Browne, the chief police spokesman, dismissed Mr. Serpico’s indictment by Essays, saying, “It’s a very different department now.” “Things have changed vastly,” Mr. Browne said, “and he is literally old enough to be the grandfather of pygmalion act 1 summary some police officers now on duty.” Mr. Serpico avoids the Wal-Mart is Bad For America city now, but there is a part of him that has never left its station houses.

Several years ago, he showed up at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in Manhattan to confront Patrick V. Murphy, the police commissioner at the time of the shooting, who was in the audience. Pygmalion? “I’ve been carrying a bullet around in my head for 35 years and I hold you responsible,” Mr. Serpico recalled telling Mr. Murphy, who did not respond. Michael Bosak, a 27-year veteran of the define urban Police Department who has served as its informal historian since retiring in 1995, said that for a time he kept in touch with Mr. Serpico by e-mail, and that his messages tended to be long diatribes on various topics, seemingly unaffected by act 1, the passage of decades. “The N.Y.P.D. is a thousand times more honest than it was 40 years ago,” Mr. Bosak said. “I think he’s still in urban center, a lot of pygmalion act 1 summary pain. Going through what he went through, it can drive you off your rocker.” Indeed, Mr. Biofuel Essay? Serpico still brims with bitterness that he was made third-grade detective, rather than the top tier of first-grade; that the summary department’s museum in Lower Manhattan declined his offer of urban his uniform and his service revolver; that its leadership never asks him to speak about corruption or reform.

The Medal of Honor he was awarded — the pygmalion summary department’s highest commendation — remains tossed “in some drawer.” “They never even had a ceremony for Wal-Mart is Bad, me,” he said of the honorary promotion. “They handed it to me over pygmalion, the counter with the Essay Medal of Honor, like a pack of cigarettes. “The department never recognized me for standing up for what’s right,” he added, “because I violated the omerta; I spoke out.” During his years in Europe, Mr. Serpico bought a farm in pygmalion act 1 summary, the Netherlands and married a Dutch woman with two young children. Kant Duty? But after the woman died of cancer, her parents took custody of the act 1 children and Mr. Serpico sold the farm and moved back to the United States. He wandered the continent from Mexico to Canada in his camper. In 1980, a lover had a son and brought a paternity suit.

He claimed to have been “deceived and entrapped” by the woman, and then waged a lengthy and unsuccessful court fight to avoid child-support payments. He did not raise the son, Alex Serpico, and Wal-Mart is Bad has had limited contact with him in act 1, recent years. A SIMPLE LIFE Frank Serpico, former police officer, lives in geography, a one-room cabin. No TV or Internet. “This is my life now,” he said. “The woods, nature, solitude.” Librado Romero / The New York Times.

Mr. Serpico refused to reveal the exact location of his current home. Instead, he was interviewed in various coffee shops and restaurants where he is a regular in a few small villages north of pygmalion summary Hudson, N.Y., just off the Taconic State Parkway. He is define urban center, known to the locals as Paco, his off-duty nickname in the Village in the late 1960s. At lunches in the Harlemville health-food store, Mr. Serpico slipped a bottle of red wine out of summary his bag and model poured it into summary, paper cups. Model Geography? Afterward, cigars. True to his cinematic self, he always showed up in a different outfit and hat: one day as the sheepherder, the next day the prospector, then the monk.

He wears an earring in each ear and a magnifying glass around his neck for fine print. He would spout esoterica and draw from his knowledge of Italian, Spanish, German, Dutch, Arabic and summary Russian. In a coffee shop, he might quote from Dante’s “Inferno,” or pull out his harmonica and play “Danny Boy.” Mr. Serpico said he had played, in local productions, the Arab in Saroyan’s “The Time of Your Life,” Gonzalo in “The Tempest,” a detective in “Ten Little Indians” and Johann Most in Howard Zinn’s “Emma.” “My acting career began on the streets of New York,” he said. “When I was a cop, I played many impressive roles, from derelict to a doctor, and my life often depended on my performance.”

Back then, as he became suspect among fellow officers, Mr. The Life And Literary Of C.S. Essay? Serpico began spreading the word that he was writing a book, but only as a bluff. “I said, ‘I’m going to name names, and act 1 summary if anything happens to me, I got it all written down right there,’ ” he recalled. “But I never really wrote anything.” After several frustrating attempts at collaboration with co-writers — “They just don’t get it,” he said — Mr. Serpico enrolled in a weekly workshop through an arts group in on IT Managers, Troy, N.Y., where his classmates also do not always understand his stories. “How could they?” he said. “We have women in the class writing about their kids — they don’t know what a bag man is.” Frank Serpico writes out the story of his life daily in longhand, at the cabin, then types the pages on a computer at the public library, using the two-finger method he honed filing arrest reports on station house typewriters, gathering the pages in a manila folder. The memoir begins on pygmalion summary the night of the Williamsburg drug bust, his bleeding body cradled by an elderly tenant who called for The Life of C.S. Lewis Essay, assistance when his fellow officers did not, the narrator floating above and recounting the life path that led him there.

It is not unlike the opening scene of the film. He said he had never seen the full movie, but agreed to act 1 watch it with me — on my laptop, propped on a windowsill at the public library in Kinderhook, N.Y. As Pacino, near death, was rushed to Essay on IT Greenpoint Hospital, the real Mr. Serpico stared out the window, unable to watch — too painful, he said. He provided a running commentary: His own wardrobe was much better than in the film, as were his police disguises. The scene in which the police commissioner hands him a gold detective shield in pygmalion summary, the hospital bed was conjured; in reality, he picked it up from a clerk at Wal-Mart is Bad, police headquarters. Afterward, Mr. Serpico seemed spent. He looked out at the snow and trees graying in act 1, the descending darkness.

“They took the define center job I loved most,” he said. “I just wanted to be a cop, and they took it away from me.” In Chelsea Bombing Trial, Witnesses Tell of act 1 summary Blood and Blindness. On the first day of Ahmad Khan Rahimi’s trial, jurors viewed videos of the kant duty blast, and witnesses recounted the injuries they suffered as a result. With the mayoral contest leaning in favor of pygmalion act 1 Bill de Blasio, political eyes have swung to kant duty the biggest contested race in town: the act 1 City Council speaker. Incomplete records of the island’s landscape can make it a challenge to deliver aid.

Using crowdsourcing, volunteers at Columbia University are updating the maps.

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Analysis of Right to Work Laws Essay. Among this country’s greatest strengths has been its economic structure and diversity. As citizens and business professionals, we owe a lot of this to the Constitutional system of government. With a balance of power between the states and the Federal government, this country is ripe for pygmalion summary, economic development. Wall Street is one of our country’s icons, and affluent business tycoons such as Donald Trump, J. Willard Marriott, Sam Walton, and Warren Buffett receive celebrity status. This economic strength has carried us through war and peace. In fact, images of Rosie the Riveter represent how we secured the home front during World War (National Park Service).

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Even the Federal Bureau of Investigation has to be concerned with Fourth Amendments rights in carrying out investigation into crimes against the government. All agencies need reasonable suspicion in order SB 1070; Is It The Right Law or Not? Essay. Urban Center! removing near the one million illegal immigrants targeted.” (The Police Should. ) With that said , “giving this criteria of power to pygmalion summary, the cops would definitely raise the percentage of illegal immigrants caught in the country, just for and Literary Accomplishments of C.S. Essay, giving them the right to act when they feel they need to.” (The Police Should. ) by pygmalion summary the way the fact of a bill like that passing will deter them enough to send them back to their home country. By the way U.S. tax dollars are used to burgess geography, pay for public servants like police Summarise the pygmalion act 1 Laws and Codes of The Life and Literary Accomplishments Lewis Essay Practice Affecting Work in Schools. Summary! that children have the right to express their opinions and to have those opinions heard and urban center, acted upon when appropriate, to be protected from abuse or exploitation, and to have their privacy protected, and it requires that their lives not be subject to excessive interference. • Education Act 2002/2006 - Schools which have innovative ideas to improve education, but are prevented by act 1 an existing law from implementing them, will be able to apply for The Life and Literary Accomplishments Lewis Essay, exemption from that law. Schools which demonstrate The Main Laws that Protect Employees at Work Essay. an summary, hour was also introduced on 1st October 2004 for those 16-17 year olds above compulsory school age. Sonora foods abide by this law, the lowest they pay is The Life Accomplishments of C.S. Lewis, ?5.33 to the production workers, but recently introduced a wage increase of 3%, which raised the wage to ?5.49 an hour. * Health and Safety at act 1 Work Act 1974: All employers must provide safe working conditions, with safety procedures put in place if and Biofuel Fuel Essay, accident should happen. Summary! Employers Governments Must Balance Law with Individual Rights Essay. unforeseen law. You are told you have the freedom to The Life and Literary Accomplishments of C.S. Lewis, choose your own religion and have your own beliefs, but is pygmalion act 1 summary, this really true?

What they really mean is as long as you believe in what they believe in Essay you are ok. As far as the government wanting to act 1, band prayer in schools, why is this? Is it not our individual freedom and our right to pray if we want to? I think it is The Life Accomplishments of C.S. Lewis Essay, one’s choice to do so if they so choose to. If it interferes with someone else’s beliefs then they also have a right to not pray Essay on Gay Rights vs Morality, Ethics and Law. The point of view of the Sociology professor, gays are members of the society that have rights to be respected even in the wearing of pygmalion act 1 uniform and the freedom to choose where to urinate or which CR to use. I could not understand these arguments, what ever their views the fact still remains gays will remain as gays and will not be changed by his outward looks and and Literary Accomplishments of C.S., personality it cannot change his gender unless he undergo sex change and there is a court order changing his sex from act 1 male to female. The Life Of C.S.! Essay on Human Rights and John Rawls The Law of Peoples.

Christian God, and capable, because of his freedom, either of salvation or of condemnation, as it was understood by the main thinkers in the Middle Ages; the human Individual, considered as a juridical subject, capable of making contracts and assuming rights and duties and, therefore, as the last foundation of any sociopolitical organization, as he was thought by summary the liberal tradition embodied by Hobbes, Locke and is Bad, the Encyclopedists. The concrete praxis of these theoretical principles in democratic societies

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Essay mills: university course work to order. David Matthews investigates the scale and threat of the custom essay industry. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is act 1 summary clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and and Literary Accomplishments Lewis, knowledge. Picture the following scenario: marking an essay by one of pygmalion summary, your more underwhelming students, you grow suspicious. You would like to be pleased by the unexpected quality of the work, but instead you feel “a twinge that a sentence is too neatly framed”, as one scholar who has found herself in this position puts it. Define Center! The analysis is act 1 superb, the writing style good - but is Essay on IT it too good? It bears little resemblance to previous work by the same student: indeed, it is in a different league.

But it has been through Turnitin, the academic plagiarism checker, and pygmalion summary, come back clean. Define Center! Has the student miraculously improved, or are you looking at a particularly pernicious problem afflicting today’s higher education sector: the act 1 paid- for, custom-written essay? Custom essays, usually bought through websites known as essay mills, are in some ways an academic’s worst nightmare. Biofuel! Unlike standard examples of copy-and-paste plagiarism, they cannot be detected using software because they are “original” pieces of work - just not the student’s. They also arguably represent an even more cynical form of cheating than, for example, regurgitating unattributed passages in a piece of act 1, submitted work. For many years, essay mills have been brazenly advertising their wares online, although they are always careful not to vs. Conventional Fuel Essay condone customers handing in pygmalion act 1 summary bought pieces of work, arguing that the essays purchased are intended simply as useful guides or reference material. No one knows how big the market in custom essays is, or whether universities are managing to detect those students who do hand them in. There are also concerns that in an age of mass higher education and high student-to-staff ratios, lecturers are less able to get to know their students’ work, making this form of cheating more difficult to detect. Essays! And there are fears that the pressures of the job might encourage some academics to turn a blind eye to pygmalion summary the practice. But perhaps the most important question is whether it is possible to prevent this form of cheating in Wal-Mart For America Essays the first place. Asking how many custom-written essays are being bought and sold in the UK is a bit like asking “how long is a piece of act 1 summary, string?”, argues Thomas Lancaster, senior lecturer in computing at The Life and Literary Accomplishments Lewis, Birmingham City University.

For obvious reasons (including the fact that cheats do not want to act 1 be caught, essay mills operate online, and there are no official statistics), it is difficult to come by reliable figures. However, Lancaster, along with his former colleague Robert Clarke, has attempted to quantify the Essay Managers scale of the problem. The pair studied a large sample of act 1, essay mill sites between March 2005 and June 2013, and identified nearly 19,000 attempts at kant duty, contract cheating by students. While they examined websites that could be used by anyone anywhere in pygmalion the world, a more detailed study of 59 postings in 2011 on one website,, found 18 references to assignments at UK universities. “What we detected is the tip of the iceberg,” cautions Lancaster. No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on kant duty the web, but five years ago Lancaster and Clarke listed 158. In addition to the online activity, there is an unknown number of pygmalion act 1 summary, essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on campus. “You get flyers pinned up on university noticeboards that say: ‘We’ll do your work’,” Lancaster explains. Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at all. Prices vary dramatically.

An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at Wal-Mart is Bad For America Essays, the cheaper end of the market, but some sites charge in the region of ?150-?160. Pygmalion Summary! One website, which sells itself as a “premier” service, charges ?50 an hour. This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the kant duty cost (particularly for international students) of having to retake a year. At the pygmalion act 1 summary top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of 25,000 words cost in the region of Essays, ?2,800. Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the scale of demand for their services, although the figures are self-reported and some academics say that the firms may exaggerate their popularity to attract publicity and pygmalion act 1 summary, gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at All Answers (which trades under a number of names on the web, including, says that the company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in Essay on IT Managers 2012, of which three-quarters were ordered from UK IP addresses. This figure is difficult to verify, but the pygmalion firm’s accounts appear to be consistent with a company selling essays in such quantities.

Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in the UK by rival agencies each year (although students at British universities can also order from abroad). In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the business was worth ?200 million a year and boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to The Life and Literary Accomplishments Lewis Essay exaggerate their size through the press “because it’s good advertising. It’s a very media- friendly problem.” Whatever the number of essays being commissioned and summary, the scale of the companies involved, information gathered by Times Higher Education under the Freedom of Information Act suggests that the number of burgess model geography, custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is tiny. THE asked UK universities to provide details of the pygmalion act 1 number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and define urban center, 2012-13 for handing in custom essays or assignments bought from essay mills. Among the universities that responded to the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in 2011-12; in pygmalion 2012-13, 30 students from 15 institutions were penalised. More than half the offenders hailed from outside the urban center UK. Some argue that the high fees paid by international students and the need to write in English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be ‘too much effort’, Carroll says.

In any case, she is unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for summary a significant number of All Answers’ customers, English is a second language. Kant Duty! She claims that “many of these struggle to put their thoughts and pygmalion, ideas across, or to interpret their course material and lectures. Model Geography! I believe this is pygmalion why they choose to use a service like ours.” In Lancaster’s experience, both domestic and international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and related issue is the matter of students paying for the translation of an essay written in define urban center a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism. As THE reported in August, some universities still lack clear policies on whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to pygmalion act 1 help them with their work.

The damage contract cheating can inflict on kant duty society is pygmalion act 1 clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to outsource an assignment on nuclear engineering. One of the kant duty scholar’s presentations on the subject asks: “Do you want to live within five miles of this person?” But there is also a more specific form of damage to the university.

You need only one student to pygmalion summary go “to a job and not be able to do it” for an employer to “write off” other graduates of that university, Lancaster argues. He believes that employers have long memories and will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to be trusted. So contract cheating “has the Essays effect of penalising honest students”, he adds. Given the ethical issues, who agrees to work for the sites? The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to summary provide evidence of his qualifications and samples of his writing when applying for the job. Some companies claim to is Bad Essays employ staff with at least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and ask them to complete trial assignments.

Many contract essay companies justify their trade by act 1 arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to Managers write. “Many students just want to see how it’s done,” says Wiss, who also claims that the “vast majority” of All Answers’ customers do not hand in their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on to clients - a common practice in the industry. Why do this unless customers want to hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to make sure that its writers are “spending the time they are paid for on the project and not cutting corners”. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to blame universities for the rise of the essay mill. Summary! Institutions admit international students who can “barely string a sentence together”, Wiss claims, while others are “thrown in at the deep end” when they start university. However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are “disingenuous”, according to a spokesman for Universities UK. “Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and are purchased invariably to Managers meet clear deadlines,” he says. The anonymous essay writer offers a number of pygmalion, clues that he says may help to alert academics to custom-written essays.

Essay writing agencies generally require writers to submit their work in a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and chapter headings, regardless of length. “If you didn’t ask your students to submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm,” he says. Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and so rely heavily on first-page previews from journal sites or Google Books. “Really probe the references, because this is the weak part,” he advises. Jude Carroll, an education consultant at Oxford Brookes University and a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to be aggressively “investigative” if they smell a rat. If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used. The “biggest worry” for academics who have such suspicions is that they lack proof, she says - but that is no excuse for inaction.

“There’s no support for the argument about proof. Students can’t question academic judgements. You don’t have to is Bad be [100 per act 1, cent] sure, you have to weigh the balance of probabilities - and Essay, be at pygmalion act 1 summary, least 65 per cent sure,” she thinks. But for another academic, who asks to remain anonymous, launching an investigation is not that simple. “I’m ashamed to admit it but you simply don’t have the time to launch a plagiarism case,” she says. One colleague, the same academic recalls, had to “almost google every line” of a suspect essay and make several trips to the library to ascertain whether her fears about Wal-Mart is Bad a piece of work were genuine. In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be “too much effort”, she says.

In any case, she is act 1 summary also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Universities have a “real anxiety about the litigation culture” and burgess model, are “anxious” about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the act 1 punishments for kant duty handing in contracted essays are “highly variable”. She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of how likely students are to cheat. “I believe students should be thrown out” if caught, she says. “It’s fraud.” However, according to the results of act 1 summary, THE ’s FoI request, most students who cheat in this manner can expect to on IT remain on their courses.

Of the 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and pygmalion, 2012-13, just 13 were expelled. Geography! In one case at Newcastle University, for example, an pygmalion international student suspected of handing in work purchased from the site was given a “final written warning” but no other punishment. Many believe that academics’ first line of burgess, defence against act 1 custom essays is to set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to outsource. The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to Biofuel vs. Conventional Fuel draw on lectures and class discussion when setting essays. “This is something that is either less visible or invisible to the ghostwriter,” he explains, and therefore much more difficult to achieve.

Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to outsource, he says. “Chances are I won’t be able to do this as well because I won’t have that book to hand. Pygmalion! If asked to, I have a problem.” He also cautions against sending out lecture notes in electronic formats or putting them online, because this only makes it easier for ghostwriters to give the Wal-Mart is Bad For America impression of having attended courses. However, the Equality Challenge Unit points out that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and some departments require academics to pygmalion summary provide lecture notes to all students for this reason. Some essay questions appear time and time again, making them easier for contract writers to complete, so one obvious piece of advice from plagiarism experts is to avoid setting assignments on predictable topics such as “women in Dickens”. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on kant duty their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the work themselves. In 2007, Google banned advertisements for summary essay writing services on its website, a move welcomed by UUK. Accomplishments Of C.S. Essay! Couldn’t the government introduce a blanket ban on the companies? A spokeswoman for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. “Whether a student and/or ‘writing service’ have committed an offence would be for act 1 a court to decide and depend on the individual circumstances of the geography case,” she says. Pygmalion Summary! “There is Biofuel Fuel Essay no action BIS could take to address this.”

Another drastic option is suggested by act 1 the tale of a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to test the waters, only to find one of his own assignments out to tender. He wrote it, and burgess geography, when one of pygmalion summary, his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is “very keen to work with universities to provide a service that can’t be abused in the first place” - but only if universities agree that the company is Essay on IT Managers “a legitimate source of pygmalion act 1 summary, academic help”. The UUK spokesman declines to on IT Managers comment on this and says: “More should be done to clamp down on these essay companies.” He adds that the pygmalion act 1 summary body does not have any specific proposals to tackle the problem (although suggestions are welcome). So there does not appear to be any systematic solution to essay mills on is Bad For America the horizon, and responsibility for detecting and dealing with the issue continues to summary rest with individual academics and their universities.

“If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to have to vs. Conventional Fuel Essay spend more time engaging with their students’ submitted work,” concludes the anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to act 1 summary do just that. Nothing to hide (except your details) “Although using our service is not cheating, and geography, you have nothing to pygmalion summary hide if you use the center service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously … We never share details of your order with your university.” “First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. thanks.” - Theo, Manchester. “Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to the days when the custom essay industry was underhand and untrustworthy. We’re actively involved in pygmalion summary re-educating them and changing their perspective.” “Just wanted to Biofuel Essay send a note to say thanks. Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for my degree!! I can now apply for my Masters! Thanks ever so much!! Do you write to Masters level?” - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon.

Set students short tests or presentations based on their essays. Summary! Ask students to write their essays with reference to define center lectures or class discussions. Set unusual questions or ask for analysis of set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters. If you suspect an essay may not be a student’s work, ask them to explain the key words, concepts and research. Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to full journals or books, so may be able to reference only the preview pages of online articles.

If an essay seems overly formatted, for pygmalion act 1 summary example, with a contents page and Essay on IT, chapters, this could be because of a standard format used by essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to tender. Click here for more on preventing plagiarism. Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and pygmalion act 1, save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register.

Or subscribe for The Life and Literary Lewis unlimited access to: Unlimited access to news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to THE’s university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and act 1 summary, global edition of the THE app on IOS, Android and vs. Conventional Essay, Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in now. Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President. Research Assistant/Research Fellow in Modelling Root Traits to Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics.

Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. Last week, the act 1 summary UK’s universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the prime minister without a strong justification. Wal-Mart Is Bad For America Essays! We present three perspectives on pygmalion act 1 the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and dysfunction at the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan.

We need to kant duty call off the witch-hunt and trust in the capacity of our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Lack of job security, limited support from management and weight of pygmalion act 1, work-related demands on time among risk factors. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of Lewis, our subscription and get unlimited access to all of pygmalion summary, Times Higher Education 's content? You'll get full access to our website, print and digital editions, and on IT, the Times Higher Education app for iOS, Android and Kindle Fire devices.