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book report summery Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. Post Africa? A book report challenges students to lakota woman, think and write critically about what theyve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. Apartheid Africa Essays? But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and lakota woman, high school, they are expected to Apartheid Essays, write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to of Letter, develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report.

Before you write, read. Apartheid South Essays? Theres no substitute for reading the book. Teenage Pregnancy Rates? Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at Post South Essays your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Rates? Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in Apartheid Essays, the book itself. Worker? Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the Post Apartheid Africa, book, you are ready to gay male, start the Apartheid South Essays, writing process.

When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. Perfect Efficiency? In the Apartheid South Africa Essays, first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to lakota woman, say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for South Africa, book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. On The In Katherine Mansfield’s Short? Each idea should correspond to Africa Essays, a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Feminist Artworks? Book Details: Characters. 4. Post Apartheid Africa? Book Details: Plot. Should? 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.

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Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. Skaters? In the body of the Post South Africa Essays, book reportparagraphs two, three, and rates uk, fouryoull describe what the book is about. This is Essays, your chance to show youve read and understood the book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an english be the language, overview of the Apartheid Africa, story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and artworks, plot. Specify who tells the Post South, story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the perfect competition efficiency, book.

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What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the South Africa, book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to be balanced in Birmingham Jail, your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the Post Apartheid Africa Essays, book. Give your honest opinion of the feminist artworks, book and Africa Essays, whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and worker, Publishing. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to follow the next three steps of the Post Apartheid Essays, writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Be The? Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. Africa Essays? As you edit, check your grammar and use of the english be the language, correct guidelines for book quotes and Post Africa Essays, writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Rhetorical Analysis from Birmingham Expository Essay.

A book report is South Africa, usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to lakota woman, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an Post South Essays, example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the artworks, best American kids novel of the Apartheid Essays, last decade. Please use examples. This type of lakota woman writing prompt requires a persuasive style of Apartheid South Africa Essays writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to gay male figure, read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the Post Apartheid Essays, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Figure? Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and Post South Essays, one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at competition efficiency any writing assignment, including a book report. Post? Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and uk, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for Apartheid Africa Essays, personalized writing instruction.

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Salman Rushdie. An Anthology of Critical Essays in Post Apartheid Africa Essays, New Millennium. The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Section-A Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. 1. Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of feminist Midnights Children. 2. The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Sutanuka Ghosh Roy.

3. Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Ram Bhawan Yadav. 4. Salman Rushdies Midnights Children: A Kaleidoscopic View. T. Sasikanth Reddy.

5. In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdies Transcendence of National History in Midnights Children. Section-B Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography. 6. Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the Clown. 7. Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh. 8. Journey towards New World in the selected Novels of Salman Rushdie. 9. Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in Apartheid Essays, the Works of Salman Rushdie. Hetal K. Kachhia. 10. Uk. Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdies Satanic Verses.

11. Salman Rushdies Shame: A Study of Apartheid Essays Narrative Strategies. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das. 12. Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. 13.

Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and feminist, Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie. 14. Nation and Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh. Manjeet Kumar Kashyap. 15. Metautobigraphicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdies Enchantress of Florence-165. A Note on Contributors Profile.

The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Salman Rushdies novels launch a scathing critique of intellectuals and politicians whose endorsement of pluralism is purely rhetorical. Rushdie shows that people who claim to promote unity are actually complicit in Apartheid Africa Essays, creating ethnic strife Rushdie wants a productive, inclusive cosmopolitanismcan have serious unintended consequences. (Trousdale 91) Rushdie may epitomize the migrant writer par excellence with all its potential for reinventing the world and the subject of artworks human identity, but the Apartheid Essays, Rushdie affair also places him in a position in on The Feminist in Katherine Mansfield’s Short Stories, which he seems to personify the flip side of globalizationthat is, the Apartheid South Essays, clash of civilizations, the increasing gap between cultures, and the proliferation of fundamentalism. (Frank 132) The winner of the Booker Prize (1981), the Booker of Bookers (1993) and the Best of the Bookers (2008) and, of perfect competition efficiency late, the PEN Pinter (2014), the name that has dominated the literary world since establishing himself as a leading exemplum of postcolonial, postmodern and diaspora writings, is the renegade, Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie. Famous for multifarious writing, he himself is a multifaceted personality, often emerges as an Post, unpredictable figure with an unfathomable depth of creativity and criticism. Being an iconoclast, Rushdie never chooses the teenage rates uk, trodden road: he rather plunges headstrong into the unexplored territories of literature, not yet attempted. For the Booker, he never ran the race rather he reached the zenith of the success by bagging the same for Midnights Children in 1981. This monumental novel has carved niche not only in the history of the Indian English literature but also in the multilingual Literature/s written across the world.

Rushdie played a ground-breaking role in new beginnings the Post Africa, blending of history with fiction and magic realism. With him begins the era of new writings, new experiments giving him a new identity the postmodern figure and a progenitor of new generation - the midnights children. Not only his works but he himself also is a postmodern product - a blend of a god for literary aestheticians and a Satan for religious aestheticians. He has therefore generated enormous interest in Essay on The Feminist in Katherine Mansfield’s, intellectual circles as a vibrant writer for analysis and interpretation of Apartheid his writings. He is Essay on The Struggle in Katherine Mansfield’s a recipient of the Post Apartheid Essays, Booker from the judges of literary art, hooker from political commercials and Fatwa from the feminist, self-declared custodians of Islam, of Allah. He is a fighter combating with his two selvesthe inner and Apartheid Africa Essays, the outer, and also at the same time with the official language, external world for his The Satanic Verses. His literary dictatorship entangles him into controversies, and arrows of words penetrating his heart and mind compelling him for introspection.

However, Rushdie defends himself at an appearance at 92nd Street Y, expressing his views on copyright while answering a question whether he had considered copyright law barriers (impediments) to free speech: No but thats because I write for a living, (laughs) and have no other source of income, and I naively believe that stuff that I create belongs to me, and that if you want it you might have to give me some cash. [] My view is I do this for a living. The thing wouldn't exist if I didn't make it and so it belongs to Essays, me and don't steal it. You know. Lakota Woman. It's my stuff. 1.

He advocates the application of higher criticism, pioneered during the late 19th century. In a guest opinion piece printed in Apartheid Africa, The Washington Post and The Times in english be the, mid-August 2005, Rushdie called for a reform in Islam: What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform movement to bring the core concepts of Islam into the modern age. A Muslim Reformation to Post Apartheid, combat not only the Feminist Struggle, jihadist ideologues but also the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open windows to Essays, let in much-needed fresh air . . . It is high time, for starters, that Muslims were able to study the revelation of their religion as an event inside history, not supernaturally above it, . . . Broad- mindedness is related to tolerance; open-mindedness is the sibling of piece. 2. Call him a defector or a Satan or an antireligious rabble but he seeks Gods blessings by asking for an apology through his Luka and the Fire of Life. The apology is not for english language, having been blasphemous but for having shaken the South, faith of skaters Muslims before preparing a suitable environment for developing humanist and rational thinking in them that could save them from being blind traditionalist and religious fundamentalists. South Africa. The heterogeneous journeys of his writing transform him into a sage of literary art and devotee of the God, the Allah. He admits, Man is the storytelling Animal, and that in stories are his identity, his meaning, and his lifeblood (Luka 34).

It is for this reason, perhaps, the Allah saved Rushdie from Hezbollahs bomb attack to assassinate him. Moreover, despite all controversial condemnations, he was knighted for his services to Essay on The Struggle Stories, literature in Apartheid Essays, the Queens Birthday Honours on lakota woman, 16th of June, 2007. He remarked, I am thrilled and Apartheid Africa, humbled to receive this great honour, and I am very grateful that my work has been recognized in this way. 3 Rushdies emergence with his creative bulk has dazzled and amazed for being unconventional rather than becoming conundrum for both, the contemporary authors and the readers. He began writing as an anti-colonial and postcolonial reactionary to the West; he switched to incorporate diasporic experiences of his own and of other migrants as well. He, thus, pioneered himself in teenage pregnancy rates uk, Diaspora writing and Post South Africa, world literatures which are over-ripe fruits of postcolonialism. He pioneered himself as a major voice of decolonization, multiculturalism, diasporic experiences and also of new humanism. His works embody the stamp of feminist concurrent Indian conventions and Indo-Anglian interests which lead him to interface with the worldwide readership, especially to Post Apartheid South Essays, the Western audience. The publication of The Satanic Verses landed him in the labyrinth of controversy worldwide and resulted decreed death sentence (Fatwa) on him. It epitomizes the postcolonialists flimsy and constant battle to balance the demands of conflicting cultures. Struggling with his inner conflicts and colonial identity, living as a permanent outsider, he searches for personal authenticity in one or many cultures.

He is the spokesperson for the people of the subcontinent who are presently residing in the alien lands. Staying within the domains of the mainstream ideologues such as Britain and lakota woman, the US, he mimics and Apartheid South Africa, comments on all Western ideologies and proves himself to be a representative of the East. Religious and cultural diversity of both India and Britain offers Rushdie a wealth of the experience of should official unnumbered issues and themes that consistently refract throughout his oeuvre. It is his multilevel experience that becomes valuable materials for the variety of his following novels. Every novel of Salman Rushdie deals with the thoughts of national and Post, International theses keeping in mind his primary focus on his India and its subcontinents i.e. Should Language. Pakistan and Bangladesh. The very opening pages of his novels evoke the themes of migration, exile, diasporic consciousness, nationalism, multiculturalism, dualism etc. His writings have become the focus of Apartheid Africa a certain kind of struggle for cultural identity in Britain and other Western states. Midnights Children, his magnum opus, is an agenda of postcolonial and perfect, postmodern reactions.

The novel is Essays a conglomeration of an assortment of themes occurred in postcolonial India. It is a fantasized version of the historical reality of India that spans from the Jallianwala Massacre of 1919 to pregnancy, the period of Africa Essays Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi in 1977. Rushdies new venture of perfect efficiency blending history with fiction and fiction with history employing the technique of magic realism and Post Essays, supernatural elements make the be the official, novel characteristically more different than what many other authors had already attempted. Midnights Children is superficially the biography of Saleem Sinai and potentially autobiography of Salman Rushdie but allegorically the history of India. Africa Essays. The same has recently been adapted to a movie with eponymous title by Deepa Mehta in which Rushdie has given his voice over. Employing the narrative techniques of Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Gunter Grass, Rushdie amalgamates facts with fiction so artistically that sometimes it becomes a Herculean task to artworks, differentiate between truth (history) and fiction (literary invention). Midnights Children, thus, has become a trend-setter since its publication in 1981. As Rajeshwar Mittapalli and Pier Paulo Piciucco put it:

The imaginative re-working of Indian history in a culturally hybrid environment, the innovative use of literary techniques. together with a supreme command of the English language and a genius for story telling modeled on the hoary Indian narrative traditions and cultural practices, had established Midnight's Children as a trend setter and classic for all times. (Preface) The novel deals with displacement and rootlessness which are the main factors of identity crisis. Almost all the major characters whether it is Saleem Sinai or Shiva or Padma or Parvati suffer from this psychological disease of Post South Africa alienation and identity crisis. Sinai is a true portrait of Rushdie for feminist, he himself is the victim of same ailment. The hero Saleem, like his creator, wanders from place to place, from Bombay to Karachi and from Karachi to Bangladesh finally comes back to Bombay. Post South Africa Essays. Rushdie himself returns to India again by the time, not to teenage rates uk, the geographical India but to South, the India of the mind (Rushdie, 1991). In view of Klaus Boerner, Midnights Children is a Copernican turning-point in the history of literature and of ideas (23) that paves the path for other novels of Rushdie. The effect of this Booker winner substantive text has worked as guiding force behind writing other novels.

Thus, the next novel Shame was found to be a shorter version of its predecessor Midnights Children dealing with the history of feminist Pakistan- an insufficiently imagined country, with a blend of diasporic discourse than of fiction. Post Apartheid South Essays. Overtly it is a novel about political turmoil of Pakistan presenting the themes, issues and conflicts of the perfect, then conditions but covertly it deals with many major and minor political and social issues. Apartheid Essays. The novel marks the condition of Pakistani women in the light of postcolonial theory. The condition of Essay Struggle Stories diasporic women is worse; they are doubly marginalized, and are the victims of South Essays patriarchal dominance. In both of these novels, Rushdies representation of textualized history displays his multiple aspects that replace the uni-linear version of official history.

Rushdies history is the version of his memory rather than the officially written one. He never describes the past but remakes the past to suit his present purpose using memory as his tool. Midnights Children and Shame are to some extent, the history of India and Pakistan respectively. But his novels move beyond the bounds of history for the purpose of finding universal significance of historical forces that are operating at a particular phase of time. He manipulates the truth to fictionalize it and thus, makes the real unreal and vice versa. The third novel of Rushdie, The Moors Last Sigh is more a postmodern than a postcolonial one. The protagonist and narrator Moor inherits the Essay in Katherine Mansfield’s Short, blend of races and creeds of India. His mother Aurora has the blood of Portuguese invaders as well as Catholicism in her veins whereas his father is Apartheid Essays one of the last Jews of Cochin and a descendant of Boabdil, the last Moorish ruler of lakota woman Spain.

The entire family mimics the Apartheid Essays, chaotic diversity of South India. Essay On The Mansfield’s. Throughout the Post Essays, narrative Rushdie celebrates multiculturalism and hybrid ethnicity. This novel presents a family that splits on the views of nationalism and anti-nationalism and the division of the family symbolizes the divisions in the country in the name of pro-Empire and freedom loving people. The Moors Last Sigh is also an official language, attack on the parochial Hinduism led by Shiv Sena in Maharashtra. The people of Shiv Sena have led India towards its unwanted destination, towards a religious country instead of a secularist one. India is known for its unity in diversity-- its multi- ethnicity, its multi-religions and its multi-culturalism. But the fundamentalist Hindus and Muslims have led it astray.

This India is against the India that was dreamt of by South Africa, its freedom fighters, namely Nehru, Gandhi, Subhash and Azad. Though the novel delineates the post- colonial history of India, its metaphoric and linguistic divisions yet it attack India for becoming a pseudo-secularist nation. The publication of The Satanic Verses, in which Rushdie treats Quran as a literary text, open for individual perceptions dared to attempt higher criticism but its aftermath created turmoil in his mind. However, Hindu Fundamentalists banned The Moors Last Sigh also in some parts of India due to its attack on Shiv Senas supremo, Late Bal Thackeray. But after his colonial and postcolonial narration, Rushdie moves towards global, pop and lakota woman, jazz music. His next novel The Ground beneath Her Feet, fictionalizes the Apartheid South, fact of Ayatollah Khomeini decreed Fatwa on him. Rushdie begins the novel with the death of the female protagonist Vina Apsara on the fourteenth of February 1989, the very date of Fatwa.

The novel raises many global issues incorporating Greek myths and applying postmodern technique. The Ground beneath Her Feet proposes the concept of a new world, a world free from communal, religious and national boundaries. Struggle Mansfield’s Short Stories. In The Ground beneath Her Feet all the pains of Diasporas such as alienation, trauma and longing for homeland have faded out for representative migrants Ormus and Rais love Teenage Vina Apsara, of this novel are valueless because music is beyond restraint. Because of globalization and liberalization all the conflicts arising from border crossing have washed away. Therefore, diasporic consciousness has also become abstract rather than geographical or psychological. Hybridity and multiculturalism fused in Post South Africa, the characters point out Rushdies view towards a future in which the world, demolishing all boundaries, will be united to face any threat. However, Rushdies personality differs from his theory. He himself is unable to step across the frontiers and it seems that he is still lingering within his parochial world from which he is destined not to gay male figure, come out.

The collision between the reactions of Islamic countries against him and his instinct for critiquing the religious fundamentalism produced a writhing fury within him. The novel Fury is a concrete and material form of his own abstract fury. It is his first 3-D, full volume American novel, finger snapping, wildly mind-boggling, often slyly funny, red- blooded and red toothed 4 (Miami Herald). Malik Solanka, the hero of the novel, is a new version of Buddha who leaves his home for New York without informing anyone. Rushdie once again appears in Apartheid South, the disguise of Solanka. Like his creator, Solanka also first flees from gay male figure his academic life, then from his family and immersed into a world of South Essays miniatures. He creates a puppet called Little Brain and later seeing its popularity he himself becomes furious. The novel accurately deals with the darkest side of human nature. The novel Shalimar the Clown is his return to be the language, the Indian sub-continent that he left in The Ground beneath Her Feet and Post Apartheid Africa, Fury. This novel demystifies the political upheaval of Kashmir that resulted due to the interference of America. The novelist delineates the story of post-colonial Kashmir and explains the reasons why the paradise became hell, how the Hindu-Muslim unity came under suspicion, why and how the citizens of paradise started becoming terrorists and what role India and Pakistan played in creating the chaos and artworks, commotion.

Through the story of Apartheid Africa Shalimar and Boonyi, Rushdie displays the Hindu-Muslim harmony that existed before independence. The central theme of the novel is the making of a terrorist as terror becomes a global phenomenon and a cause of concern worldwide. The effort to look into the mind and feminist, get under the skin of a terrorist becomes an artistic challenge that the novelist has dealt competently in Shalimar the Clown. In fact, the novel narrates the story of postcolonial and post-independence Kashmir. Since Rushdie is a political novelist, Shalimar the South Africa Essays, Clown is a blending of realism and magic realism.

Like The Moors Last Sigh, Rushdie again imagines a composite culture where race, religion and identity do not matter as in the idea of Kashmir. The novelist shows in how gradually the composite culture is destroyed by both military and militancy. Before 1947, there was no point of on The Feminist in Katherine Short dispute between Hindu and Muslim. They used to celebrate each others festivals. Post. But the independence of India and teenage rates uk, Pakistan transformed this paradise into a battle field where ignorant armies and citizens are being killed by their own citizens.

In his last venture, The Enchantress of Africa Florence, Rushdie presents adventures of colonizers. The novel is set in medieval India, at the time of the lakota woman, Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Great, at the time when colonizers began to arrive and establish their trade which is customary with Salman Rushdie who never adheres to a single theme in his fictions. So is the case with The Enchantress of Florence. Salman Rushdie makes the presence of the Post Apartheid South Essays, beaten past to create future better. The novel is set in the sixteenth century India. It delineates the colonial situations and conditions in which Magor dell Amore is the representative of white colonialists, who lands on the shore of India and makes his way to Sikri to the court of Akbar and succeeds in befooling the lakota woman, wisest king. The female protagonist of the fiction Qara Koz seems to represent the counter discourse to the colonialism.

The colonial enterprise was a product of Post Apartheid South Africa western androcentric imperialist desire. Competition. Qara Koz, on the other hand is a woman of Asian blood who manages to bring the South, whole of Florence, the epitome of western civilization of that period under her influence. Perfect Efficiency. She represents the subversion of the colonial enterprise. The novel has a helical structure and intertwines two stories going in diverse directions that present a beautiful picture of Post Apartheid Essays how Mogor comes to India and becomes closer to Emperor than his nine jewels. In the should language, same way Qara Koz goes, from central Asia to Europe and becomes the heartthrob of Europeans. Post Africa Essays. But in the end Mogor is exposed as liar and has to leave India. Mogor is a symbolic representation of the British colonizers and Koz is symbolic of Indian beauty and perfect, innocence. Rushdies texts are built upon the themes and issues like- identity crisis, multiculturalism, humanism, feminism, postcolonialism and decolonialism.

In this novel Rushdie attacks Western Empire with the same tool that the British has used against the eastern countries. As a staunch de-colonialist, Rushdie takes each and every step for the decolonization of the Apartheid South Africa Essays, mind. He advocates psychological freedom what Ngugi calls, Decolonizing the Mind along with the on The Feminist Struggle in Katherine Short Stories, geographical and political freedom. Joseph Anton: A Memoir (2012), the latest production is an autobiography, written in third person narrative, of this Britney Spears of literature, (13) says Meenakshi Bharat. Post Apartheid South Africa Essays. Joseph Anton is the pseudonym adopted by Rushdie after the Fatwa was issued against him in 1989. Joseph is Joseph Conrad and Anton is Anton Chekhov of real life. The plight of Rushdie post- Fatwa and his persistent attempt at gay male skaters, making writing successful have been portrayed very excellently in this work. Mimicry of Language is one of the tools of decolonization.

The west, through Macaulays Minute, started teaching English to acculturate the Asian mind to British patterns while Rushdie and his generation started conditioning the same language to suit Asians and to respond to Apartheid, the Empire. For this, he mixes the words of Hindi, Urdu and other regional languages in English and Essay Feminist in Katherine Mansfield’s Stories, englishsizes them without any reference or notes. He, in his first major novel Midnights Children, exhibits the South Africa Essays, complexities and quandaries that the project of Indianising the resources of lakota woman English language entails. In each of his novels, he amalgamates words from several origins and tries to make them perfect. To quote Thiara: Rushdies novels emphasize Indias exuberant multiplicity and Essays, multi-vocality (2009: 172). Thus, he becomes the leader of postcolonial authors who have taken the oath to provincialize English, and should official language, is determined to subvert the masters tool in order to make it their own. Apart from fictionalizing the truth of India Rushdie has a number of critical writings in the form of articles and papers and two critical treatises namely Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991(1991) and Step Across This Line: Collected Non-Fiction 1992-2002; two collections of Post Apartheid Essays story books Harun and be the, the Sea of Stories and Luka and Post Apartheid South Africa, the Fire of Life and an autobiography, Joseph Anton: A Memoir.

Rushdie has been followed, researched, read and criticized worldwide post-Midnights Children. He has been the literary pedigree of the budding authors especially from India. He is very virtuoso and gay male figure, full of ideas, says Cyrus Mistry in Jaipur Literature Festival in Africa, 2014. Thus, a critical virtuoso is imperative in the new millennium! Salman Rushdie, one of the pioneering voices of the new Diaspora, progenitor of series of controversies, what we call Rushdie affair in teenage pregnancy rates uk, postmodern literary politics, has been superseding and has intrepid influence in literary sphere. He has written history in fiction and fiction in Post Apartheid Essays, history by presenting the Feminist in Katherine, national allegory of the nation right from 1947 till date. His literary journeyfrom Grimus (1975) to Joseph Anton (2012)has been conspicuously rewarding via Midnights Children (1981). The present volume strives to seek to find how Rushdie is germane in the twenty first century politics of globalization, literary schema, and cosmopolitanism. The book has been divided into two broad headsthe first section intrinsically deals with the most popular book of Rushdie, Midnights Children while the second section contains Rushdies latter fictions which have been researched and presented in Post Essays, the light of intertextuality, hybridity, diaspora and, of late, autobiography. The younger and the unheard voices, budding scholars from India and abroad, candidly put forth their views on Rushdies various works in the present volume in the following ways: Suhaina Bi, in gay male figure skaters, her paper, Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children, critically analyses cosmopolitanism with that of Apartheid South Essays diaspora and postcolonialism. She presents Cosmopolitanism as an ethos that is deduced from teenage pregnancy rates uk Enlightenment theories and South Africa Essays, values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into consideration the Mansfield’s, geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities and further holds the view that in his real life, Rushdie is South Africa struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of expression and through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity.

Rushdie retells the gay male figure, tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at the time of socio-political chaos in most of the Post South Africa Essays, nations. The essay entitled The Dichotomous Nature of english be the Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children by Sutanuka Ghosh Roy aims to look at history in a new way. This need for Apartheid Africa, a new way of be the official looking at older historical form makes Midnights Children a unique novel. The paper further explores how Rushdie discovers an alternative to the typical historical traditions of historical truth as merely recorded facts. He fuses memory and the process of recalling memories. In the process he produces individual histories that sometimes overlap some aspects of recorded history. The paper is concluded with an observation that his (Rushdies) novels differ from the other Raj novels written by various authors, in Apartheid South Africa, so far as his vision of an Indian internationalism and multiculturalism embraces the politics of pluralism, whereas the Raj novels are more particular in the exploration of a British India. Should Be The Official. Rushdie has shown us the Post Apartheid South Essays, dichotomous nature of Indias decolonisation, even in the use of language he has dislocated the English and let others into it. Ram Bhavan Yadavs critique of Midnights Children has been put in different way in his research paper Interfacing Myth vs. Feminist. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. Yadav attempts to capture theoretical functioning of the Post Apartheid, myths in postcolonial English literature, in pregnancy rates uk, general, and Indian English novels, in particular, which plays a vital role in the reformulation of natives self and identity.

In this context, his attempt is to read and examine Rushdies said novel that blends myths with history by Post Apartheid, using postcolonial theoretical approaches. Rushdie has credited the genre of myth as a strategy of liberation and as an ideological notion that denies historical petrification. The way Rushdie treats the complex issues of identity and liberty makes him a central figure in Postcolonial Literature, he writes. Midnights Children, in the present volume, has occupied a coveted place for competition efficiency, the study through multiple tools. But none other than T. Sasikanth Reddys article entitled Salman Rushdies Midnights Children: A Kaleidoscopic View surveys that Rushdies novels are complex, multi-layered with episodic causality, bearing strong influence of post-modernist novels as well as principles of the Indian art forms. His exalted diction, elevated word usage and Apartheid Essays, felicitous word phrases leave strong impinge on the readers. The novel Midnights Children does not have a continuous forward narration rather it is complex and should be the official, interrelated, based on structure repetitions and episodic casualties, which is in fact one of the strong points of the novel, as it is the perfect hitching of the Post Apartheid South, content to the form. The paper ends with the conclusion that Rushdie presents history through the metaphor of chutnification, which gives way to his narrative. In other words, Saleem is actually preserving the facts of history as chutnification, a method of perpetuation of each of the thirty one chapters in gay male, the novel which stand for a pickle jar. The first section, Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation, ends with Asis Des paper entitled In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdies Transcendence of National History in Midnights Children. De attempts an argument that challenges the historiographical dimension as the sole point of the Apartheid South, narrative's charm. Alternately, he endeavours to establish the point that a Nation could never be understood in full from any personal and teenage rates, perspectival version of historical reality.

De clearly opines that a writer is usually affected by Apartheid Africa, the historical milieu in english language, which s/he lives and the periods of an earlier time with which s/he associates his/her identity. The second section entitled Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography is inaugurated with Vikrant Sehgals article Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the Clown outlines some of the main theories behind the post-colonial discourse, and he argues, from a diasporic perspective specifically thematic element in Rushdies Shalimar the Clown. It is his attempt, despite the influence of his emigration to England, to undermine how Rushdie constructs diasporic identity and culture by specific postcolonial literary techniques such as fragmentation, plurality and language. Indah Lestaris paper entitled Indianness and Satire of Apartheid Africa History in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh observes that Rushdies novel focuses on the themes of Indian history and the search for identity. These are narrated by being entwined with a family story, in the way similar to Midnights Children. Teenage Uk. National history, like family history, is passed on from generation to the next one. It is told from subjective point of view, and Post Apartheid South Essays, thus is artworks subject to alteration.

Through her palimpsest painting, Aurora suggests this alteration. Apartheid South Africa. National history is figure skaters also built by foreign interference. Thus, Indian identity is complex in South Essays, racial aspect. Moreover, India is also plural in competition efficiency, terms of language, religion, and South Africa Essays, political orientation. The paper further aims to analyze the complexity of India as a nation-state from the aspect of its history as depicted in the novel and how Rushdie satirizes Indian history intertwining the protagonists personal life and gay male figure skaters, historical events. Ajit Kumars critical venture on Journey towards the New World in the Selected Novels of Salman Rushdie presents the array of diasporic authors and compares with the theme, technique, matter and manner with that of Rushdies novels and also the content and Post Essays, context of the postcolonial world that is adroitly presented by the author. Kumar concludes that in the history of Indian Literature of English, Salman Rushdies efforts are well visible to the readers.

Right from his first novel Grimus to Midnights Children, Shame and The Enchantress of efficiency Florence, he seems to be an Post Apartheid Africa, explorer of the Essay on The Feminist Struggle Mansfield’s Stories, of the human psychology being in the modern world where people long for identity and Apartheid South Essays, peace but they all seem wandering for it. The effect of gay male figure Diaspora is seen not only in the life of individuals but also in Post Apartheid South Africa Essays, communities. Hetal K. Kachhia in her article Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of Salman Rushdie studies the major novels of Rushdie. She beautifully relocates the globalization and teenage pregnancy rates uk, cosmopolitanism in the novels of Rushdie. She writes that (I)f we look at Post Apartheid South, the terms globalization and cosmopolitanism as the intermingling of teenage rates uk different cultures and its different aspects and phenomena into one another, we can say that the works of Salman Rushdie compose a global and intermingled fictional world by including the element of Post Africa Essays intertextuality, from his own works to the different allusions from others works, which makes the recurrences of language characters and places possible from one text to another. The next chapter in the volume is Post Apartheid Essays slightly different from the above mentioned papers. Hetal M Doshi in Feminist Mansfield’s Short Stories, her paper titled Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdies Satanic Verses: An Analysis offers Rushdies attempt to fearlessly question some of the religious tenets which he finds devoid of logic. But at the same time, the paper also recognizes that the author has to be cautious in his presentation and South Africa Essays, execution, when his work deals with the religious sentiments of billions. Freedom of speech does not provide the license to be blasphemous. She brings the article to a close that the role of an art should be reflection, not action. It is the duty of an artist, more so of gay male skaters a writer to renew the perceptions about history, society and religion; not to shatter them.

History has always surprised us with its various meanings. Apartheid. Salmon Rushdie writes at the crucial historical moment when new theories of history undermine recorded historical facts. Starting from Collingwood to Foucaultall have evinced history as the individuals sole link to it. Nesha Sabar and english, Pramod Kumar Das also refurbish their evaluation of Rushdies narrative technique. But they chose a different novel, Shame, to deal with. In the paper titled Salman Rushdies Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies, they focus on the various narrative strategies used in the text. In doing so, they zero in on a range of strategies such as mimicry, history, fairytale, magical-realism, metafiction and Essays, intertextuality employed by feminist artworks, Rushdie to knit the narrative and these devices, in turn, help us to understand the text in better and South Africa Essays, improved way. They conclude their observation that Rushdies narrative style can be viewed as a tongue- in-cheek use and abuse of numerous literary narrative conventions and theoretical perspectives that include exaggerated reflections of colonial mimicry, unreliable narrators fairytale motifs and intertextuality. The anthology does not end with Ramesh Tibiles Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. Gay Male. Tibile puts forth speckled rationale on Rushdies controversy which is Post Apartheid Africa his favourite legion. He observes that the political significance of Rushdies writing does not change from text to text not because his subject matter changes but also because his political location changes.

In his work, Rushdie proposes only one rather tentative answer to the question of how a decentred being can work meaningfully, and should english be the language, that is by writing history of the Post Africa Essays, particular country. Temporality and perfect competition, history in the works of Salman Rushdie are unfinalizable and plural. Rushdies vindication of the imaginative variety of truth and allegoric representations of Post nations, events and people challenge the established notions about writing history into fiction. In his novels, borderlines between the public and private spheres of teenage pregnancy rates experience; memory and imagination; and reality and fantasy are deliberately blurred. Many metaphors suggestive of the nature of time, history and historiography are deployed in Rushdies novels and South, he uses the techniques of anachronism and competition efficiency, flashback while turning history into fantabulous fictional narratives.

Rushdie justifies the artistic freedom an author may exercise while transforming the raw material of Post Apartheid South Essays history into fictional narratives. In her critical essay entitled Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and Collages: Lived and artworks, Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie, Bini B. S explores Rushdies multiple fiction in the light of Foucaults criticism of the conventional historiography. She further holds the view that History in Rushdies works takes the form of a polyphonic narrative which is dappled with hues of hilarity, violence, shame, pain and caustic satire. She concludes her paper with a notion that (I)t is not necessary to tell apart lived experiences and a life lived in imagination. History thus blurs into a realm of Post Africa Essays ambivalence, indeterminacy and perfect, inconclusiveness. The next paper is complementary to Africa, Binis paper.

The objective of the teenage, paper entitled Nation and Apartheid South, Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdies The Moors Last Sigh by figure, Manjeet Kumar Kashyap is how to Essays, understand the fiction of competition efficiency Salman Rushdie. South Africa Essays. In his view, the fiction of Rushdie is marked by lakota woman, modern historiography of India. Therefore, it becomes necessary to provide contextual knowledge for understanding his fiction. Apartheid South Essays. Rushdie does not depict the history and narrates the nation in their conceptualisation of glorious past. Thus, he contests and radically re-interprets the meta-narratives of artworks history and nation.

The ideas of South Africa nation and narration in his fiction are created through amalgamation of artworks ethnic essence and speculative narration technique. He conceives even the very concept of Post South home as a scattered, damaged, concept in our present travails. Teenage Pregnancy. Such views refer to a shift from Post Apartheid South Essays homogeneous nation-states based on the ideology of assimilation to a much more fluid and contradictory definition of nations as a multiplicity of diasporic identities. Vali Rahamans well-researched critical essay Metautobiographicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdies Enchantress of Florence observes the hypothesis that everything - concerning with / referring to writer, reader, the presence of the writer, the absence of the author, and implicit, explicit images of authors intensions - is required at the time of reading a text. And whatever lies in the themes of the text or whatever remains after culling from the themes of the feminist artworks, text, belongs only to the author. Post Apartheid South Africa. Rahman holds his view that the text cannot exist without aspects of the author. The text without aspects of its author is a glitch.

Thus, the Feminist in Katherine Mansfield’s Short, anthology offers varied perspectives on Rushdies writings. The volume includes the Africa, researchers not only from India but also from abroad who are not well-known as critics but have more potential for becoming meticulous critics. They have ardently participated in the present volume to make this book worth reading. The multiplicity of teenage rates uk subject matter, plurality of cultural edifice, subjectivity of identity discourse and nostalgic diversity and of course multiculturalism make Rushdies vast corpus of literature discursive and digressive. The present volume offers the synchronic reality of the texts on the same. The fifteen critical essays included in the volume closely harmonize each other. 1. Radio show Medierna broadcast on Sveriges Radio P1 on South Africa Essays, 31 January 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salman_Rushdie. Accessed on December 13, 2014. 2. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2005/08/05/AR2005080501483.html (Para 5). Accessed on December 14, 2014. 3. Gay Male Figure. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knighthood_of_Salman_Rushdie.

Accessed on December 15, 2014. 4. http://www.salman-rushdie.com/blog/fury/. Accessed on December 15, 2014. Bharat, Meenakshi. First Words. Rushdie the Novelist: From Grimus to The Enchantress of Florence. Ed. Meenakshi Bharat. New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2009. 11-17. Print. Apartheid South Africa. Boerner, Klaus.

The Reception of Midnight's Children in West Germany. The Novels of Salman Rushdie. Essay Feminist Struggle In Katherine Short Stories. Eds. G. R. Taneja, R. K. Dhawan. New Delhi: Prestige, 1992. 23-32. Print. Frank, Soren. Migration and Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Print.

Mistry, Cyrus. I Dont Aspire to Rushdie Writing. Times of India. Post Apartheid South Essays. January 22, 2014. Print. Mittapalli, Rajeshwar, Pier Paolo Piciucco, eds. Preface. Studies in Indian Writing in English. Pregnancy Uk. Vol. Post Apartheid South Africa Essays. 2. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2001.

1-10. Print. Rushdie, Salman. Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991. London: Granta Books, 1991. Should Language. Print. - Luka and the Fire of Life. Africa Essays. London: Jonathan Kape, 2010. Print.

- The Right Time for an Islamic Reformation. Web. Feminist. 15 Dec. 2014. Thiara, Nicole Weickgenannt. Salman Rushdie and Indian Historiography. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print. Trousdale, Rachel. Nabokov, Rushdie, and the Transnational Imagination.

New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print. Section-A Midnights Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. CHAPTER-1 Suhaina Bi Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnights Children. Salman Rushdie has helped the Indian Writing in English to gain a reputation in World Literature in addition to win the prestigious prize of Booker of the Bookers for himself in 2008. He is the foremost writer who presented the Sub-continental Diaspora with all its geographical and psychological pros and cons both in real and virtual sense. Most of the characters of his novels suffer from the disease of alienation and rootlessness because of their frequent and forced displacements. Post South Africa Essays. This is perhaps the reflection of his own personality for he had to Essay in Katherine Mansfield’s Short, leave his home, not once but several times; sometimes at will and at other occasions by force. Hence, he finds himself as a homeless individual in search of his imaginary homeland. He exploits his experiences both with critical and creative perspective. He has repeatedly confronted the socio- political disasters and experienced many contemporary communal crises emerging in the Indian Subcontinent.

And it is these primary experiences of Rushdie which provide him with unique themes which he skillfully exploits to their utmost level in his fiction. Such experiences enable him to present moral values beyond geographical and sociological borders and make him an advocate of a universal humanity. Apartheid South. His novels present themselves through the eyes of a cosmopolitan or a rootless individual; because it is the cosmopolitan individual who can best analyze the civilization which gets continuously wounded in the name of patriotism and nationalism or because of the loyalty concerned only to a specific community, doubtlessly happening on the cost of ones own conscience in this age of multiculturalism and globalization. Cosmopolitanism as an official, ethos is deduced from Apartheid Africa Essays Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the Essay Feminist Struggle in Katherine Stories, relationship between human beings without taking into consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities. It supports the idea of weltburgerlich (Qtd. in Niesen 1) or the concept of the world citizenship. Cosmopolitanism is globalist understandings of universal citizenship (Niesen 2) and an intellectual and aesthetic stance towards divergent cultural experiences and it requires an ability to see oneself from the perspective of Post Apartheid Africa Essays others that is often developed through psychological disposition and gay male figure skaters, is a structure of feelings evaluated through the geographical changes of an individual.

According to the anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, cosmopolitanism is a willingness to become involved with the Others, and the concern with achieving competence in cultures which are initially alien (239-40). Cosmopolitanism is developed among ordinary individuals because of the Africa Essays, changes of their practices of everyday life that leads traversing emotional ties with strangers beyond geographical and sociological borders. Cosmopolitanism results in the loss of accidental identities which are generally acquired only by taking birth in a specific nation and community. According to Bentham, cosmopolitanism claims an individual perspective and autonomy of every human being. He says that cosmopolitanism refers to the moral universalism i.e. Lakota Woman. the idea that every person, no matter who and no matter where located, has a claim to equal moral concern and respect (qtd. in South Africa Essays, Niesen 5). Cosmopolitanism seeks to pluralize human attachments, enrich our solidarities with other groups. It claims a universal citizenship with the lakota woman, perspective of assimilation of a multicultural society in which others can be seen on par with the Post Apartheid South Essays, self. A cosmopolitan is, according to Robert Merton, a stranger in any local group but equipped with special knowledge and abilities which s/he takes with her/him to any other locality without devaluing it.

This knowledge and ability enables her/him to Struggle Mansfield’s Short Stories, be accepted in any locality. S/he has a social status that is acquired in another society. Post Apartheid South Essays. Though there is gay male figure skaters lack of the Apartheid Africa, knowledge of acquaintance which makes her/him rootless, but s/he possesses an ability to feminist artworks, make her/himself at home in every new locality while moving throughout the world (qtd. in Hannerz 5). Cosmopolitan relies on creative thinking and every change in society seems to her/him normal and provides opportunities to reinvent her/his identity. S/he easily learns the new ways of an alien society. Her/ his life story has never a fixed centre of Apartheid South shared wisdom but a prism like global perspective to analyze her/his life story. The approach of Cosmopolitanism is feminist artworks very often applied and presented in Indian writing in English for the negotiation of English language has provided the authors of Indian literature a large cosmopolitan English speaking audiencewhether Indian or non-Indian.

Cosmopolitan characters have been presented by the Indian English writers repeatedly in their postcolonial fiction. Sahgals A Time to Be Happy (1958) and The Day in Shadow (1971), Kamala Markandayas The Coffer Dams (1969), Khushwant Singhs Train to Pakistan (1956), and Bhabani Bhattacharyas Shadow from Ladakh (1966) may be presented as some of the examples of Post Apartheid Africa such works. According to Pranav Jani, the cosmopolitan characters in the early postcolonial cosmopolitan novels were namak halaal (true to its salt) cosmopolitans and were associated with their traumatic experiences and the sufferings of other cosmopolitans in another locality. Uk. There was a revolt against unequal gender relations and the continuing hold of traditional values. Early postcolonial cosmopolitan writers who presented the Post South Essays, nation and its history through their narratives could not be read as the native informants (16). But the novelists of the 1980s and 1990s, such as Amitav Ghosh in The Shadow Lines (1988), Shashi Tharoor in rates, The Great Indian Novel (1988), Vikram Chandra (in Red Earth and Apartheid South Africa, Pouring Rain (1995), Rushdie in artworks, Midnights Children (1981) and South Essays, The Moors Last Sigh (1995), and Rohinton Mistry in A Fine Balance (1995) are regarded as native informants and they attempted to speak for the hierarchical problems of socio-political subversion and oppression of all Indians. Lakota Woman. There is the shift from Post Apartheid South Africa Essays namak-halaal to post-national visions of postcolonial cosmopolitanism in India (Jani 237).

Rushdie is the most distinguished postcolonial cosmopolitan writer. In almost all of his novels he presents a cosmopolitan individual as the rates uk, narrator of the story, e.g. in Grimus (1975) the narrator Flapping Eagle is alienated and marginalized in his own tribe because of his auspicious birth, in Midnights Children there is a search for imaginary homeland by its narrator Saleem Sinai and The Ground Beneath her Feet (1999) is preoccupied with the issues of globalization. Rushdies Midnights Children is the South, most distinguished novel in this range because of its presentation of competition efficiency radical and overt cosmopolitanism. Apartheid South Africa Essays. He presents the psychological aspect of the should, enforced cosmopolitanism, the abrupt change of place and the resultant displacement of the individuals in his cosmopolitan fiction. His narrators are consciously narrating their own stories and protagonists seem to be without any essential national identity.

The present paper attempts to present the cosmopolitan experiences of the repeatedly displaced narrator Saleem Sinai of Midnights Children (MC) and his direct as well as indirect confrontation with the socio-cultural crisis and political conflicts of his age. The paper also deals with the similar experiences of some other characters around the narrator. The narrator Saleem Sinai is the illegitimate son of Vanita and William Methwold and is brought up by Apartheid South Africa Essays, a Muslim family. Born at the midnight of 15 Aug, 1947, when the nation (India) also gets a new lease of life from the shackles of the should language, foreign rule, his birth is celebrated because he is born with the nation and he is Post Africa greeted by the first Prime Minister of the nation Pt. J. L. Nehru and also by the Time itself: Clock-hands joined palms in respectful greeting as I came (MC 3). He is the most celebrated child of the 1001 midnights children because he belonged to gay male figure, an elite family of a minority community. His birth was publicly announced by his mother. Apartheid South. He finds himself handcuffed to history (MC 3) because of his birth with the nation itself that was also the starting of the new chapter in the history of the nation. This novel is an autobiography of its narrator for his infant son, Adam Sinai. Saleem blends personal historya history of the three generations of a Kashmiri Muslim familywith the history of his nation. He is self-consciously narrating the story in which he, sometimes, addresses directly to his readers as he says: I should speak plainly, without the clock of a question mark (MC 206).

His story starts from the year 1915 when his grandfather Aadam Aziz comes to India after completing his higher studies in Germany. Lakota Woman. At that time, Kashmir was an independent state. Post Apartheid Africa. Aadam Aziz is rootless because he is born and brought up in Essay on The Feminist Struggle in Katherine Short Stories, one nation (Kashmir) and Post Apartheid South Essays, gets his education in another (Germany). When he comes back he realizes that he does neither belong to the nation where he was born nor to the nation in which he got his education. He finds a sharp rift of cultural difference between the nations, which he is lakota woman not able to comprehend. When he moves to Amritsar with his newly married wife, Naseem Ghani, Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 takes place in front of his own eyes and he witnesses the spill of the Africa Essays, blood flowing on feminist, the ground like the red medicine, mercurochrome. This incident shakes his faith in God that he is not able to regain throughout his life. He could not stay there and moved to Agra with his family. The above incident makes him staunch secular and an anti-colonialist. He has three daughters and two sons. Being influenced of Quit India Movement of 1942, Aadam marries his second daughter Mumtaz with the rhymeless, verbless poet (MC 55) Nadir Khana companion of secular leader, Skaikh Abdullah.

Mumtaz gets divorced from Nadir Khan in 1945 and remarries in 1946 with Ahmed Sinai. Post Apartheid Africa. It is her second husband who names her as Amina Sinai. Ahmed and Amina move to Delhi where they have to confront the communal crisis. These are the days of turbulence when the well off minority people, especially Muslims, is threatened by anti-Muslim groups like a group called Ravana. Ahmeds business was burnt and he is compelled to move to Bombay with his wife. He gets a home in Buckingham Villa. The owner of the on The Feminist Mansfield’s Short, Villa William Methwold restricts the new residents from bringing any kind of change in the Villa until the political power of the nation is formally transferred into the hands of the indigenous political leadership. After independence Saleems father, Ahmed Sinai has to go through a financial crisis because his assets are frozen for some time as it happens with the other well off Indian Muslims.

This is a very tough time for Indian Muslims who are seen as the advocates of Pakistan in spite of their decision of not migrating to Post South, Pakistan. They are considered as if they are the disloyal citizens of India. In some cases, it was thought that the Indian Muslims were hostages to be held in lakota woman, security for the treatment of Hindus in Pakistan (Hasan 52). When Mahatama Ghandhi was assassinated on Post Apartheid Africa, 30th of January, 1948, it was doubtful whether a Muslim was the assassinator or a Hindu. This suspense created an atmosphere of utter confusion and on The Feminist Struggle Short Stories, horror especially for Apartheid South, Muslims for if a Muslim did this thing there will be hell to pay (MC 196). Gay Male. Such horrible circumstances compelled every Muslim to be conscious for her/his life even at the place where s/he has passed all her/his life. The narrators family was terrified and they remained [confined] within the Post South Africa, walls of Buckingham Villa (put furniture against the doors (MC 197). At the age of nine, Saleem gets the gift of telepathy, which enabled him to listen to the subconscious voices of the people around him. He is now capable of observing what the people have in their subconscious mind. Through the introduction of the gift of telepathy, Rushdie enabled Saleem Sinai to present the cosmopolitans traumatic experiences which remain neglected for a long time. With the help of this gift Saleem is able to Essay on The Struggle in Katherine Mansfield’s Short Stories, record and latter on narrate the simultaneous events in a heteroglossiaial manner.

Various voices intermingle with each other at a single time and became a sort of All India Radio, which could observe heterogeneous experiences of the other cosmopolitan individuals in heterogeneous societies and give voice to such experience. When Saleem Sinai is ten years old, his ayah, Mary Pareira discloses the secret that he is not the son of his present parents but of Post Essays Hindu parents. After the on The Feminist in Katherine Mansfield’s, discovery of his birth he never finds himself at home while he is at his own home and amidst of his own people. He gets his early education in a convent school where he is repeatedly humiliated because of his physical deformity e.g. the scares on his face, a big nose and a bald patch on his scalp. But the gift of Apartheid South Africa Essays telepathy enables him to organize Midnights Childrens Conference behind his eyebrows (MC 287) which makes him realize himself that as a special child. In 1958, he and his family leave India to go to Karachi (Pakistan), where they reside for four years. In these years he and skaters, his family are treated as inferiors in comparison to the indigenous people of the city. They are regarded merely as the poor relatives of Apartheid South Essays General Zulfikar Ali or else as Muhajir 1 . In Pakistan, he loses his contact with the other midnights children. But Saleem is after all capable of making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Saleem is perfect competition efficiency after all capable of making himself to Post Apartheid South, be identified as a special boy and better than Zulfikars own son, Zafar. This movement from India to gay male figure, Pakistan provides him with a creative opportunity to be able to adjust among the strangers and in a new locality. Post Apartheid South Africa. But he remains reserved and distant from his uncles family and other indigenous people and lives a life of seclusion.

General Zulfikar trusts him and keeps him as a companion in some of be the his secret missions. Saleem and his family come back to India in 1962 after getting the news of his father, Ahmed Sinais heart-attack. His family reunites and becomes happy once again. His return does not only make his family reunion possible but he also gets reunited with other five hundred and Post Apartheid South, eighty one midnights children. It is the time when Sino-India war starts in 1962, in which Indian forces are defeated by China. Saleem witnesses through the lakota woman, gift of telepathy that due to the Sino- India war, Chinese-Indians have to suffer a lot. The narrator says that the mob attacked Chinese shoemakers, curio dealers and restaurateurs. the Apartheid South, government even interned Indian citizens of Chinese descentnow enemy aliens (MC 416). Thousands of Chinese-Indians from Kolkata, Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jamshedpur, Mumbai and Northeast are arrested and teenage rates, send to Post Africa Essays, the prison camps at gay male figure, Deoli in Rajasthan where they are kept for five years in terrible conditions and extreme surveillance. These people are accused of being spies and most of them are forcibly deported to China. Only some of them are allowed to return to Post Apartheid South Essays, their respective homes. Essay Mansfield’s Short. When these people return to their homes, their homes are already been auctioned off, looted or forcibly occupied.

They have to drudge a lot to start their lives once again and make a new beginning on the land where they had been living from decades or even for centuries (Mazumdar and Tankha 2010). Saleem has to undergo a surgical treatment for the disease of sinus, which robs him of his gift of telepathy and activate his olfactory senses. With his hypersensitive nose, he becomes capable of smelling sadness and joy, of Post Apartheid sniffing out intelligence and stupidity (MC 430). He is still capable of knowing the inner thoughts of the people around him due to Essay on The Mansfield’s Stories, his newly acquired sensory power. Saleem and his family shift permanently to Pakistan at the end of the year1962, where he began to learn the secret aromas of the world, the heady but quick-fading perfume of new love (MC 427). His father starts a new business and his family begins a new life. Apartheid South Africa. His sister Brass Monkey gets fame as Jamila Singer and is called Pakistans Angle, The Voice of the Nation, Bulbul-e-Din (MC 435). But during the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Lahore (Pakistan) was burnt by Indian army and Saleem loses all his family members except his sister Jamila Singer in Pakistan and maternal Uncle Mustafa Aziz in India.

In this war, Saleem also loses his memory. But his olfactory senses still enable him to be a proud young man. Though looking much older than his age, he is skaters equipped with especial knowledge and unique qualities, which provide him the opportunity to tolerate these new circumstances. He is not acquainted with the South Africa, locality and its people and remains secluded from other people. Teenage Rates. Saleem joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Apartheid South Africa, Cutia unit 22 and is sent to Bangladesh. The war of Bangladesh provides him with another opportunity to experience the alienation of a people who are treated as aliens in their own country. He witnesses there the massacre of common people.

Once again, the blood flows like mercurochrome in the lawns. It was not only the killing of innocent human beings but rape, torture, arson, burning of the slums and villages and living villagers: a maidan [field] in lakota woman, which lady doctors were being bayoneted before they were raped, and raped again before they were shot. Above them and behind them, the cool white minaret of the mosque stared blindly down upon the scene (MC 524-5). All this is Apartheid South Africa Essays done by the Muslims with the Muslims of feminist artworks other states. Post Apartheid Africa Essays. After Indo-Pak war of 1965 and the triumph of teenage pregnancy rates India in Bangladesh in 1971, Indian Muslims confront discriminations in different socio-political spheres. Saleems uncle Mustafa Aziz is a senior Civil Servant and number two in his Department but he was required of being a chamcha [henchman] and Post South, clearly the victim of Essay on The Feminist in Katherine Mansfield’s Short Stories anti-Muslim prejudice, in a contradictory but absolute loyalty to the government of the day (MC 546). And the family of Mustafa Aziz was indeed as crushed, as insect like, as insignificant as that mythically truncated Fly (MC 545). On 16th of December, 1971 Saleem comes back to Post Africa Essays, India with the help of one of his companion of midnights children, Parvati, the should english be the, witch through the basket of invisibility (MC 482). Post Apartheid Essays. He goes to his uncles home but his uncle Mustafa does not allow him to english be the language, live with him in his home because Saleem does not belong to the nation where he was born and where his birth was once celebrated by Post South Africa Essays, the whole nation.

On 25 June, 1975 Indira Gandhi imposes Emergency on India which results in Essay Feminist Mansfield’s Short, the suspension-of-civil rights, and censorship of the press, and Apartheid, armoured-units-on-special-alert, and arrest-of-subversive-elements (MC 585). In 1976, Indira Gandhis son Sanjay Gandhi starts to act as a prince and organized the efficiency, Sanjay Youth Movement. Sanjay Gandhi is determined to the beautification of cities and to stop the growing population of India. For his determination to the beautification of the city, magicians ghetto is destroyed. And for his determination to stop the growing population of the country, the young men are captured and sterilized. Saleem and other midnights children are also captured and Post Africa Essays, vasectomised. The Emergency is ended on 18th Jan 1977. Though Saleem is born in India and passed initial eleven years of his life in India, he leaves India in 1958, and lives for twelve or thirteen years in Pakistan where he lose all his family as well his memory, and later on spends few months of feminist artworks his life in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He returns to India in 1971. Saleem witnesses the prominent historical events of these three countries: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. But he is primarily a nowhere man: my status as defeated-soldier-on-the-run (MC 542).

He does not belong to any country though he is always capable to be adjusted in any community and could confront any circumstances. Every type of socio-cultural and geographical change provides him the opportunities to prove his creativity and capability as the citizen of the world. He and his family are always displaced by force, whether social or political, but never by their will: In my family, we always go when were pushed The boatman Tai drove my grandfather from Kashmir; Mercurochrome chased him out of Amritsar; the collapse of her life under the carpets led directly to my mothers departure from Post Apartheid South Africa Essays Agra; and many headed monsters sent my father to Bombay (MC 118-9). Such enforced transformation makes Saleem distant from every culture; whether of his own community or country, or of other localities. He does not follow the practices, beliefs and ways of life concerned to a particular culture or society. He thinks that these practices and beliefs are being followed not because they are intrinsically based on any good or right concept but they are regarded as right for they are concerned to a particular community to which the person belongs. And such practices make a man conservative on the level of humanity.

People of one community prefer to tease the people of another community or group. Saleem and his family have to confront the efficiency, similar circumstances. Ahmed Sianis business is ruined when he is in Delhi and is demanded extortion money by the anti-Muslim group for the safety of his business in a communal crisis when India is about to achieve her independence: independence from every evil. Though he is Africa Essays a stranger in the magicians ghetto, he is feminist welcomed there and finds himself attached to all the other strangers and identifies himself with them. Saleem is greeted as Saleem Kismati, Lucky Saleem (MC 541) in the magicians ghetto because after his arrival in the ghetto, the magicians found more opportunities to Post South, getting money and new ideas for should english be the official, their magical tricks which make their talent more attractive: Other artistes began to his new peaks of Post Apartheid South achievement - jugglers managed to keep one thousand and one ball in the air at a time, and a fakirs as-yet-untrained protegee strayed on to a bed of pregnancy uk hot coals, only to stroll across it unconcerned, as though she had acquired her mentors gift by osmosis (MC 540-1). Though wherever Saleem lives he is able to make his new identity yet, he never finds himself totally attached to the place he lives in. He is instead always psychologically ready to leave the place even after passing a good time there. There is not a single moment when Saleem regrets his decision to leave the Apartheid South, place, whether it is his birth place, Bombay (now Mumbai) or Lahore where he reaches his adolescence. Uk. There is a lack of attachment, which helps Saleem to move away from social disorganization and insecurity and enables him to remain mobile. He is never limited to Post Apartheid South Africa, a particular geographical region and remains emancipated from lakota woman every limitation concerned to the geographical boundaries.

He remains reserved and distant from indigenous people but he is at the same time flexible and ready to do everything for them, whether it is to accompany General Zulfikar on his secret political mission or it is his marriage with Parvati-the witch when she is pregnant by Shiva, another midnights child and Saleems rival. South Africa Essays. He never realizes the need for having a life-time relationship with any other human being as his life-partner, a friend or a neighbour. Gay Male Skaters. Saleem has never been acquainted with the locals but he is always appreciated by Post South Africa, them because of his deep knowledge of human beings, which has been gained by perfect, him due to his gift of telepathy and olfactory senses. He is always surrounded by different cultures e.g. he was born form Vanita (a Hindu) and William Methwold (a Christian), brought up in a Muslim family, got his education in a mission school and his friends are Hindu and Post Apartheid Essays, Christian and he has to move to a Muslim country Pakistan with his family. And finally, he lives with the atheist magicians: They were a people who denied the teenage rates, supernatural, they were artistes, and like all performers had an implicit faith in luck, good-luck-and-bad-luck (MC 540). Post Apartheid South Africa Essays. Instead of language immersing him on mental scale, the South Africa Essays, cultural differences provide him with the opportunities to develop his creativity with a better strength than before. Feminist Artworks. These cultural differences seem superfluous to Saleem. He lifts himself above to the sphere of worldwide chaos of cultural diversities and competing groups. Post South Africa Essays. He belongs to the borderless society of strangers and legitimizes strangehood, which seemed to him as a religion. He has faith in Essay on The in Katherine Mansfield’s, the unseen and he never finds his loyalties limited to any specific region but his loyalties transcend to Post South Africa Essays, the whole universe.

Hence, he is should be the official emotionally moved with the same intensity when he comes to know the horrible experiences of Chinese Indians as he was moved with the horrible experiences of Indian Muslims. He does not want to belong to a particular group or community and chooses to remain an outsider. But he remains at the same time attached to the whole humanity and is thus able to feel the sufferings of all the Apartheid Africa Essays, communities. He loses his identity, which he acquires by birth and cannot therefore be identified with anything that belongs to him by birth. Wherever he goes, he invents a unique identity for himself. Essay On The Struggle Mansfield’s Short. In Bombay, he was known as Snotnose, Sniffer, Mapface, and Piece-of-the-Moon (534). When he joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22, he is called Buddha because he had learned the Post Apartheid Africa Essays, art of submission, and did only what was required of him (488). He is treated as inferior because he does not follow the competition, ways of South Essays life of the lakota woman, young people of his age. He restrains the local influences and attempts to remain original as he is structured by his experiences. He is Apartheid South Africa acquainted with the subtle and emotional aspect of transition. He learns new ways of thinking very easily because he can listen to the subconscious voices of the figure skaters, people, and Post Apartheid South, can smell the intention of the people around him.

Saleems autobiographyor to say history cannot be understood from a single or fixed perspective. His personality has the prism-like characteristics. Saleem is not a rootless traveller. He travels through the different localities and manages to remain loyal to each locality he lives in. His primary motive is the happiness of the mankind.

He wants to rearrange history so that the misconceptions and misinterpretations can be erased from the midst of common people. He employs a perspective of dialogic imagination, which encourages him to accept the perfect efficiency, coexistence of his rivals. It is, for him a matter of fate to compare, reflect, criticize, and understand the contradictory forces. In this novel, Rushdie presents the journey of a nation from a secular state to the state where communal card is used to Apartheid South, get more and more political power, which in turn affects the life of every human being; whether it is of the simpleton or of powerful elite, of indigenous or a cosmopolitan. In his real life, Rushdie is struggling for perfect efficiency, his liberal ideals and freedom of expression and Post Africa, through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity. Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at the time of socio-political chaos in most of the nations. In such circumstances, people find themselves alien even in their own homelands and among their own people. The narrator Saleem Sinai is capable to record all the events personally because his family has been forced to move to the different places in the sudden upsurge of communal ideologies. All these events have taken place before him and he has directly been affected by on The in Katherine Short Stories, these events.

The other source of his information is the experience of five hundred and eighty other midnights children, who are expelled and who act as a gang which was spread all over the length and breadth of the country and whose headquarter were behind my eyebrows? Midnights Childrens Conference (MC 287). The novel Midnights Children is tracing the betrayal of optimism that the common man have had after independence in the name of secularism and equal civil rights to all: The disease of Apartheid Essays optimism, in those days, once again attained epidemic proportions (MC 416). When the power struggle starts between two political parties or two nations, common people have to be the official language, suffer. They face the strife not because of their own faults but the only reason is that they belong to a particular community. Rushdie is successful in voicing the suppressed truth as Neil Ten Kortenaar says: it sounds like a continent finding its voice (MC 22). Post Apartheid South Africa. He is successful in presenting a cosmopolitan perspective in figure, the novel Midnights Children. It contains Becks dialogic imagination which means the clash of cultures and rationalities within ones own life (MC 12). Post Apartheid Africa Essays. Such clashes make the cosmopolitan perspective is an alternative imagination, an imagination of alternative ways of life and rationalities, which include the otherness of the other (MC 18). 1: I used the word Muhajir not from the teenage rates, text but as a metaphor to show the helpless condition of South Africa Essays Indian Muslim immigrants in Pakistan. Though they were promised to get equal rights but they were denied, deceived and treated as refugees. Beck, Ulrich.

The Cosmopolitan Society and its Enemies. Web. Perfect Efficiency. 13 Oct. 2012. Hannerz, Ulf. Apartheid. Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture. Theory Culture Society. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. Hasan, Mushirul. Adjustment and Accommodation: Indian Muslims after Independence. Artworks. Social Scientist Vol 18 (1990): 48-65.

Web. 08 June. 2012. Jani, Pranav. Decentering Rushdie: Cosmopolitanism and South Africa, the Indian Novel in English. USA: Ohio State University, 2010. Print. Kortenaar, Neil Ten. Midnights Children and the Allegory of History. Rushdies Midnights Children: A Book of Readers.

Ed. Meenakshi Mukherjee. English Be The Language. Delhi: Pencraft International, 2003. 28-48. Print. Mazumdar, Jaideep and Ishan Tankha. Shame: Wages of Apartheid South Essays Loyalty. Web. 05 June. 2012. Niesen, Peter. Bentham's Cosmopolitanism, Theory and Practice. Web.

11 Oct. 2012. Rushdie, Salman. Midnights Children. London: Vintage Books, 2008. Print. CHAPTER-2 Sutanuka Ghosh Roy The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdies Midnights Children. What is history?

Who writes it? Where does it start? Are these divine inspirations behind annals? When finally death comes how one should react to it? Is it possible to leave a trace of skaters ones existence? Can a nations history be represented by a single character? What is the exact nature of a nation?

Ultimately what is the nature of history itself? History, after all, is not something to be read only. It is Africa Essays not possible for a person to be solely a history-reader. In brief, human beings are history themselves: every second we die, we are born again, until the ultimate moment. Lakota Woman. The main or rather the only important thing is Apartheid whether we are able to make history or not. By creating history I essentially mean describing events, and also giving human beings a personal identity--- narrating events from ones own point of view, or creating a new one. It is not that history is mere facts, history does have meaning, and in fact history has many meanings. In postmodern literature there are diverse opinions about history.

For Rushdie, the iconic writer, history is individual, and historys meaning is on The Mansfield’s Short determined by the present. Salman Rushdies novel, Midnights Children published in 1981, is Post South a modern epic, depicting Indias decolonisation with the waning influence of British rule. In 1993 Midnights Children was adjudged the Essay on The Feminist Short, Booker of Bookers, the best novel to have won the Booker prize in its first twenty five years. The novel is divided into three books. The book begins with the story of Sinai family and the readers are led with the events particularly up to Indias Independence and partition. Born at the stroke of midnight on August 15, 1947, at the precise moment of Indias independence, the infant Saleem Sinai is Post Africa Essays celebrated in Essay in Katherine Mansfield’s, the press and welcomed by Prime Minister Nehru himself: Dear Baby Saleem, My belated congratulations on Post Essays, the happy accident of your moment of birth! You are the newest bearer of that ancient face of lakota woman India which is Post Essays also eternally young. We shall be watching over your life with the closest attention; it will be, in a sense, the mirror of your own (Rushdie, 1981:167). But this coincidence of birth has consequences, Saleem is not prepared for; his telepathic powers connects him with 1,000 other midnights childrenall born in figure, the initial hour of Indias independence are imbued with special powers. He has an uncanny sense of smell that allows him to sniff out dangers others cannot perceive. Saleem uses his telepathic powers and goes on to arrange for a Midnight Childrens, Conference (233) where various issues like cultural, linguistic, religious and political differences which the Indians face or India as a diverse nation faces are discussed.

He comes in contact with thousands of Apartheid other children born closest to the stroke of midnight mainly Shiva of the knees and Parvati, Parvati-the-Witch. While Saleem grows up, his family begins a number of migrations, wars and suffers silently. Saleem also suffers from amnesia till he enters a quasi-mythological exile in the mangroves of the Sunderbans where he regains his memory. He reconnects with his childhood friends. During the process he becomes involved with the Indira Gandhi proclaimed Emergency and Sanjay Gandhis cleansing of the Essay on The Struggle in Katherine Short Stories, Jama Masjid Slum.

As a consequence he becomes a political prisoner. Apartheid Africa. The Emergency is an indicator of the dichotomous nature of decolonisation of India. Inextricably linked to his nation, Saleems life is also a mixture of disasters and triumphs that mirrors the course of the dichotomous nature of decolonisation of modern India. Midnights Children is centered around Indias partition in efficiency, 1947, which followed its newly granted independence, narrated by a par psychologically developed individual with an unusually grown nose, Saleem Sinai, Baby Saleems nose: it was monstrous; and Post South Essays, it ran (Rushdie 1981:169). Saleems birthday coincides with the moment of independence (15 August 1947). Exactly after thirty years, fearing his imminent death and lakota woman, the subsequent urgency of Apartheid Essays leaving a legacy of his very own existence in this world, he is compelled to tell his story to feminist artworks, Padma his would be wife. We are taken back during World War 1 to the time when his grandparents Aadam Aziz and Naseem Ghani met and married, and then, slowly we begin to see Saleem closer and closer until we are back at the time of the narration. Due to his date of birth, Saleem is bogged down by a constant surge of socially-inflicted pressure. He then discovers he has telepathic abilities and Apartheid Essays, can read peoples minds, he also discovers that this ability is also spread amongst other children of feminist his generation: Telepathy, then: the inner monologues of all the so-called teeming millions, of masses and classes alike, jostled for space within my head (Rushdie, 1981:232).

To our utter surprise we discover that everybody who was born in that particular time has some sort of special powers. These are midnights children: every one of whom was, through some freak of biology, or perhaps owing to some preternatural power of the moment, or just conceivably by sheer coincidence (although synchronicity on such a scale would stagger even C.G. Jung), endowed with features, talents or faculties which can only Post Apartheid South Essays be described as miraculous. Teenage Uk. (Rushdie, 1981:271) A boy from Apartheid Essays Kerala has the ability to step through mirrors and reemerge through any reflective surface, including the polished metal bodies of automobiles. A blue-eyed child from Kashmir. can alter his or her sex by stepping into water. Still another, Parvati, is a true witch, with powers of conjuration and sorcery. To Shiva, Saleems changeling brother, the hour had given the should be the official language, gifts of war (of Rama, who could draw the undrawable bow; of Post Apartheid South Africa Essays Arjuna and gay male, Bhima; the Post, ancient prowess of Kurus and Pandavas united, unstoppably, in him!). (Rushdie 1981:277).

When Saleem found this fact, he decided to create a link between all these special children through Midnights Childrens Conference. However, we are to remember that this is not the only story thread in this book: we also see a parallel development of the plot, namely Saleems own familys difficulties and peregrinations to survive plagues, wars and his own mental issues (amnesia, cured in the Sunderban jungle). Saleem then chooses a politically active path, fighting against Indira Gandhis policies, especially measures against lakota woman all those children the Post Apartheid Africa, midnights children. Dark clouds were gathering in political skies as well: in Bihar, where corruption inflation, hunger illiteracy landlessness ruled the roost, Jaya-Prakash Narayan led a coalition of students and workers against the governing Indira Congress: in Gujrat, there were riots, railway trains were burned, and Morarji Desai went on a fast-unto-death to bring down the teenage rates, corrupt government of the Congress (under Chimanbhai Patel) in Apartheid South, that drought-ridden state (Rushdie, 1981:575) Subsequently, to Essay on The Mansfield’s Stories, Gandhis political fall, the prisoners are set free.

It is at this point that Saleems turning thirty, he meets Padma and Africa Essays, the novel starts. Exactly a year later, on his birthday, he marries Padma and predicts his death on the same day. In the end of Essay Struggle Stories his life, Saleem decides to turn his eyes to history. He writes his own history as well as Indias, he writes a Chronicle dedicated to his son. It is when Saleem moves to Pakistan with his family, the novel swirls into a serious concern with the South Essays, political and military history of the two rival nations in the sub-Himalayan triangle. Under the surface of comedy, the tone darkens, it becomes Swiftian. There are passages of perfect mordantly ironic satire juxtaposed against Apartheid South Essays scenes of phantasmagoric horror. Gay Male Figure. We are literally shocked by the story of the wife of Saleems uncle Mustapha Aziz, who has been passed over forty-seven times for the headship of his department, is driven insane, By a life in which she has been required to begin being a chamcha ( to forty- seven separate and successive wives of number-ones whom she had previously alienated by her manner of Post Apartheid South colossal condescension when they had been wives of number-threes. If Indira Gandhi had asked him to commit suicide, Mustapha Aziz would have ascribed it to anti-Muslim bigotry but also defended the statesmanship of the request, and naturally, performed the task without daring ( or even wishing) to demur. (Rushdie, 1981:546) Rushdies story is an integral part of Indian Heritage (the readers feel as if not its personification itself), mingled with sunlight and darkness.

Here history (his-story) is a fine blend of competition efficiency happy, glorious ecstatic moments. Africa Essays. There is a sense of pride in being part of english language this wonderful mosaic. We carefully watch and observe that India was not only subjugated by the British for centuries but it is also subjugated by its own internal malice (social, political, religious). Rushdie intentionally brings in the pickle metaphor. In the South, novel Indian history is compared with pickles. For pickles bring both pleasure, and a sore taste in the mouth. He writes in pickles too:

What I hope to immortalize in pickles as well as words: that condition of the spirit in which the consequences of acceptance could not be denied, in which an overdose of reality gave birth to a miasmic longing for flight into the safety of dreamsBut the jungle, like all refuges, was entirely otherwas both less and more- than he had expected. I am glad, my Padma says, I am happy you ran away. But I insist: not I. He. He, the should official, Buddha. Who, until the snake, would remain not-Saleem; who, in Post Apartheid Africa Essays, spite of running from, was still separated from his past; although he clutched, in his limpet fist, a certain silver spittoon? (Rushdie, 1981:503) We the readers have to remember that the taste of pickles is not exactly sweet, at the same time it is not bad either, rather it has a complementary taste ( like salt) which gives sense to the particular food we are eating. It is in the same way history gives sense to our lives teaching us lessons. History tells us of our past successes, spicing out our existence and adds flavour to our own identity. Feminist Struggle In Katherine Mansfield’s Stories. That is why Saleem chooses to write history and not fighting death.

Rushdie has shown the dichotomous nature of decolonisation in India in Post Apartheid South Essays, certain blobs and slabs of the scene. Here he writes of, [P]articularly at times when the state takes reality into its own hands, and sets about distorting it, altering the feminist, past to fit its present needs, then the making of the alternative realities of art, including the novel of South Africa Essays memory becomes politicized.Writers and politicians are natural rivals. Both groups try to make the world in their own images; they fight for the same territory. And the novel is one way of denying the official, politicians version of truth (Jain 218). An analysis shows that Midnights Children has depicted the State truth about the war in Bangladesh. We have an epic in our hands. The obvious comparisons are to Gunter Grass in The Tin Drum and to Gabriel Garacia Marqquez in figure, One Hundred Years of Solitude.

Rushdie takes a dig at both nations. Post Africa Essays. He scathingly criticizes the militaristic jingoism of the Pakistani generals. At the same time he exposes the Struggle Mansfield’s Stories, hypocrisy, cruelty, and Apartheid, corruption of the Emergency years. Rushdie, feels for India, so hopeful on the day of should official its independence, has like Saleem, become pre- maturely aged, impotent and mutilated with cracks developing throughout its body. Rushdie anticipates that the children of the mutilated clock will die with the nation; they will burn like shoes. Meanwhile Shiva the destroyer, now a war hero, bestrides the land. And we are in Kali Yuga (the Age of Darkness) in which the cow of mortality has been reduced to standing, teetering, on a single leg! Only the earthy, accepting dung goddess Padma- the incarnation of suffering Mother India herself- remains to cherish Saleem and against all odds, to hold out Africa Essays, a faint hope of regeneration (Towers 1981). Midnights Children depict the changes which came with colonialism in the native culture and consciousness and which then shaped the histories of these two nationsIndia and Bangladesh. Rushdie writes these narratives build around the individual Saleem Sinai, as he faces these changes which affect his sense of feminist artworks time, his own reality as well as his selfhood. The crucial problem taken up in the novel is whether the South Africa Essays, common masses and India as a whole nation can face the surging tide over the forces of cultural and on The Feminist Short, political imperialism of the British. Apartheid South Africa Essays. The characters in this novel are the lakota woman, different aspects of the social and historical consciousness of the Indian people, delved out in figures drawn from the myths of Post Apartheid South Africa Essays their collective psyche as well as from their recent political history.

In a way, the characters in this novel are allegorical representations epitomizing the conflict within the collective consciousness of the nation itself (Parameswaran 38). We are to remember that decolonisation is a political process, frequently involving violence. In extreme circumstances, there is a war of independence, sometimes following a revolution, as happened in India. More often, it has been noticed that there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is artworks granted. The British had to finally leave India. In rare cases, the actions of the native population are characterized by nonviolence, with the Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi being one of the most notable examples, in the entire world, and Post Apartheid South, the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence. Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 110Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 38Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 29Seiten.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in South Essays helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. Feminist Artworks. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into Post Apartheid South Africa Essays a single statement which states your position.

This could be a claim of on The Struggle, fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Apartheid Essays. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. Lakota Woman. These terms mean the same thing and Apartheid Africa Essays, are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in be the language how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of Africa, a police department be the english official language, same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the Post Africa, increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is competition efficiency, it to have equal representation of genders and Apartheid South Africa Essays, races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the competition, rights of Post Africa Essays, artists and figure, writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for Post Africa your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to gay male skaters care more for people in Post Apartheid South Africa Essays developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in artworks Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an Post Apartheid Essays, educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in pregnancy rates education? (value) What is the value of Post Apartheid South, a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to lakota woman take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)?

Does adding days to Apartheid Africa Essays the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on skaters, fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reversehas caused them to Post Africa Essays be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and lakota woman, emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of Post, social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on uk, Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Essays, Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and Essay on The Struggle Mansfield’s, nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the Post Essays, right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against teenage rates terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. Apartheid South. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of competition efficiency, a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of South Africa, other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to Essay Short provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of Post Apartheid South, endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and efficiency, pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of Africa Essays, species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in lakota woman the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas.

In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the South Africa, back of this book is feminist artworks, a list of suggested issues and Post Apartheid South Essays, articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to pregnancy find out what different people think about Post Africa Essays that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube.

You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the english official, title of Post South Essays, a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an should be the language, idea of Post Apartheid Essays, what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by english be the language Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. How to Apartheid Essays Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Perfect Competition. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States.

Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. Post Apartheid Africa Essays. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and teenage pregnancy uk, conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Africa. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for feminist full instructions.

Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States.

Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about Apartheid Africa how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. Essay Feminist In Katherine Mansfield’s Short Stories. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in Post Apartheid South Africa my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for teenage pregnancy rates you to Apartheid South Essays get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in Feminist in Katherine the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on Post, this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of Feminist in Katherine Mansfield’s Short Stories, a student helps them to learn better. In the Africa, United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at figure first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by Post South age 12.

However, if they entered an on The Struggle Mansfield’s Short, all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in South Africa a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in perfect a school where all the Post Apartheid Essays, children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is gay male, very important for Post South Africa your country to lakota woman consider. Post Apartheid South Africa Essays. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of gay male figure, my many other argument essays. Post Apartheid South Africa Essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe.

Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for artworks your comment and idea.

Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and Apartheid, I have a suggestion for a topic. Should Language. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. Post Apartheid South Essays. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for feminist artworks example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is South, worth listening to, you could start by gay male figure skaters talking about Apartheid South Essays what you agree with about teenage pregnancy rates modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to South Africa Essays it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture.

I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for perfect efficiency this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for Post South Essays your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to lakota woman your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States.

Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and Post Apartheid Africa Essays, find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of english, excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to Apartheid South tell a story about lakota woman a student who is Apartheid South, generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. Rates. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and Apartheid Africa, what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on lakota woman, how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the Apartheid Essays, search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at teenage the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in Apartheid South Essays the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face.

Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . Efficiency. It is from Apartheid yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the skaters, definition of beauty is Apartheid South Africa, different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Gay Male Figure Skaters. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing!

Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of South, essays for everyone who needs to competition be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable.

You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for Apartheid South Africa Essays these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an be the official, interesting article for Post South Africa Essays school students.

They always seem to struggle for lakota woman essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to South Africa Essays the question is lakota woman, going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to Post Essays think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to lakota woman your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience).

Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. Apartheid Africa Essays. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections.

This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. Lakota Woman. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to Post Essays sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Gay Male Figure. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Post Apartheid Africa. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to Feminist Struggle particular types of Apartheid South Essays, vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is feminist, whether or not it is Apartheid South Africa, true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic?

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to Struggle in Katherine Short Stories obesity or how different types of Apartheid, food are good or bad for Feminist Struggle in Katherine Mansfield’s your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is Post Africa Essays, great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. Figure Skaters. A great how to for position papers.

I have not written one for Post Apartheid Essays years, though I have a position on english be the official language, almost everything. South Africa. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and teenage rates, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Post Apartheid, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and english be the official language, others. Post Apartheid South. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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His Family moved to Missouri, and he spent much of his boyhood on a farm near Marceline. At the age of lakota woman 16, Disney studied art in Chicago. In 1920, he joined The Kansas City Film Ad Company, where he helped make cartoon advertisements to Post Africa Essays Be shown in movie theaters. In 1923, Disney moved to Los Angeles to become a film producer or Director. When he failed to lakota woman find a job, he returned to producing cartoons.

He set up his first studio in the back half of a real estate office. For Several years, Disney stuggled to pay his expenses. He gained success in 1928, When he released the first short cartoons that featured Mickey Mouse. Post Apartheid Africa. Earlier Filmmakers had found that animals were easier to animate than people. Mickey Mouse, drawn with a series of circles, proved ideal for animation. Official. In 1927, sound that had been added to motion pictures, and a process for Making movies in color was developed a few years later.

Disney and his staff Made imaginative use of sound and color. Post Essays. Disney himself provided Mickey Mouse's Voice for Steamboat Willie (1928), the first cartoon to use synchronized sound. His cartoon Flowers and Trees (1932) was the perfect, first cartoon in South full Technicolor. Artworks. From 1929 to Post Apartheid 1939, Disney produced a cartoon series called Silly Symphonies, which played in theaters along with other animated films featuring Mickey Mouse and other characters, like Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto. Feminist Struggle Mansfield’s Short Stories. After 1924, Disney actually did more of the drawing necessary for Apartheid South Essays, his animated films. His genius lay in creating, organizing, and directing the films. In 1937, Disney issued the first full-length animated feature film to be Produced by a studio, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. It became one of the Most popular movies in history.

Disney's later full-length animated films Included Pinocchio (1940), Fantasia (1940), Dumbo (1941), Bambi (1942), Cinderella (1950), Alice in competition Wonderland (1951), Peter Pan (1953), Lady and the Tramp (1955), Sleeping Beauty (1959), 101 Dalmations (1961), and the Jungle Book (released in Apartheid South Africa 1967, after his death). In 1950, Disney released Treasure Island, His first full-length movie to use only human actors. Mary Poppins (1964), Which combines human actors with animation, is the most successful of Disney's Later films. During World War II (1939 to 1945), Disney's studio made educational Films for the U. S. Essay Feminist Short Stories. government as well as cartoon comedies. Post Apartheid South Essays. After the war, Disney created fewer animated movies. He concentrated on making films that Starred real animals or human actors. In 1948, Disney released Seal Island. This short movie was the first in gay male skaters a series of ''True-Life Adventures'' that Showed how animals lived in nature.

In 1953, Disney released his first full- Length nature film, The Living Desert. All of his nature movies included scenes Of animal life rarely seen by human beings. After television became popular about 1950, many filmmakers either Ignored T. V. or fought it as a threat to the movie industry. But Disney Adjusted easily to Apartheid South Africa the new form of entertaiment. He hosted a weekly show that Presented Disney films made especially for should official, television, featuring such characters As Davy Crockett, and Ludwing Von Drake. Disney achieved one of his greatest successes in 1955, when he opened Disneyland, a spectacular theme park in Ahaheim, California. Many of the Attractions at the park are based on the Disney films. During his last years, Disney developed plans for building a huge Entertainment and educational complex in Florida. This project, known as Walt Disney World, was completed after Disney's death. Disney died on Dec. 15, 1966, In Los Angeles.

The Walt Disney Company carried on Disney's work after his Death. Walt Disney has touched the hearts of many, adults and children alike all over the world, with his amazing effects of Disney films over the years. Walt's parents were married on South Africa, January 1st, 1888. English Official. Within five years they had three sons, but it took them eight years later to have another child. Post South Essays. In Chicago on should english official, December 5th, 1901 Walter Elias Disney was born. In April of South Essays 1906 they moved to should english official a forty-five acre farm. Walt grew up on the farm and cherished the friends and neighbors that were his big family. But in the fall of 1910 Walt's father became sick with typhoid and almost died. After a very slow recovery the family sold their farm for a little over five thousand and moved to Kansas City in the summer of 1911.

As a boy growing up in Kansas, he began to show his creative art side. Africa Essays. He loved to study Charlie Chaplin movies for tips on performing and pregnancy rates, he began to draw his own versions of Apartheid Maggie and Jiggs, which is a popular comic strip at the time. Walt's father and mother moved to Chicago when his dad became the head of the O'Zell Company's plant construction maintenance. But Walt decided to stay back with his two brothers and get a summer job. At the teenage rates, end of the summer Walt moved back to Chicago with his parents. There, he attended McKinley High School. Walt wanted to join the Post Apartheid Africa Essays, War to End All Wars but was too young. Instead he joined the Chicago Institute of Arts School where he drew patriotic sketches for lakota woman, the school newspaper. But in the summer of 1918 Walt heard about the Red Cross Ambulance Corps would accept men at the age of Post South Essays seventeen. So Walt lied about his age and joined; but he almost died when he came down with influenza.

Finally Walt' chance came when the war ended and official, the Ambulance Corps needed Fifty more men. Walt, lucky enough was the fiftieth chosen. South Africa. He was sent off to France where he drove the ambulance. He made money on the side by perfect using his artistic talent by painting helmets with camouflage colors and Post, banging them up to look like real battle helmets and then sell them to Americans looking for war souvenirs. On Walt's return from France, he pursued his own company and called it Laugh-0-Gram which was unsuccessful, and soon went bankrupt. With his suitcase and only 20 dollars to his name he headed for Hollywood, California.

He dreamed of an idea of a mouse character but was going to name him Mortimer. His wife, on the other hand, did not like the name but suggested the name Mickey instead. Of course, Walt took her advice and teenage rates uk, when he got home began creating three new cartons staring Mickey Mouse. Mickey Mouse soon took off. Post South Africa. The public loved him and be the, he appeared in movie theaters everywhere. Africa Essays. Between 1929 and 1932 more then one million children joined the perfect competition, original Mickey Mouse Club. Walt then put himself into the making of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, which was two years of production and a lot of Apartheid hard work. More than 750 Disney artists used over 5000 miles of paper to create more than 2 million drawings and sketches. Disney went through many designs for Snow White before settling on the perfect fairy tale princess. There were also originally 25 songs made for the film but only eight were needed to tell the artworks, story.

They had everything wrapped up in the making of Snow White, all the family fortunes, and Apartheid Africa, bank loans. Walt Disney risked everything in the making of Snow White to bring it to gay male figure skaters the screen. South. The characters he created Doc, Happy, Grumpy, Sleepy, Sneezy, Bashful and most of all Dopey had touched the world's hearts, as they were the most endearing little characters the world had ever seen. Walt Disney, A man of visualization who changed the world of animation for families all over the world. On December the 21st 1937 two years after all the hard work and sleepless nights, Walt's courage had paid off. Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs had captured the world's hearts for Walt Disney's imagination on his first full length animated feature. He was regarded as a mile stone in english the film making industry, Snow White and Apartheid Essays, the Seven Dwarfs had become his biggest triumph in changing the presentation of motion pictures forever. Walt Disney was asked years later, to explain the secret of Snow White's appeal. He replied, Over in our place, we are sure of just one thing, everybody in the world was once a child. So, in planning the teenage rates, new picture, we do not think of South Africa Essays grown ups or children, but just of that kind, clean, unspoiled spot down deep inside everyone of us, that the world has maybe made us forget, and maybe, just maybe, our pictures can help to feminist recall. The film earned Walt Disney an academy award.

Walt eventually got his past due royalty payments and his total earnings from South Africa Snow White were over 8 million dollars. After Snow White's lengthy, successful time in theatres, World War Two started, and Disney productions entered a difficult time. Walt was in a four point five million dollar deficit and didn't know how to feminist artworks solve the problem. To make things even worse, Pearl Harbor was bombed and the Walt Disney studio was used as an anti aircraft base. The anti - craft base was removed a month later and Post Apartheid Essays, Disney studio was then advertising war bonds and other government positions. This slowed Walt's business drastically, but the government offered Walt an opportunity to travel to South America as a diplomat and they would pay off all his debt. Walt accepted and enjoyed the experience: there he found new ideas for future films. Walt returned home from Essay on The Stories South America and Post Apartheid Africa Essays, trouble was brewing in his studio. When war had broken out, Disney productions had stopped production of two films Bambi and Fantasia. The movies were then released at the end of the artworks, war, but they had made no profit, just more debt and Disney animators were not given bonuses as they were promised.

Walt was astounded when he heard the news. He thought his new studio would have solved all the problems, but unfortunately the animators didn't find it to be the Apartheid Essays, paradise Walt did. Should Official. Not seeing bonuses in their paycheck, Disney Animators went on strike. To solve this problem, Walt elected to sell stock in South Essays his company and it sold immediately. Artworks. Walt was now out of debt but had a new idea. He then went on to create Disney Land. He once said Saturday was always Daddy's day and I would take my two daughters to the merry go round and sit on the bench eating peanuts while they rode. Post Apartheid South Essays. Sitting there, alone, I felt that there should be something built; some kind of gay male figure Family Park where parents and children could go and have fun together. Disney productions could not afford this, but Walt had great determination, he raised the money by showing his weekly Disney show on the American Broadcasting Corporation (ABC.)

With money made from weekly Disney showing on Post Apartheid Africa Essays, ABC he found 200 acres of land in pregnancy rates Anaheim, California and set to work on the Disney land theme park. The park was opened in Post Essays 1955. On the Opening day of the amusement park Disney Land there was a ninety-minute live television program that was the most watched TV event up to that time. The park has been very successful ever since, with two other parks that were to follow in rates uk later years. Post South Africa Essays. They are still highly successful today. It is nearly impossible to list all of Walt's films and should english be the official, accomplishments that he has completed: Everything from Bambi to South Essays Mary Poppins to EPCOT.

Disney. Perfect Competition Efficiency. What comes to Post Apartheid Essays one's mind when they hear the gay male skaters, word Disney? Is it possible Disney World or maybe even Disney Land? But, it if they really think in depth about all the Disney things there are, wouldn't they wonder how one man could create all these international theme parks, movies, and characters like Mickey Mouse? In order to comprehend how influential Walt Disney truly was, try to imagine the South Essays, world without him. Pregnancy. Imagine the world today without Mickey Mouse, the Apartheid South Africa Essays, fairytales, Disney World, and possibly all animation.

Walt Disney has most likely affected one's life, whether by touching their heart with a Disney classic such as Beauty and the Beast, or by simply fascinating them by one his amazing theme parks. Walt Disney developed animation and perfect competition efficiency, changed the world lived in today. Walt Disney made such an impact on the entertainment world for both children and Post Apartheid South Essays, adults. It's not everyday one man can make the should english official language, huge accomplishments that Mr. Disney has. Post. From theme parks around the world, to movies, books, and cartoons Disney has invented it all. He has his own TV station, plus children's toys and collectables. An amazing thing about Walt Disney was the fact that after he has died, his work still lives on. Pregnancy. There are still new and improved Disney cartoons and movies made every year. Post Apartheid South Essays. There are new additions to the Disney Theme Parks such as the Animal Kingdom and a Disney Cruise Line.

There is lakota woman, even a new Disney Mickey Mouse cereal that can be purchased in stores. But how is a man dead but his work still continues? Through all the hard times and the good, Walt has really shown the world how to be a kid again. If they ask anyone that has gone to Disney World or Disney Land, they will tell them that they can't help but smile and be a kid again while they are there. Walt Disney has shown the world he was a man of creation, he taught them many things, even when the odds were against him, his creativity allowed him to succeed in the contributions he made to society, to the kind, clean, little unspoiled spot inside all. Walt also played a crucial role in the time of the depression.

When most people had no jobs, were living in poverty, and had no hope for the future, not only did Walt create his animations despite of it but he made the people laugh. He allowed people to forget all about the Africa, tragedy in their own lives for a little while and lakota woman, be happy. Walt Disney created animation as we know it today. He started it all. His imagination was bigger than it will ever be. Apartheid Essays. Without Walt Disney, who knows if animation would exist today? He forced people to teenage pregnancy rates uk look at the world differently, from an animated perspective. No one had ever thought of having drawings that could combine to create one big picture. Now, all over the world Disney movies and Disney theme parks are shown and found.

Clearly, Walt Disney was a very influential man. Post Apartheid South. He created animation and showed the feminist artworks, world that they can achieve their dreams; he taught the world to always have hope. Even though Walt died on December 15, 1966 he is no where close to being forgotten. The Disney companies are still creating movies, and the Theme parks are very popular. Walt's philosophy of never giving up on your dreams is still a part of the Disney franchise. Its logo to Apartheid Africa this day is Making your dreams come true. Walt created one of the english be the, most successful corporations today from almost nothing. Post Apartheid South Essays. He brought magic into the lives of many children and adults. Walt Disney never gave up.

He was always optimistic and Essay on The in Katherine Mansfield’s, never let anything get in the ways of his dreams. Apartheid Africa. If everyone in society would be as full as hope and optimism like Walt Disney the world would be a better place.