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Information for Readers and Authors. No registration is required and access is free. There is no online submission or registration. Johnny. Authors wishing to submit a piece of work should review the author guidelines and then email submissions to [emailprotected] Understanding al-Qaedas Ideology for Counter-Narrative Work. In order to counter the process of radicalization, it is necessary to understand the attraction of the narrative or the messages of al-Qaeda and its inspired followers. This article, based on a combination of wide ranging research and front line experience[1], examines the key points in al-Qaeda's ideology and its narratives which have gained so much attention and following. Central to this ideology are eight main themes or concepts which appear consistently in the narratives of al-Qaeda. These have been used to the end the doors analyse, indoctrinate and twist young minds, many of them feeling attracted to such violent ideas.

Based on a better understanding of the cash bio ideology and the underlying concepts of radical narratives, counterterrorism efforts can be enhanced by more effectively targeting the counter-narrative message. Al-Qaeda (and its ideology) did not spring from the ground wholly formed in 1988/1989 as it is sometimes portrayed. Much of what passes for al-Qaeda's own views owes its origin to others who came before them. The End Analyse. In addition, the concepts and ideas that underlie al-Qaeda's body of literature have continued to develop after the initial foundations in the late 1980s. Johnny Bio. Individuals such as Hassan Banna and 2 summary, Sayyid Qutb laid much of the earlier groundwork. Johnny Cash Bio. Especially Sayyid Qutb's works such as Social Justice in Islam and Milestones are required reading for understanding the snow white huntsman early thinking of jihadists. In order to comprehend the current ideology and objectives of al-Qaeda, it's necessary to dwell on a number of their key works.

Al-Qaeda and johnny, its adherents, like most revolutionary and terrorist organizations, have gone to white, considerable lengths to ensure that their message has been sent out johnny cash bio, both to their followers and their enemies. In terms of propaganda that is sent to snow & the huntsman, its enemies, al-Qaeda has been both prolific and clear. There have been a series of messages to the Crusaders which detail the objectives of al-Qaeda. Cash. Prominent among these are the 1996 Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places and the 1998 Jihad against Jews and Crusaders World Islamic Front Statement. At the same time, al-Qaeda and the end, its adherents have published an extensive series of books and essays that are primarily intended for Muslim audiences.

No attempt has been made to hide these works, but neither are they distributed as broadly as the propaganda that al-Qaeda intends for Western consumption. It should be noted that most of its documents have proven to johnny cash bio, be consistent over time; but these have evolved in & the, a manner that parallels al-Qaeda's operational realities. In other words, they are worth reading as they are an accurate reflection of belief structures and resulting practice. The list of works by johnny bio, al-Qaeda and its sympathizers is extensive; not all of them can be highlighted here. Examples. Among the most relevant and influential[2] works that should be reviewed are: 1. Join the Caravan of Martyrs, by Abdullah Azzam. This is probably the single most quoted (and misquoted) piece of jihadist literature [3] that has been written. It contains many of the key phrases and johnny cash bio, ideas that are used and the end the doors analyse, misused by jihadist all over the world. Abdullah Azzam was the key ideological mentor of Osama Bin Laden up to Azzam's death by cash bio, assassination in November 1998 (it is proposal examples still not clear who ordered his assassination but it most likely was an johnny cash bio internal operation ordered by Ayman al Zawahiri or Bin Laden himself). In addition to his work on meditation 2 summary, Join the Caravan [4] Abdullah Azzam also made an johnny important statement concerning what he viewed to be the mission of the future: Every principle needs a vanguard to carry it forward and, while focusing its way into society, puts up with heavy tasks and enormous sacrifices. Pregnancy Rates Uk. There is no ideology, neither earthly nor heavenly, that does not require a vanguard that gives everything it possesses in johnny bio, order to achieve victory for white & the this ideology.

It carries the flag all along the sheer endless and difficult path until it reaches its destination in johnny cash bio, the reality of teenage pregnancy, life, since Allah has destined that it should make it and manifest itself. This vanguard constitutes Al Qa'idah al-Sulhah for the expected society.[5] 2. Declaration of bio, War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places by Osama bin Laden. This article was published in the open press in London (UK) in August 1996. It appeared originally in the Al Quds al Arabi newspaper.[6] The Declaration outlines bin Laden's views on the Zionist-Crusaders alliance and provides the reader with a list of grievances suffered by Muslims and concludes with appeals for an uprising. 3. Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders World Islamic Front Statement (23 February 1998) by Usamah Bin-Muhammad Bin-Ladin, Dr Ayman al-Zawahiri, Emir of the Jihad Group in Egypt, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Egyptian Islamic Group, Mir Hamzah, secretary of the Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan, Fazlur Rahman, Emir of the Jihad Movement in Bangladesh. The World Islamic Front that takes responsibility for the statement can be considered to be a synonym for al-Qaeda. This brief, but rather direct, statement sets out al-Qaeda's arguments against various actions of the Crusaders (American government) and how al-Qaeda's members should respond.[7] 4. Knights under the Prophet's Banner by Ayman al Zawahiri.

This extensive volume containing 21 chapters was published[8] in a serialized format in snow white huntsman, late 2001 and 2002. Ayman al Zawahiri, the deputy to Osama bin Laden, was the johnny cash leader of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ). Of Vaccines Essay. The EIJ may have been the bio most ruthless of all the Sunni militant and terrorist groups of the 1990s before it merged with al-Qaeda. This volume outlines many of the key historical views and beliefs of the man who is regarded as the key figure in al-Qaeda, second only to army tactics, Bin Laden himself. This includes his justifications for suicide bombings and johnny cash bio, his hyper-critical views on the Muslim Brotherhood. 5. Loyalty and Enmity (Al Wala wal Bara). This extensive essay was released by Ayman al-Zawahiri in dissertation proposal examples, December 2002. In Zawahiri's view, the world is divided into two warring camps, true Muslims and the rest of the world. True Muslims must, according to this account, be in cash bio, a constant state of wala or being 'loyal' to one another at The Importance Essay, all times. At the same time, true Muslims must also be in cash, a state of bara or 'enmity' where they are either in a constant state of hatred or at least being distant from everyone else.[9] 6. Moderate Islam is a Prostration to the West . In this essay, which was either authorized or written directly by Osama bin Laden, a general description is made of how moderate Muslims are in fact aiding and abetting the Crusaders of the proposal West at least in johnny, the eyes of al-Qaeda.

The essay also explores the highly controversial subject of offensive jihad and whether it is dissertation proposal examples obligatory for all Muslims to cash, participate in this activity. While the overall concept of offensive jihad has been abandoned or decried by most Muslims, (including Abdullah Azzam), Osama Bin Laden uses a number of cherry-picked verses from the of Vaccines Essay Qur'an and the Haddith to bio, try to uk, justify it.[10] 7. Jihad, Martyrdom and the Killing of bio, Innocents . This essay was either written or authorized by The Importance of Vaccines Essay, Ayman al-Zawahiri. It lacks the usual obligatory references to the attacks of September 11, 2001, so presumably it was written before that date. In this essay, Zawahiri tries to tackle the tricky issues of martyrdom or suicide bombers as well as the killing of innocents. While classical Islam has rejected both of these concepts, Zawahiri uses a combination of Sunnah and Haddith passages and cash bio, analogies to justify the unjustifiable. To the the doors analyse theologically uneducated, this work makes a case for the justification of suicide bombings and the killing of johnny bio, innocents.[11] 8. Sharia and Democracy . Around 1991 a book first appeared with the title The Bitter Harvest: The Muslim Brotherhood in Sixty Years. The book itself was a repudiation by Ayman al-Zawahiri of the Muslim Brotherhood's decision to forego violence as a political tool and participate in the electoral process instead. While the book itself continues to circulate among military jihadists, an extract of it has also been widely circulated under the title Sharia and Democracy . In this short extract from the book, Zawahiri describes why he feels that anyone who claims to be both democratic and a Muslim is in fact an apostate or non-believer. 9. The Call to Global Islamic Resistance . In January 2005, Mustapha al-Suri released this massive treatise numbering some 1,600 pages in its original form. While not directly a part of al-Qaeda, al Suri provides a number of insights on matters of ideology, strategies, tactics and organization.

A book entitled Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of al-Qaida Strategist Abu Mus'ab Al-Suri ,written by Brynjar Lia of the Norwegian Defense Institute sheds some light on meditation 2 summary, this. [12] What is an ideology? Many academic or public discussions on ideology are often confusing because authors tend to talk about ideology when they are in fact discussing objectives and strategy. In my view, an ideology is primarily a set of beliefs that are characteristic of a group or of an individual in that group. These beliefs are the non-material glue that binds that group together as it seeks to obtain its goals. What then can be said about the ideology of al-Qaeda based on its literature, various other statements and its activities? First, it is necessary to cash bio, note the worldview of al-Qaeda that forms the basis of its ideology is as follows: 1: Muslims are under attack everyone. 2: Only al-Qaeda and its followers are fighting the oppressors of Islam.

3: If you are not supporting al-Qaeda, then you are supporting the analyse oppressors (note the johnny exclusionary nature of analyse, these statements this is key). Second, al-Qaeda sees its mission to cash, be the vanguard of the uprising of the oppressed. Essay. Al-Qaeda knows it cannot achieve these goals by itself, so it needs to inspire the masses with an uplifting message intended to create a revolution. Third, it is johnny clear that the basic grievances of al-Qaeda (real and imagined) are political, not religious. The window dressing that is used in their documents is almost always religious, as are the justifications for violence. However, the problems raised in the end the doors, the texts are those of classic identity politics: oppression, poverty and exploitation are common themes. Fourth, in terms of cash bio, how it spreads and justifies its world views, there are a number of ideological ideas and concepts that constantly reappear in al-Qaeda's literature and statements.[13] After the Singapore Religious Rehabilitation Project (RRP) had conducted some 500 interviews[14] with jihadist detainees and their families, the researchers noted that eight main themes were persistent surfacing in almost every case.

What struck them the most, however, was the widespread variance in Essay, how the young jihadists interpreted the concepts when compared to their meanings in mainstream Islamic circles. The differences allowed the RRP researchers to gain insight into the minds of the johnny cash bio young jihadists and understand better how they viewed al-Qaeda in ideological terms. The list of eight themes is not just unique to South East Asia or adherents of the local Jammah Islamiyah . For instance, convicted terrorist Momin Khawaja of Ottawa, Canada, had written extensively about his beliefs before he was arrested. During the snow & the course of legal proceedings against him, six of the eight themes emerged in name while a seventh ( al Wala Wal Bara ) appeared in cash, all but name only. The eight themes that appear on snow white, a regular basis in jihadist discourse are; Jihad, Bayat, Daru Islam, Ummah, Takfir, Shaheed, Al-Wala Wal Bara, and Hijrah. Each of the eight themes/terms has two major interpretations, that of cash, al-Qaeda and/or its followers and a more classical, mainstream interpretation of the concept. It is instructive to juxtapose how each term is perceived by al-Qaeda adherents as opposed to how each term is used by the doors analyse, mainstream scholars.[15] Jihad or Struggle (al-Qaeda's View)

Jihad is johnny cash war, according to al-Qaeda's perspective. It is an obligatory act for all Muslims. This obligation is described as being fardh ain . Permission from analyse parents or other relatives is not required if the jihadist is of an age of understanding. The aim of jihad is to achieve Muslim dominance over cash bio, Daru Islam. Armed jihad is the highest form of jihad and rates, should be undertaken against all enemies of Islam. This includes infidels, polytheists, as well as those who support them. Johnny. Jihad or Struggle (Islamic Scholars' View) According to mainstram Islamic scholars, the concept of jihad refers to 'striving for excellence'. There are multiple goals for the end the doors jihad . Among them are jihad for goodness ( al khair ), human development, prosperity, education, family, friendship and johnny bio, nation-building. There is also jihad against the human condition as well.

This includes jihad against evil ( asy-syarr ), one's inner self, and intrusions upon one's laziness, stupidity, hatred and arrogance. Bayat or Pledge (al-Qaeda's View) A bayat is descartes 2 summary a pledge of obedience given to the Emir or leader of a group. The bayat to the leader of the johnny group is the same that one would give to the Prophet Mohammed. Once a bayat is given, it cannot be broken. Anyone who breaks the pledge is guilty of an exceptionally grave sin. One who does so is not only guilty of sin, but then becomes a kafir (non-believer) as well.

If you have not made a bayat , you can be considered less pious and less Muslim than those who have. Bayat (Islamic Scholars' View) The status of the permissibility of a bayat must be ascertained by the majority of the leaders of society, i.e. the ulama (scholars), umara (rulers) and other respected people. It cannot be decided by just one self-appointed leader. The Emir of al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, does not represent the majority of the Muslim community or its leaders. Therefore, he does not have the authority to proposal examples, take a bayat from anyone. The al-Qaeda interpretation of johnny cash, a bayat is invalid and does not carry any religious weight. Daru Islam (al-Qaeda's View) The concept of dissertation, Daru Islam or an 'Islamic state' is a constant theme within al-Qaeda's propaganda. It holds that in order to establish the religion, it is johnny cash bio first necessary to establish an Islamic state, which, in snow huntsman, turn, will then lead to the re-establishment of the Caliphate (Khilafah Islamiyah).

It is obligatory for all Muslims to contribute both financially and physically to this end. Daru Islam (Islamic Scholars' View) Islamic scholars believe that the term Daru Islam is a relative term. Bio. It does not have a precise or exact meaning. There are no clear injunctions towards Daru Islam . Therefore, the justification of killing or spilling blood to achieve this vague notion is considered dangerous. The Ummah (al-Qaeda's View) The Ummah is the collective community of all Muslims. Of Vaccines Essay. The rules for the Ummah are those of the rightful way. Anyone who follows the rightful way is a member of the chosen community. Anyone who does not believe or follow the rules is a non-believer.

Every Muslim must follow the Ummah , but if the states in which they live are run by non-believers, Muslims do not have to follow the johnny cash laws of those states. The Ummah (Islamic Scholars' View) No one can claim that their community is the one and only true community. There is no single authority in Islam that can make such a declaration; that would be an expression of arrogance. Islam encourages the creation of Brotherhood ( Ukhuwwah ) among all Muslims. Within Islam there is the Medina Charter, which believes that there must be peaceful co-existence among Muslims, Jews and Christians. Islam also advocates that a good Muslim should be a good citizen as well. Takfir (al-Qaeda's View) Takfir is the action of accusing others of being infidels or non-believers.

This is of Vaccines Essay considered a very serious act. Al-Qaeda, however, has regularly employed the term in an attempt to discredit or disparage other Muslims who oppose them. By doing so, fellow Muslims are now turned into enemies. Takfir (Islamic Scholars' View) Muslims are forbidden to cash bio, declare others to be takfir . If a Muslim does this, then that individual casts an infidelity upon him- or herself. Shaheed or Istisyhad (al-Qaeda's View) Al-Qaeda advocates becoming a shaheed or 'martyr' by the act of the doors, suicide bombing. This istimate (suicide act) is part of their hirja or migration to johnny bio, God. They believe that they will be rewarded in heaven for this action.

Shaheed or Istisyhad (Islamic Scholars' View) Suicide is an act that is strongly forbidden in genghis army, the Qur'an and the Haddith . Allah has granted you a body. Only Allah can decide when the body will be taken back. Johnny Cash. There are no justifications for exceptions to this rule. Lives, be they human or others, are sacred, and must be honoured. Whoever commits suicide will be considered eternally committed to hellfire. Rates. Once in johnny, hell, the descartes individual will spend the rest of eternity dying again and cash, again in the same way they committed suicide. Therefore, suicide bombers will spend the teenage rest of eternity having their arms, legs and head pulled off. Al-Wala' Wal Bara' (al-Qaeda's View) Al-Qaeda fosters an atmosphere of us versus them through the use of the term Al-Wala' Wal Bara . Al-Wala means those to whom they are loyal or simply, their friends.

Al-Bara refers to those whom they hate or their enemies. This concept becomes their tool to categorize people into friends and enemies. Those they hate are the enemy and those they like, or agree with, are their friends. Their enemies are non-Muslims and many Muslims as well. Al-Wala' Wal Bara' (Islamic Scholars' View) There is not, nor should there be, an us versus them mentality in bio, either Islam or in humanity.

All human beings are creatures of God and we therefore must show respect to & the huntsman, each other. This implies a multi-racial, multi-religious society. Cash. Islam must be seen as a Rahmah (Blessing) to pregnancy rates uk, the Universe. Hijrah or Migration (al-Qaeda's View) According to the al-Qaeda view of Hijrah , volunteers should leave their homes, properties, jobs and families for the sake of God. They do not need permission from their families to do this. Al-Qaeda also advocates that they should disregard the needs of their parents, wives and children for the sake of their struggle. They believe that the volunteers should migrate ( Hijrah) from cash bio worldly inclinations to heavenly goals. They can achieve this heavenly goal and obtain beautiful virgins through suicide bombings.

Hijrah or Migration (Islamic Scholars' View) The concept of Migration ( Hijrah ) relates to the spirit of continuous life-long progress, opportunity and change. In classical Islam, those who would migrate must also take into consideration their family. Parents and children must be taken care of before Hijrah can be considered. A physical migration should only be considered in meditation 2 summary, a dire situation when one fears for one's religious freedom, personal rights, dignity and wealth. Bio. Muslims should be able to prosper in their birthplace as a sign of thankfulness to God.

It is even compulsory for a Muslim to remain in his country when he can enhance the progress of the Muslim community in that country. What is a Story or Narrative? Terrorists at all levels in al-Qaeda, from the leaders of organizations down to the inspired home-grown jihadists tell stories. These stories, or narratives, are used to reinforce their views on global grievances, recruit new members, justify their own actions, and develop new ideas on organization and tactics. Terrorist extremists also use narrative stories to maintain group cohesion, especially among smaller groups or cells that operate in isolation.

Much has been written about what constitutes a story or a narrative. Dissertation Examples. It is not the intent of this article to enter into that debate. In general terms, however, it can be said that a narrative must have a beginning point, a middle part and an end. Cash. The beginning is the set-up for the narrative or recalls a grievance or difficult situation. The middle part then must have a hero or agent or potential solution to the problems. The end of the The Importance of Vaccines Essay narrative either shows the solution or challenges the recipients to act for themselves on what they now know is the problem. This tri-part structure of johnny, a set-up, a climax, and a resolution is a recurring theme.[16] The videos produced by As Sahab (al-Qaeda's media arm) frequently use it. Other terrorist groups have followed a tri-part structure, such as the series of five Russian Hell videos produced in Chechnya. In one such video, the Chechen mission commander is introduced as he does a military style briefing. Army Tactics. He identifies the problem (the Russian occupiers), outlines a plan of cash, attack for his followers (ambushing a convoy), and then they all successfully carry out an attack on a Russian convoy.

These videos were widely circulated on the Internet and on of Vaccines Essay, DVDs and were known to have played a direct role in recruitment, even at the level of home-grown jihadist cells. Cash Bio. [17] Many of the narratives told by al-Qaeda follow this simple structure. It is reflected in white & the huntsman, and consistent with al- Qaeda's overall narrative: 1: Muslims are under attack everyone (set-up); 2: Only Al Qaeda and its followers are fighting the cash oppressors of Essay, Islam (climax); 3: If you are not supporting al-Qaeda, then you are supporting the johnny cash bio oppressors (resolution/challenge). & The Huntsman. Countering the Terrorist Narratives. Many observers and johnny bio, leaders in the West are not even aware of the pregnancy uk types of johnny, various competing narratives that are being told. Proposal. The conflict in the former Yugoslavia provides an johnny interesting example. To many government leaders and citizens in the West, the narratives they hear are about peacekeeping, humanitarian aid and conflict intervention. For many followers of the al-Qaeda ideology, the conflict there is lumped together with Chechnya and meditation, Kashmir.

The narratives they tell are about oppression of Muslims, which is either portrayed as being ignored by cash bio, the West (Chechnya) or worse still, carried out by The Importance of Vaccines, the West (ex-Yugoslavia). To counter such narratives, it is johnny cash critical to teenage pregnancy uk, know which aspects of al-Qaeda's ideological appeals are working. As has been demonstrated in both extensive empirical research and johnny cash bio, first-hand experience in investigations and convictions, these themes and concepts are persistently recurring. The ideology as outlined above and the eight recurring themes are therefore key areas that need to teenage rates, be addressed. About the Author: Tom Quiggin is a Senior Research Fellow at the Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Study at Carleton University. [1]The author was directly involved in the investigation and conviction of Momin Khawaja on cash, terrorism charges. This case was known in snow & the, Canada as Operation Awaken and in the UK as Operation Crevice . The author testified twice in the proceedings and johnny cash, was qualified as a court expert during this testimony. The author has also testified as an expert in National Security Certificate cases in control order cases in the Federal Court of Canada. [2]In this context, influential should be taken to mean works that have been quoted or used by those who have taken the path of violent jihad. [3]The concept of al-Qaeda was first noted in the principal journal of the Afghan Arabs Al Jihad . In 1987, Abdullah Azzam, the ideological father of the movement, outlined its mission. [5]For a more extensive explanation of this text and its importance, see Rohan Gunaratna, Inside Al Qaeda Global Network of Terror , Berkley Books, New York, 2002, pp. 4-5. [6]This statement is available in English on line at a number of places including the Public Broadcasting Service's website at: [7]This statement is available in any number of places in English, including the Federation of American Scientists website at: It is also available in the original Arabic at: [8]A translation of this book is available on line or through FBIS (Foreign Broadcast Information Service).

The document number at FIS is FBIS-NES-2002-0108. The document date is white & the 02 Dec. Johnny Bio. 2001. The sourceline is GMP20020108000197. Meditation. It was originally serialized in Arabic in London's Al-Sharq al-Awsat . [9]This essay is available on line on a number of sites under the title Al Wala Wal Bara or Loyality and Enmity. It is also available as a chapter in the book The Al Qaeda Reader , by Raymond Ibrahim (New York, Doubleday, 2007). [10]This essay is also available in The Al Qaeda Reader, op.cit. [11]This extract is bio also available in The Al Qaeda Reader , op.cit. White & The. [12]For an overview of al-Suri's work, see also Al-Suri's Doctrines for Decentralized Jihadi Training (Parts 1 and 2) which is available on the Jamestown Foundation 's website at: . Johnny Cash Bio. [13]I am greatly indebted to Ustaz Hannif Hassan from the S.Rarjaratnam School of International Studies (NTU) for his continuous assistance and explanations over a period of several years. I am also indebted to Essay, the RRG for its work as well as to Ustaz Mohammed Bin Ali from the RRG for his explanations and understanding.

[14]The Singapore RRG project started informally in 2002; it was formalized in 2003. The project includes more than 800 interviews. Their website can be viewed at: . [15]There is no absolute agreement on johnny cash bio, the use of meditation 2 summary, these terms either within Al Qaeda itself or among mainstream scholars. The definitions presented here are generalizations provided for a basic understanding of the nature of the problem. [16]For more detailed information on narratives and storytelling, see: The Stories Terrorists Tell: A Neurobiologically -Informed Counter-Narrative Strategy for Diminishing Terrorism's Effectiveness . This article can be viewed online at: . [17]In the case of Momin Khawaja, court evidence was entered to show that he used these videos as part of johnny, a successful effort to dissertation examples, recruit another individual to assist his terrorist cell in its financing operations. ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH.

Perspectives on cash, Terrorism is the doors analyse a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for johnny Terrorism and Security Studies.

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colorado essay Neuroanatomy and Physiology of the Brain Reward System in Substance Abuse. How does experimental use of cash bio substances of abuse lead to drug addiction in tactics, some individuals? How do these drugs cause intoxication? Part of the answer lies in a common reinforcement pathway in cash bio, the human brain which drugs of abuse stimulate, potentially leading to addiction (1,2,3,4,7).

This reinforcement pathway, which is composed of both central nervous system structures and endogenous neurotransmitters communicating between these structures, has been termed the reward pathway(1). The reward pathway evolved to promote activities that are essential to dissertation the survival of the human race as well as other mammals. One may compare the johnny cash mechanism of of Vaccines drugs of abuse with that of viruses. Viruses and bio drugs of dissertation proposal examples abuse are both foreign to humans. Viruses enter an animals cells and use the johnny cash bio pre-existing cell machinery to synthesize more viruses, thus promoting their own survival. As the viruses infect more and more cells, the snow & the organism may become ill. Illicit drugs can take advantage of an organism in a similar fashion. Johnny Bio. Just as viruses take over cell function throughout the body, drugs of abuse modify cell function in these important brain structures leading to modifications in khan tactics, behavior. Bio. These drugs enter the human brain and use its own machinery (the reward pathway) to The Importance of Vaccines promote continued use.

Just as the bio cells survival is dependent on its machinery so is the survival of the organism dependent on white an intact brain reward pathway. Drugs of abuse, although harmful to the organism, are able to johnny bio capture this machinery in some individuals driving further drug use. Depending on our own characteristics (our inherited neurochemical make-up etc.) we may be more susceptible to the illness of drug addiction just as certain people are more susceptible to infection. Certain pathogens are ubiquitous or occur so frequently that almost all of us are exposed to & the huntsman them. Those who have inherited genetic immunodeficiencies fall prey to these pathogens more than the general population. Similarly, individuals who have a genetic predisposition, may be more vulnerable to addiction after exposure to the drug. As noted earlier, substances of abuse affect the brain reward pathway, which is made of neurons that release chemicals when they are stimulated. Cash Bio. This release leads to subjective feelings of well being (1,2). This brain reward system evolved to subserve activities essential to 2 summary species survival, such as sexual activity and johnny feeding behaviors.

Activities that activate this pathway become associated with feeling good (1,2). Khan Tactics. For example, sexual intercourse causes release of chemicals activating this pathway, and the result is a feeling of well being. Cash. Thus, the 2 summary reward pathway serves to promote survival of the species by rewarding behaviors necessary for continued survival (seeking food, reproduction, shelter, drink, etc). Drugs of abuse stimulate this brain reward pathway in a similar fashion, and this is why substance users experience feelings of pleasure or high when they use them (1,2). When drugs of abuse are repeatedly used, they may commandeer the brain reward system, driving compulsory drug use to the exclusion of other adaptive activities. Thus, addiction can be partially explained by the action of johnny cash drugs of abuse on this common reward pathway, in which drug use stimulates further use and drug seeking behavior (1,2,3,4).

In the huntsman following paragraphs, the johnny cash basic anatomy of the reward pathway and brain structures that interact with this pathway will be discussed. Examples. Next, the molecular physiology of the reward pathway will be delineated. Johnny Bio. After laying the dissertation examples foundation of the anatomy and physiology of brain reward, the specific interactions of drugs of abuse will be examined. Finally, with this understanding, we may examine treatments aimed at modulating this important pathway. II. The Structures of the Reward Pathway: The basic anatomy of the reward pathway will be described below. However, it must be remembered that the anatomical structures involved have complex interrelationships, and are modulated by other parts of the brain and other neurochemicals.

Many of the factors influencing brain reward may not be known or have not been well established. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the most well established structures and pathways involved. With this overview we may develop a basic understanding that anatomical structures have evolved to promote the survival of the organism and how drugs of abuse stimulate and commandeer these structures. Core Structures of the Reward System. The core structures of the brain reward pathway is cash located in the limbic system, a set of primitive structures in the human brain (1,2,3,7,9). Conceptually, the function of the limbic system is to monitor internal homeostasis, mediate memory, mediate learning, and experience emotion. Snow White Huntsman. It also drives important aspects of sexual behavior, motivation, and feeding behaviors (9).

The primary nuclei (or parts) of the bio limbic system include the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei, and genghis army anterior cingulate gyrus (9). Also important in the function of the limbic system is the limbic striatum, which includes the nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate nucleus and bio the putamen (9). The nucleus accumbens (NA) has been implicated as an especially important structure of the brain reward pathway because drugs of abuse target it. Of Vaccines Essay. (1,2,3,5,7). Other structures important in brain reward include the johnny cash amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). (1,2,3). The majority of this paper will concentrate on the NA and the VTA. In addition to the other structures listed above, several other systems have an influence on the brain reward pathway as well.

The endocrine and the autonomic nervous systems interact via the hypothalamus, an integral part of the limbic system, and the pituitary (1). These structures modulate the reward pathway. Descartes Meditation 2 Summary. The hypothalamus is involved in every aspect of bio endocrine, visceral, and autonomic functions, and teenage pregnancy rates uk it is able to influence eating, drinking, sexual activity, aversion, rage, and pleasure (1,9). Environmental stimuli may affect brain reward via this neuroendocrine axis. Electrical Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. The link between the brain reward system and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be seen through experiments on animals where electrodes are placed into bio, the nucleus accumbens (part of the proposal brains reward system) under conditions of imposed environmental stress. Electrical self-stimulation experiments are designed in animal models such that electrodes are placed in various brain structure regions thought to be involved in brain reward (2). Cash. The animal then performs an activity (i.e. presses a lever) which leads to stimulation of the electrode and the neuronal structure. If the electrode is placed in a structure in the reward pathway, the resulting stimulation is pleasurable and self-stimulation is therefore encouraged. Proposal Examples. In models of addiction hungry animals will demonstrate a preference for self-stimulation over food and drink to the point of starvation (2). This experimental paradigm shows how drugs of abuse can commandeer this system and become even more rewarding than the johnny behaviors it evolved to subserve.

Other techniques allow the animal to dissertation press a lever and the drug is injected into specific areas of the brain as illustrated below. If the johnny point of injection is not within the brain reward pathway, reinforcement will not occur. Through these techniques, general anatomy of the brain reward system has been delineated. Experimental Self-Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. Core Structures of the Reward System. As discussed before the reward pathway, located in the limbic system, is primarily made up of meditation 2 summary core structures that are connected by the median forebrain bundle (MFB): the nucleus accumbens (NA) , the ventral tegmental area (VTA) , the ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the johnny cash hypothalamus, and the amygdala (1,2,3,7). The NA and dissertation proposal examples the VTA are the most frequently implicated structures in the literature on cash bio drug reward.

The MFB is composed of white & the nerves that connect the septum, amygdala, the NA and the olfactory tubercle with the hypothalamus and the VTA (1,9). Johnny. In other words, the MFB is like a power line of neurons connecting the structures of the reward pathway with other brain structures. White & The. Experiments demonstrate that when this power line is cut, animals will decrease or stop self-administration of drugs. Thus, an johnny cash, intact MFB appears to be necessary for the brain reward system to function properly. Below are slides that show the anatomy of neurons and the electrical activity that occurs between them. NEURON AND NEURON FUNCTION. ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BETWEEN TWO NEURONS. Dopaminergic neurons making up the MFB or power line of the brain reward system run from the VTA to teenage pregnancy rates other structures involved in brain reward. The neurotransmitter they release is called dopamine. One can think of this as the current, or energy of the brain reward system (1,2,3).

2.2 Communicating Brain Structures. The central reward pathway of the brain sends information to and receives input from many other brain structures: the reticular activating system (RAS), the central gray around the aqueduct of johnny bio Sylvius, limbic regions, and dissertation examples the basal ganglia and johnny cerebellum. The Importance Essay. Located in the brain stem, the RAS controls attention and arousal to various sensory inputs from our environment. Limbic regions such as the amygdala, the septum and the thalamus provide input to the reward pathway concerning motivational and emotional variables. Next, the reward pathway interacts with the basal ganglia and cerebellum to modify motor activity. These interactions between the reward pathway and bio other regions of the huntsman brain are complex (1). The hypothalamus, control center of the autonomic nervous system, serves as a major integrative circuit between the nervous and endocrine systems (1,2).

The components of the hypothalamus monitor blood nutrients as well as endogenous compounds in order to johnny maintain homeostasis. To promote adaptive behaviors such as obtaining food, water, and sexual activity, the pituitary signals secretion of teenage pregnancy hormones that interact with the reward system (1,10). Bio. Thus, the hypothalamus is the command center interconnecting the The Importance of Vaccines reward pathway with the johnny cash bio body and environmental stimuli. These stimuli are analogous to a complex array of music each a melody of summation in descartes 2 summary, the form of endocrine hormones, blood temperature, blood osmolarity, blood volume, and neurotransmitters are deciphered and directed by the hypothalamus. This command center then sends out signals in the form of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) to various parts of the brain including the brain reward system. Why do recovered substance users relapse when their lives get stressful? The answer partially lies in the neurophysiology of the brain and interaction of environmental stimuli on it. Links between the hypthalamo-hypophyseal system and brain reward pathways have been established through experimentation. For example, the linkage between environmental and increased drug use is most likely mediated by the hypothalamus. Stress increases the cash bio self-administration of drugs of abuse, and co-administration of pituitary hormones alter self-administration in animal experiments. Genghis Tactics. These experiments further support the johnny cash view that environmental factors have a large influence on drug use and relapse (1,2).

III. Genetic and Biological evidence for a Common Reward Pathway. 3.1 Evolution of the Pathway. As noted earlier, the intrinsic purpose of an endogenous reward center is to reinforce behaviors that promote the survival of a species. When drugs of abuse (DOA) stimulate this center, drug-seeking behavior is also promoted. 3.2 Genetics and Population Studies. Why do studies show that many individuals experiment with DOA but only some become addicted? Genetic studies in both animals and humans have contributed to our ability to answer this question. Genetic studies on animal, or rodent populations, generally consist of inbreeding or selective breeding. Mating brothers, sisters, or first cousins creates inbred strains of rodents.

After 20 generations of mating a strain is created that is, for all practical purposes, genetically identical (1). The next step is to look at differences in teenage rates uk, response to DOA through experimentation on different rodent strains. In selective breeding, a desirable trait is chosen. For example, researchers may breed for a high response to EtOH. Rodents who have the desirable trait are then mated. After 20 generations the strain is considered genetically pure for the desired trait. Through such selective inbreeding experiments, it has been shown that a predilection for drug dependence is highly genetically influenced. Furthermore, those genetically predisposed to abuse one class of johnny cash bio drugs may also abuse drugs of another class. It has been demonstrated that strains predisposed to cocaine abuse are predisposed to opiate addiction as well. Human studies investigating the proposal genetics of drug abuse consist of either adoption or twin studies (1).

Adoption studies allow us to separate genetic and environmental factors by looking at individuals in an environment and comparing them to their genetically different adoptive parents. The individuals are then compared to their biological parents. With a large number of individuals, traits that are primarily under genetic influence and traits that are under environmental influence may be described. In twin studies, identical and fraternal twins are compared. Identical twins share 100% of their genes while fraternal twins share 50% of their genes. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to these percentages suggests the proportion of genetic and environmental influences. Johnny Cash. Some studies incorporate both adoptive and twin study paradigms to study addiction.

Through these studies scientists have shown that experimentation and initial use of drugs may be more environmentally determined by such factors as availability. However, progression on to drug dependence or addiction after exposure or experimentation appears to be heavily genetically influenced (1,9). IV. Molecular Physiology of the genghis Reward Pathway. Dopamine Binding at the Neuron Level. The primary neurotransmitter of the reward pathway is dopamine (1,2,3,4). Johnny Bio. Although drugs of abuse often act through separate mechanisms and on various locations in army tactics, the brain reward system, they share a final common action in that they increase dopamine levels in the brain reward system.

However, neurotransmitter systems are inextricably intertwined. Thus serotonin, endogenous opiates, as well as GABA also modulate dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). In the johnny following paragraphs the major neurotransmitters involved in brain reward will be discussed. Drugs of 2 summary abuse have been shown to increase dopamine neurotransmitter levels in the reward pathway (1,2,3,4). In general, drugs that are not abused have no effect on dopaminergic concentrations (1,2). Some mechanisms that may contribute to increasing dopamine levels include blockade of cash bio re-uptake and stimulation of release (1,2,3). The specific mechanisms of action of various substances of abuse in increasing dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway will be described below.

Neurotransmitter Release and the end the doors Re-uptake. 4.2 Other Neurotransmitters and Brain Reward. Even though increased dopamine in the brain reward system is generally thought to be the final common pathway for the reinforcing properties of drugs, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin are involved in the modulation of both drug self-administration and dopamine levels. Serotonin may be important in modulating motivational factors, or the amount of cash bio work and individual is willing to perform to obtain a drug (1). Serotonergic neurons project both to the NA and VTA and appear to khan army regulate dopamine release at the NA. However the relationship between serotonin and dopamine release is complex in that, serotonin has numerous receptor types and its regulation of johnny bio dopamine release is at times inhibitory and at dissertation proposal examples, other times excitatory (1,2). Thus, serotonin modulates the reward pathway through various mechanisms by interacting with different receptors throughout the brain. GABA, another neurotransmitter involved in the modulation of dopaminergic reward systems, plays a role in the mediation of effects of many drugs of abuse (1,2,3). Johnny. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter located diffusely throughout the brain. Drugs of abuse (DOA) act on the GABA receptor to hyperpolarize neurons.

When a neuron is hyperpolarized, it is inhibited from snow white huntsman firing. An analogy may be applying brakes to a car. Just as greater amounts of johnny bio gas are required to cause the car to move while stepping on the brakes, greater amounts of stimuli are required to cause a neuron to fire that is hyperpolarized. When neurons fire they release neurotransmitter, and since drugs of pregnancy rates uk abuse (DOA) inhibit these neurons, they release less GABA. When barbiturates, benzodiazapines or alcohol interact with the GABA receptor, they inhibit the release of cash bio GABA onto the dopaminergic neurons (1,2,3). Thus, this is like taking your foot off the brakes allowing the car to go full speed ahead. Teenage Uk. The net result is disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons, making them fire more rapidly and releasing more dopamine in the reward system. With higher dopamine concentrations, feelings of well being or euphoria are induced. The net effects of inhibiting the diffuse GABA-ergic system are anxiety reduction, behavioral disinhibition, sedation, and johnny cash bio euphoria.

Through GABA interacting with limbic structures many of these effects are mediated (1,2,3). Analyse. Regions that mediate the johnny bio sedative anxiolytic effects of the tactics limbic system also interact with reward systems. In conclusion, GABA-ergic neurons are diffuse throughout the central nervous system and they are extremely influential in their interactions with reward pathways (1,2,3). 4.2c The Endogenous Opiates. Endorphin Binding at the Synapse.

Just as the structures of the brain reward system encourage adaptive behaviors such as seeking food and sex, endogenous proteins called endorphins also motivate behaviour (1,3). The runners high is thought to be related to the production of johnny cash such endogenous opiate compounds or endorphins. In addition, place preference (animals prefer the environment where the drug is administered to of Vaccines Essay other environments) is elicited when endorphins are applied to the NA (1,2). Cash. Endogenous endorphins attach to the doors the same receptors as exogenous opiates. Through the same mechanism, they both increase dopamine in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). 5. Johnny Cash Bio. Drugs of Abuse and the Reward Pathway. Primary Location of The Importance of Vaccines Essay Action for Drugs of Abuse.

Experiments have shown that specific drugs of abuse affect receptors/neurochemical response act in different areas of the brain. Bio. The nucleus accumbens (NA) is the primary place of action of amphetamine, cocaine, opiates, THC, phencyclidine, ketamine, and nicotine. Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazapines (2,3,4) stimulate neurons in of Vaccines Essay, the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The final common action of cash bio most substances of abuse is stimulation of the brain reward pathway by increasing dopamine. Essay. The action of cash drugs of abuse on structures of the reward pathway at the gross anatomical level, followed by molecular actions of this system, will be discussed below. The complete discussion of the anatomical and biochemical effects of alcohol is beyond the scope of this paper.

In the following paragraphs, an uk, overview of alcohols action on the reward pathway will be presented. Because of alcohols ability to johnny cash bio pass freely through cell membranes, it affects many neurotransmitters and neurons throughout the brain. The focus of the discussion will be the molecular effects in relationship to the brain reward pathway. Alcohol has been shown to excite dopaminergic neurons in the VTA as well as in the NA (1,2,3,4). In animal experiments, dopaminergic agonists (chemicals which increase dopamine) reduce alcohol consumption (1,2,3).

For example, the teenage pregnancy rates uk dopamine agonist bromocriptine increases water intake and decreases consumption of alcohol in rodents(1). Dopamine agonists, however have not successfully reduced alcohol consumption in cash bio, human experiments. Neurotransmitters other than dopamine are involved in alcohol dependence. Studies demonstrated that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (medications that are commonly prescribed for depression such as fluoxetine ) may decrease consumption of alcohol in both rodents and in humans (2). It is not known whether this is of Vaccines Essay due to a direct or an indirect effect of johnny cash serotonin on dopaminergic systems, or a combination effect. Larger scale replication studies are needed before this is meditation 2 summary understood. The effects of serotoninergic medications on drug self-administration may be due to their effects on motivational factors, as opposed to the specific reinforcing effects of the drug by cash bio, modulating the reinforcing properties of other reinforcers such as food, water, alcohol and drugs of abuse (2). Opiate Action in the Brain.

Opiates influence dopamine levels and brain reward indirectly by inhibiting GABA neurons in genghis khan tactics, the VTA (1). As noted previously the VTA is an important structure in the reward pathway. GABA neurons inhibit dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Cash. Thus when opiates inhibit GABA neurons, dopaminergic neurons are free to fire more often. In essence, opiates remove the brakes from dopaminergic neurons and allow them to fire more rapidly resulting in an increase of dopamine release (1,2). Numerous studies support opiate action in key structures of the reward pathway. For example, dopaminergic neuronal lesions of the NA or the VTA have been shown to either reduce or eliminate opiate reinforced behavior (1,3).

Opiate administration into the VTA leads to an increase in dopamine neurotransmitter release and meditation 2 summary promotes further self-administration (1). These studies further support the role of the brain reward system in opiate addiction. Some experiments chronic dopamine blockade is cash unsuccessful at altering opiate self-administration, providing evidence that non-dopamine dependent reward pathways for teenage pregnancy rates opiate addiction also exist. (1,3). Johnny Bio. However, most experiments demonstrate that opiates function by stimulating both the 2 summary NA and the VTA, both of which are key structures in johnny cash, the reward pathway. However, as lesions to dopaminergic neurons do not completely eliminate self-administration of opiates in some experiments, indirect and dopamine independent mechanisms of opiate addiction and reinforcement also exist (3). Like other drugs of abuse, stimulants increase dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3,4,7). Stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine and nicotine all stimulate the brain reward pathway through slightly different mechanisms and increase dopamine to different extents. Moreover, the route of administration of the end stimulants also influences the addictive properties of johnny bio stimulants, by the end the doors analyse, influencing the rate at which dopamine spikes in the brain. In general, intravenous and transpulmonary (smoking) delivery is more addictive than nasal (snorting) or oral administration.

Cocaine Binding at the Synapse. Cocaine, like other drugs of abuse, increases dopamine in the reward pathway. Lesions to the reward pathway or pharmacological blockade of dopamine diminish cocaines rewarding effects (1,2,3). Thus, dopaminergic neurons in the reward pathway have been shown to be important in the reinforcing effects of cocaine (2). This increase of johnny cash dopamine in the brain reward centers is descartes meditation dose dependent (the more cocaine that is taken in, the higher the dopamine concentration in these areas). In fact, cocaine addicts describe their experience like hunger, taste, or sex (2). Bio. These observations further illustrate how drugs of abuse stimulate structures of the brain that have evolved to promote behaviors that aid in the survival of the species (1,2,7). Cocaines effects on the reward system are so powerful that it may override other generally gratifying reinforcers: money, safety, loved ones, morality and even survival may become less important to the abuser than obtaining and using cocaine (2).

Thus, cocaine stimulates the brain reward system more effectively than the behaviors that the reward system evolved to reinforce! Cocaine acts to increase dopamine levels by inhibiting monoamine ( dopamine , serotonin, and norepinephrine) re-uptake from the white & the synaptic cleft (1,2,3,4,6,7). The primary effects of cocaine on reinforcement involve its ability to bind to the dopamine transporter and prevent re-uptake of dopamine (2). Johnny Cash. By inhibiting dopamine re-uptake, it increases dopamine in genghis tactics, the reward system. Like cocaine, amphetamines stimulate the brain reward pathway by increasing concentrations of dopamine. Johnny Cash. Amphetamines both decrease the re-uptake of dopamine and meditation 2 summary directly increase the neuronal release of dopamine (1,2,3,4) Many experiments have shown the importance of dopamine in the rewarding effects of amphetamines. For example, dopamine agonists (substances that can substitute for dopamine by binding to the same receptors and producing the similar effects) decrease amphetamine self-administration in animals (1,3). On the other hand, dopaminergic blockade (antagonists) decreases amphetamine self-administration in bio, rats by preventing amphetamine binding, thereby preventing its dopaminergic effects (3). Similarly, lesions to the dopaminergic neurons in the NA lead to long lasting decreases in self-administration of dissertation proposal examples amphetamines (3).

These examples emphasize how drugs increase dopamine levels and cash stimulate the reward pathway. When dopamine levels are prevented from rising in response to drug administration (either producing chemical or structural lesions), then animals stop using the drug since it is no longer rewarding. These elegant experiments demonstrate that the rewarding properties of the Essay drug are directly related to whether it increases dopamine or not in bio, the reward pathway. Nicotine is thought to affect the brain reward system by increasing dopamine concentrations through interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It has been shown to descartes mimic endogenous (or the bodys natural) acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Nicotine increases dopamine efflux in the reward pathway by mimicking acetylcholine at presynaptic nicotinic receptor sites, and exciting dopaminergic neurons (2). Nicotine receptors are located throughout the brain; however, nicotine exerts its greatest effects on brain reward in johnny cash bio, the NA (1,2,3). By acting on these neurons, nicotine increases release of dopamine in the NA (1,2,4). Nicotinic antagonists, chemicals which block the actions of nicotine at its receptor, inhibit dopamine release while nicotinic agonists increase dopamine release (1,2).

Thus, nicotine leads to increased dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway like other drugs of abuse. Caffeine is the psychoactive drug that is most commonly used throughout the world (11). Caffeine blocks the actions of adenosine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to its receptor and preventing post binding changes from taking place (2). Caffeine is a competitive antagonist of adenosine. Since the neurotransmitter adenosine is like the safety on a gun, when it is removed, neurons begin to fire. Essay. By blocking the effects of adenosine, caffeine leads increased firing of dopaminergic neurons. This is especially evident in the NA (4,5). 5.6 Treatment Implications of the Brain Reward System. Operating through different mechanisms drugs of johnny abuse have a final common pathway by which they increase dopamine levels within the core structures of the pregnancy rates so called brain reward system which includes the VTA and NA. A balance between the negative effects of the drug and cash bio positive feelings associated with stimulation of the descartes brain reward system determine if an individual will enjoy and continue using the johnny cash bio substance or not (1,2). Generally the positive effects or high of using a drug occur immediately or shortly after use, by the action of increasing dopamine.

The closer positive and huntsman negative effects are to the actual time of drug use, the more likely we are to associate these effects with the drug. Unfortunately, the negative consequences of drug use often come much later and more unpredictably compared to the immediate pairing of drug administration and cash bio reward. For example, the later potential negative consequences of the end the doors analyse chronic drinking (such as liver disease) may not be as important as the immediate rewarding positive effects of drinking. Some approaches to cash bio treatment attempt to snow white consistently pair the negative consequences of drug administration with drug administration. If one is taking disulfiram (Antabuse), the action of drinking will immediately cause a negative consequence (extreme illness).

The immediate negative consequence of drinking now competes with the normally immediate positive reward of drinking to combat illness. By changing the time course of positive and negative drug effects through behavioral interventions or pharmaceutical interventions, we may be able to better treat addictions in johnny bio, the future. VI. Pharmacotherapy of examples Drug Addiction: Pharmacotherapeutic interventions have been developed to decrease drug use by influencing the brain reward system. The focus in johnny, the following paragraphs will be pharmacological treatment to prevent relapse of the addicted individual. General strategies for pharmacological treatment of 2 summary drug addiction include creating aversion to the addicted drug, bringing consequences or punishment closer to cash bio the reinforcement of khan drug use, modification of neurotransmitters to decrease drug intake, and long-term substitution with a less addictive and cross-tolerant medication (1). 6.1 Aversive Conditioning. Increasing the negative or aversive effects of a drug is one effective treatment used for johnny bio alcohol addiction. Disulfiram (Antabuse), metronidazole, or calcium carbimide is used to create negative effects with the ingestion of alcohol (1,2).

These medications, when taken, cause the abuser to become extremely ill when they engage in drinking. Instead of experiencing the negative effects of alcohol the next day (hangover) or years later (liver disease), they experience unpleasant effects such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing in closer proximity to 2 summary ingestion which opposes the normally immediate positive reward of the drug (see above). Although these drugs have been effective for cash some individuals by dissertation proposal, case report, these treatments have failed to show efficacy in numerous clinical trials (1). However recent work by cash, Carroll et al demonstrates that Antabuse can be effective in khan army tactics, preventing cocaine dependent individuals from relapsing into cocaine (12). By reducing alcohol consumption they were less likely to relapse to johnny cash cocaine since alcohol may dissolve ones resolve to stay abstinent, by lowering ones inhibitions and impairing ones ability to make wise choices. 6.2 Neurotransmitter Manipulation. By manipulating neurotransmitters in the reward pathway, we can potentially modify cravings for drugs of abuse.

This can be accomplished in two ways. First, we can give drug antagonists, or drugs that block the addicting effects of the the doors analyse dopamine reward system. For example, dopamine blocking agents have been shown to diminish intake of johnny all drugs of abuse in animal studies (2). However, application in humans has been less promising. In humans, the euphoria induced by amphetamine administration is attenuated by dopamine blocking agents. Thus, when the drug no longer increases dopamine levels and causes feelings of well being, the snow white desire for the drug may diminish. Johnny. Bupropion, a dopamine agonist, has been shown in nicotine addiction but has not been shown to pregnancy uk be effective in cocaine addiction. Medications, which more directly influence neurotransmitters other than dopamine, have also shown promise in cash bio, decreasing substance use.

For example opiate antagonists such as Naltrexone have also been use to down regulate the reward pathway in alcohol addiction. In addition, opiate antagonists serve to decrease the positive effects of opiates (2). Fluoxetine, a serotonergic agent, has been shown to decrease alcohol consumption in nondepressed alcohol dependant adults as well (13). Both naltrexone and fluoxetine may indirectly affect dopamine in the reward center. Thus, by manipulating neurotransmitter levels, we may reduce consumption of substances. 6.3 Pharmacological Substitution. By substituting one substance that stimulates the brain reward pathway with another less addictive/ less harmful substance, we may aid in relapse prevention. One example is the use of rates methadone to treat heroin addiction. Methadone does not have the euphoric effects that heroin does; however, it does adequately stimulate the brain reward system and provides a safer alternative to heroin use.

In adequate doses methadone reduces craving for heroin and johnny cash thereby the risk for relapse to heroin. Methadone, an orally administered opiate, is associated with less risk of acquiring HIV, hepatitis C, and criminal activity - all of which are highly associated with heroin dependence (2). Another example of a substitution therapy approach is that of nicotine replacement therapy with the patch or nicotine gum (1). This allows the individual to struggle with behavioral aspects of drug addiction and minimize the pharmacological aspects for a time being. The Doors Analyse. In addition, nicotine replacement is less addictive and less harmful to overall health than obtaining nicotine through smoking. This is because when one inhales cigarette smoke, nicotine is immediately absorbed in the brain in a spiking manner, which, as discussed above, is the most addictive pattern of drug administration (2). On the other hand, the johnny bio nicotine patch provides the same net dose of nicotine, but has a time release mechanism to dissertation allow for relatively constant blood levels. Thus, the gradual increase in johnny bio, nicotine that occurs with the nicotine patch will lead to more constant moderate levels of dopamine in the brain as opposed to the spike and dip pattern produced by most drugs of abuse.

This prevents dopamine from dipping to the end low levels, which may then prevent craving. Instead of quitting a substance cold turkey, and allowing dopamine levels to plummet, a chemical ladder that uses the johnny bio brain reward system to slowly change dopamine levels may be used to more easily descend the descartes 2 summary cliff face of addiction, attenuating the pattern of craving and relapse. In the last decade it has become clear that addiction, in addition to having environmental determinants, is also of the brain. Johnny Cash. Scientists have found that a common reward pathway exists in the brain. When stimulated by drugs of abuse, addiction often occurs especially in those who are genetically or otherwise neurochemically vulnerable. The End Analyse. This pathway, located in the primitive limbic system, has evolved over bio, time to promote behaviors that increase the survivability of organisms, such as feeding and reproductive behaviors. Drugs of abuse also stimulate structures in the reward pathway, primarily acting on dopaminergic neurons in the VTA and NA. These drugs not only analyse, stimulate areas of the brain that have evolved to encourage adaptive behaviors; they stimulate these areas more effectively than the johnny survival behaviors themselves! Substances of abuse may commandeer this reward system just as viruses commandeer intracellular machinery during infection, driving compulsive usage of those substances resulting in behavior that we commonly call addiction. Dopamine action can be increased in several different manners; drugs may increase post-synaptic sensitivity to dopamine, increase dopamine release, or inhibit dopamine re-uptake.

Drugs of abuse may accomplish this by acting directly on teenage uk dopaminergic neurons or indirectly through other neurons and neurotransmitters. Although these drugs interact through different mechanisms and different areas of brain reward pathways, they all converge on this common reward pathway and increase concentrations of dopamine in its structures. As the mechanism of the reward pathway and johnny its interactions with other areas in the brain become clearer, new pharmacotherapies and behavioral treatments may be developed to effectively treat substance use disorders and decrease its devastating human cost. 1.Lowinson, J; Ruiz, P; Millman, R; Langrod, J. Substance Abuse: A comprehensive Textbook 3 rd Edition. Williams Wilkens 1997. 2. Niesink, R; Jaspers, R; Kornet, L; van Ree,J. 2 Summary. Drugs of Abuse and Addiction: Neurobehavioral Toxicology.

CRC Press 1999. Ritz, Mary. Johnny Cash Bio. Reward Systems and Addictive Behavior. Chapter 5, Pg124-149. Ritz, Mary. Molecular mechanisms of addictive substances. Chapter 6. Pg150-189. 3. Koob, G.; Nestler, E. The Neurobiology of genghis Drug Addiction. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1997; 9:482-497. 4. Johnny. Bardo, Michael. Neurophrmacological Mechanisms of Drug Reward: Beyond Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens.

Clinical Reviews in Neurobiology 1998, 12(12): 37-67. 5. Dager, S; Layton, Matt; et al. Human Brain Metabolic Response to Caffeine and snow & the the Effects of Tolerance. Am J Psychiatry 156:2, Feb. 1999. 6. Childress, A; Mozley, D; et al.

Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving. Am J Psychiatry 156:1, Jan 1999: 11-18. 7. Little, K; Zhang, L; et al. Striatal Dopaminergic Abnormalities in johnny cash bio, Human Cocaine Users. The End Analyse. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156:238-245. 8. Solhkhah, R; Wilens, T; Pharmacotherapy of Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders. Johnny Bio. Alcohol Health and Research World.

Vol. 22, No.2, 1988: 122-125. 10. Graham, A; Schultz; T. Principles of Addiction Medicine. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc. 1998. Koob,G Roberts, A; Neurocircuitry Targets in Reward and Dependence. Chapter 6 73-82.

11. Joseph, R. Analyse. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Clinical Neuroscience: Emotion, Evolution, Cognition, Language, Memory, Brain Damage, and Abnormal Behavior. Section III. The Limbic System Williams Wilkens 1996. 12.Caroll Pharm Iv for Alchohol and Cocaine Abusing Adults. American J of Addiction 2:77-79 1993. 13.

Navarjo Ca, Sellers Em, Lawvin Mo. Modulation of ethanol intake by Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors . J. Clinical Psychiatry 47: 16-22. 1986.