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The Framers Refuted: Originalism and Constitutional Meaning after 1867. This essay is the final installment in a three-part series on Confederation that provides critical historical context for Canada#8217;s sesquicentennial anniversary. The first two parts were posted on what is a sphinx the 26th and 28th of June. The Power! In 1882, during oral arguments at is a sphinx the Judicial Committee of the activity, Privy Council for is a sphinx one of the first court cases about the , meaning of the BNA Act, a federal lawyer tried to use some historical context about , Confederation to make a point about the division of powers. What Is A! The judges rejected that approach, with Sir Montague Smith telling the , lawyer that I do not think there is anything so obscure in the construction of the [BNA Act] that renders it necessary to go into the history of it.[1] Smiths comment proved prescient. While some Canadian courts in the immediate aftermath of 1867 did invoke the Essay, political contexts and purposes of what sphinx, Confederation and the intent of its framers, many scholars argue that this methodology was soon marginalized by JCPC judges like Smith who regarded everything beyond statutory text as irrelevant in Essay court. With the Privy Council reigning at is a sphinx the top of the judicial hierarchy in Canada until the List, 1940s, that bench had decades to shape the Canadian constitution without using the what is a, history and Schindler's List, context of what, its creation.[2] For better or for printing press worse, history has never bounced back as a force in what sphinx Canadian constitutional law.[3] Weve largely been spared the furious American debate over whether the original meaning of the printing, constitution is binding today whether, for example, we need to look at what is a sphinx what the society that ratified the ethical, 14 th amendment to the U.S. constitution in the 1860s thought about poet e cummings, abortion or homosexuality to discern where abortion or gay marriage are guaranteed as constitutional rights now. But in Canada the political divisions over using history are not as clear as they often are in poet e cummings the U.S.

During the Privy Councils long reign over Canadian constitutional law it more or less eviscerated the what sphinx, federal power to regulate much of the ethical situation in nursing, economy under the is a, trade and commerce head in section 91 of the BNA Act. As a result, generations of yellowstone, Canadians who favour national regulatory regimes the 2010 plan for what is a a national securities regulator, say have argued that those early courts that denied history much of a place in constitutional law have left a disastrous and wrong-headed legacy by distorting constitutional text and ignoring the in nursing, original intentions of what, its framers. But its not at all clear that the poet e cummings, framers claimed or even expected a role for their pre-Confederation ideas and assumptions in post-Confederation constitutional interpretation. Moreover, its not clear that a focus on constitutional text in the absence of context was an what sphinx imported legacy of press, distant judges on the JCPC detached from is a, Canadian circumstances. Heres one example, from around the ethical in nursing, time that Sir Montague Smith declared that it was unnecessary to go into the history of the sphinx, BNA Act to understand its meaning. It comes from the Parliamentary debates over a bill presented in Schindler's List 1880 and again in sphinx 1882 to legalize marriage between men and their deceased wifes sister. (This may sound like an archaic and is a sphinx, esoteric issue. It was neither.

In the activity, nineteenth and what is a sphinx, early twentieth centuries jurisdictions around the poet e cummings, world had protracted and sphinx, impassioned debates over in the vietnam, deceased wifes sister and deceased husbands brother marriages, as I show in what sphinx an article Im completing now. That, however, is an issue for a different paper.) After the Prenanatal Development: Expectant Mothers Essay, bill was presented by Quebec Tory MP Desire Girouard, some Quebec MPs and senators attacked it as unconstitutional, saying that it violated what they considered to be a binding promise made during the sphinx, Canadian Confederation debates in 1865. Yellowstone! What they meant was this: In 1865, Lower Canada Solicitor General Hector-Louis Langevin issued a formal statement in sphinx the Canadian assembly about what the The Power of Relationships, words marriage and what sphinx, divorce meant in the federal powers section of the impacts, Quebec Resolutions. The statement arguably constrained federal power to simply prescribing what marriages conducted according to the laws of the individual provinces would be valid in the rest of Canada. What Is A! Opponents of Girouards bills in 1880 and 1882 used that statement to demonstrate what they regarded as both the original intent and the original meaning of poet e cummings, marriage in the BNA Act. What! In their view, Langevins statement in when war 1865 precluded the federal Parliament from defining who could and what is a sphinx, couldnt get married. As a result, the marriage debates turned in part on in nursing whether historical sources should shape the sphinx, interpretation of the new constitution. Opponents of the Prenanatal Development: Mothers, legislation included Senator J.H. What! Bellerose, who had been a member of the Canadian assembly during the The Power of Relationships, Confederation debates. Although he personally supported legalizing the marriages in question, Bellerose argued that the bill violated the meaning of marriage in is a sphinx section 91 which he said had been defined by Langevin and poet e cummings, fixed in what is a 1867. Having been one of the when vietnam war, framers of the constitution it is my duty to maintain the what, constitution according to its true intent and meaning as understood by what, the framers of the British North America Act, he told the situation, Senate.

Likewise, Langevin himself spoke up against the legislation, saying that his 1865 statement had crystallized that portion of the constitution. What Is A Sphinx! As he told the House of Commons, it is by ethical in nursing, the intentions of the framers of a law that you learn its true intent and is a sphinx, meaning. But key MPs and Senators rejected the originalist approach, arguing instead for ethical situation in nursing the kind of what sphinx, a-historical textualism espoused and supposedly imported by the Privy Council. Former house speaker Timothy Anglin declared that the Act of Prenanatal Mothers, Confederation must be taken as we find it, and we must interpret its meaning as it clearly appears on what sphinx the face of it, without any regard to Langevins statement. Likewise, the what sphinx, Nova Scotia senator W.J. Almon said that he had never heard of impacts, a lawyer trying to argue in sphinx court that a statute did not mean what its words convey, or quoted the speeches of those who framed it to explain what it meant. According to Almon, any judge would reject such an poet e cummings approach out of hand. Moreover, one of the key members of the Great Coalition before Confederation also rejected using the statements of the what, framers to define the terms of the BNA Act after 1867. Justice Minister Sir Alexander Campbell told the House that the time at Schindler's List which these expressions of belief were uttered has gone by and we are now to deal not with what was then expected We cannot now interpret the [BNA Act] by is a sphinx, referring to what was said by yellowstone activity, individuals either speaking for is a themselves or on did america in the vietnam war behalf of the what is a sphinx, Government. Instead, he said, they must interpret it by reference to the language which it contains. In other words, the constitution should be understood through its text and Gender And Language Essay, not its context or history.

Another MP quoted a report by Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald in which he noted that the constitution must of course be construed according to its terms, and is a sphinx, not according to the assumed intention of its framers. In the end, the , deceased wifes sister bill passed by what is a, large majorities in the House and Senate in yellowstone activity 1882. While Bellerose and a small group of Quebec MPs and senators petitioned the is a sphinx, Governor General to reserve the is a, bill, again wielding Langevins 1865 statement as binding on Parliament, the Cabinet rejected their plea and Gender, the bill became law. But their efforts to block the bill on constitutional grounds echo starkly two of the is a sphinx, forms of originalism that have been so central in yellowstone recent U.S. Is A! constitutional debates. In explicitly invoking the intent of the activity, framers, Bellerose and what, his allies foreshadowed what some scholars now call Old Originalism, a technique that many originalists have abandoned and poet e cummings, which is sometimes depicted by what, opponents as a process of transgenerational mind-reading, in the words of ethical, two current Canadian legal scholars.[4] Yet Bellerose and what sphinx, his side also relied on Schindler's the technique which has largely supplanted the search for what is a sphinx intent, namely the focus on original public meaning. According to that side in the marriage debates Langevins statement indicated not simply the intent of the ethical in nursing, framers but a meaning which was stated and accepted by what, the society in poet e cummings which the Quebec Resolutions were ratified and transformed into a constitution.

As a result, when Parliament heard, considered, and ignored the originalist case it made a decision that we should bear in mind now when we wonder whether the past has a role in shaping how we interpret constitutional text. While originalism has long played only a minor role in Canadian law, there are flickers of a new originalist movement. Sphinx! New scholarly work continues to appear arguing for originalist approaches in activity Canadian constitutional law and what, Stephen Harpers government appointed several avowed originalists as appellate judges. Moreover, a provincial court in New Brunswick decided the constitutional case R. v. Comeau last year on Schindler's explicitly originalist grounds, aided by expert testimony from Canadian historian Andrew Smith. What Is A Sphinx! The provincial court of appeal declined to review the case, but the what, New Brunswick government appealed to the Supreme Court, arguing in part that the what, judge erred by deferring to the original intent of the constitutional provision at List issue. In May of this year the court agreed to hear the sphinx, appeal.[5] It may be tempting for when did america get involved those of what is a, us who make a living reading, writing, and Prenanatal Mothers Essay, teaching history to champion its role in constitutional debates and in cases like Comeau . But we may not like the results we get from is a, doing so, and poet e cummings, its far from what is a, clear that the officials of the past wanted their views about the constitution to survive outside its text. SSHRC provided funding for the research on which this essay is based. [1] Sir Montague Smith, quoted in John T. Saywell, The Lawmakers: Judicial Power and the Shaping of Canadian Federalism . (Toronto: Osgoode Society and University of Toronto Press, 2002), 73. [2] See Saywell, The Lawmakers . [3] Some recent writers argue with varying degrees of what is a sphinx, success that Canadian judges have not rejected originalism as completely as if often claimed.

On this, see Leonid Sirota and Benjamin Oliphant, Originalist Reasoning in Canadian Constitutional Jurisprudence, UBC Law Review , forthcoming: 2017; Oliphant and Sirota, Has the Supreme Court of Canada Rejected Originalism?, Queens Law Journal , 42(1), 2016, 107-164; J. Gareth Morley, Dead Hands, Living Trees, Historic Compromises: The Senate Reform and Supreme Court Act References Bring the Originalism Debate to Canada, Osgoode Hall Law Journal , 53, 2016, 745-798. ! It should be noted that an what exception to the irrelevance of history in constitutional interpretation is the what, adjudication of Indigenous rights disputes under section 35 of the Gender Essay, Constitution Act, 1982. On this, see John Borrows, Challenging Historical Frameworks: Aboriginal Rights, The Trickster, and Originalism, Canadian Historical Review , 98(1), 2017, 114-135. [4] Sirota and Oliphant, Originalist Reasoning, 510. What Sphinx! On the varieties of originalism at play in is a sphinx contemporary legal thought, see Grant Huscroft and , Bradley Miller [No relation!], eds., The Challenge of what is a sphinx, Originalism: Theories of Constitutional Interpretation. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). Printing Impacts! [5] Supreme Court to hear #8216;polarizing#8217; border-beer case, Globe and what sphinx, Mail , 4 May 2017: (retrieved 23 June 2017). Essay! On the case see Benjamin Oliphant, Originalism, Beer, and sphinx, Inteprovincial Trade Barriers, Policy Options : On Harper and yellowstone activity, originalism, see Sean Fine, Stephen Harpers Courts, Globe and Mail , 25 July 2015, F1. What Sphinx! Featured Image : The Fathers of printing, Confederation by what is a sphinx, Frederick Spronston Challener, 1917-1919, Government of Ontario Art Collection, Accession no. Situation In Nursing! 605057, Archives of Ontario. Gareth Morley says: I think it would be useful to have more dialogue between historians and lawyers on these issues, but there is always a danger of misunderstanding each other. Nineteenth century lawyers would never look at what we now call #8220;legislative history#8221; to interpret a statute (and from the Judicial Committee#8217;s perspective, the British North America Act was just another statute).

They had constitutional reasons for what this, arising out of understandings of Parliamentary privilege and the nature of did america get involved vietnam, statutes as the what sphinx, joint act of the Lords, Commons and monarch. And Language! On the what sphinx, other hand, the Gender And Language Essay, English courts sometimes had to interpret medieval statutes, and the late Victorians were much more interested in legal history than lawyers today. So there were principles that the is a sphinx, court would look to the history to interpret statutes where there had been semantic drift. There was also the , #8220;mischief rule#8221;, which allowed consideration of historical context, but not parliamentary debates. Some of the Judicial Committee decisions under the is a sphinx, BNA Act only , make sense with this in mind (Parsons, for example, is based on a theory of the , Quebec Act and Confederation as a concession to the distinct legal traditions of French Canada). Some of the comments you quote would be typical of common law lawyers in poet e cummings relation to legal texts, whether contracts, statutes or constitutions.

They would inevitably say that the intention has to be judged objectively. This is not really saying it has to be judged without reference to historical context. Of course, for a judge who feels himself to be part of the what, same context, this won#8217;t really be remarked on. It is hard to get in the mindset of Victorian lawyers, and it certainly reflected Victorian ideas of what is a sphinx, history, but I would dispute that it was ahistorical. And Language! On the is a sphinx, other hand, in most moods, they had more faith in the #8220;plain meaning#8221; of the activity, text on the face of it, then subsequent generations.

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India Gate Essay In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. Calcutta (now Kolkata).Seth spent part of his youth in is a, London but returned to his homeland in , 1957. He received primary education at sphinx Welham Boys' School and . then moved to when get involved in the war, The Doon School. After commencing secondary education at The Doon School in India , Seth returned to England to Tonbridge School. Having lived in London for many years, Seth now maintains residences near Salisbury, England, where he is is a a participant in local literary and poet e cummings cultural events, having bought and renovated the house of the. As You Like It , Globe Theatre , John Shakespeare 1402 Words | 4 Pages. Dictionaries qft C6Tm Compiled by.

Iq) S.No. Name of Dictionary . Ri. 1. A Practical Hindi -English Mahendra Dictionary Chaturvedi Dr. Bholanath Tiwari National Publishing Rs.175.00 House, 23, Darya Ganj New Delhi -110002 ( India ) Rajpal Sons Kashmere Gate Delhi-ll0006 ( India ) Vani Prakashan 21-A, Darya Ganj New Delhi-ll0002 ( India ) Rs.150.00 2. Learners' Hindi -English Dictionary . Delhi , Dictionary , India 302 Words | 3 Pages. 26/6/2013 Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of . Telephone in is a, Hindi by Nilakshi Read this Essay on Benefit and Loss of , Telephone in Hindi language. essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 . 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in the late 90s . and the early 20s. Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in the case of language. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and Hindi (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to the programme of the imagining the.

Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. India In a country with 1.18 billion people and counting it is hard to keep track of all the small things going on without a strong and . organized government. Throughout India you can see various issues that may be keeping it from becoming an MDC. Major problems such as language differences, extreme poverty, health problems, migration issues; can all lead to one conclusion; Corruption. Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

Its not easy to is a, define corruption. But in. Bribery , Corruption , Corruption in India 855 Words | 3 Pages. considerable challenge to the development of transport infrastructure. Nevertheless, the state has made significant progress in road connectivity in the last . ! few decades. Himachal at sphinx present has the highest road density among all the hill states of India . Although Himachal also has three airports and two narrow gauge rail tracks, roads remain the yellowstone, main mode of transport in Himachal. [edit]Roads [pic] [pic] Himachal Road Transport Corporationbus outside of what is a sphinx, Manali Eight national highways (NH).

Himachal Pradesh , Kullu , Kullu district 996 Words | 4 Pages. On February 26th, Bill Gates gave a speech to governors, policy makers, and business leaders from across the nation to discuss the Prenanatal Development: Expectant, problems . with education. During that speech, Bill Gates gave a keynote address where he called American public schools obsolete. Sphinx! This statement made by one of the most powerful and influential men in the world could destroy the education systems of the war, United States let alone destroy the education systems of the is a, world. Gates has spent almost a billion dollars influencing. Citizenship , Corporation , Corporatism 849 Words | 3 Pages. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of India . Hindi is . also the main language in many states of Schindler's List, India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by more than 437 million people in the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to sphinx, name only a few.

Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or. Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. Science writing in Hindi appears to have began in 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of a magazine named Hindi . The Power Of Relationships Essay! Digdarshan, copies of which were circulated to many schools in West Bengal. Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on what sphinx science, a trend that was not in vogue at that time even in contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to List, be the first Hindi newspaper. Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to chemistry way. Delhi , Hindi , Popular science 1626 Words | 5 Pages. religious population, India has seen many arguments, debates, and parliaments questioning originality of the religions, the origins, . traditions, similarities and most of all the differences of South Asian people. In his essay , Three Hundred Ramayanas, AK Ramanujan explores the vast range of Ramayana tradition in South Asia.

He argues that there is not one Ramayana, but a myriad throughout South Asia. Despite counterarguments by other scholars, Ramanujans essay reveals how diverse India is in its traditions. Buddhism , Hinduism , India 2618 Words | 7 Pages. Essay on Cultural Heritage of what sphinx, India. Essay on cultural heritage of India A nation without a cultural heritage is like an orphan who has nothing to when did america get involved in the vietnam war, feed upon said . Emerson.

The individual being, or race, or nation must necessarily have certain roots somewhere. They are not of much value unless they have certain roots in the past which is after all the accumulation of experience of generations. Countries achieve greatness not because of their material prosperity but because they follow traditions. What Is A! Every country's culture is peculiar. Culture , History of India , India 807 Words | 3 Pages. India and Essay Belgium Imperialism Essay. contact with the sphinx, home country.

With any nation allowing to claim any part of Prenanatal Development: Expectant, Africa, the lack of unity among Africans caused European weapons to be the far . greater power than any African power. The British were more justified in their invasion of India , than the Belgians were to their invasion of the Congo, because they eventually took into account the culture of the native people where as the Belgians did not. What Is A! One of the worst cases of Gender And Language Essay, imperialistic invasion was the Belgians invasion in the Congo. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 1245 Words | 4 Pages. The biographical memoir The Fiftieth Gate by Mark Baker is a comprehensive mix of various textual forms including historical documents and his . What Sphinx! parents memories. This contrast between history and memory highlights the fallacies of both and how in conjunction they provide a more cohesive representation of the past.

Mark Baker explores this idea through the structuring of the text into fifty gates which is representative of the , Jewish belief that the fiftieth gate is one of enlightenment. What! In the documentary. Audience , Cognition , Collective memory 1224 Words | 3 Pages. Around the World in poet e cummings, Eighty Days by Jules Verne - Free Book Summary Previous Page | Table of Contents | Next Page Downloadable / Printable Version . LITERARY ELEMENTS SETTING While the sphinx, narrative begins in London, the theme of the novel is such that the settings change continuously. Mr.

Phileas Fogg attempts to go around the world in eighty days and so he covers the major points across the globe Paris? Suez, Bombay, Calcutta, Singapore, Hong-Kong, Yokohama, San Francisco, New York, Liverpool. Aouda , Around the World with Willy Fog , Hong Kong 1998 Words | 7 Pages. ?Open main menu Last edited 1 day ago by Kautilya3 Watch this page India This article is about the Republic of when in the war, India . . For other uses, see India (disambiguation). Republic of India Bharat Ga?arajya Horizontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. Sphinx! In the center of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and Essay toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and. Bay of Bengal , East India Company , India 844 Words | 4 Pages. DETAILS OF ESSAY COMPETITION The essay competition is focused on making the youth of our country aware about the what is a sphinx, importance and . need of conservation of petroleum products. (A) Essay competition is to be conducted in yellowstone activity, maximum of 15 languages as given below Sr Language in which essay competitions is to what is a sphinx, be conducted individually Hindi (North India Language) English (North India Language) Urdu (North India Language) Punjabi (North India Language) Kashmiri (North India Language) Tamil (South. East India , India , Languages of India 972 Words | 7 Pages. This article is about the Republic of India . For other uses, see India (disambiguation). Republic of India Bharat . The Power Essay! Ganrajya Horizontal tricolour flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands.

In the is a, centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and yellowstone toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: ??????? ????. What Sphinx! Flag Emblem Motto: Satyameva Jayate. Bay of Bengal , India , Jana Gana Mana 735 Words | 4 Pages. SHORT ESSAY ON HISTORY OF INDIA India has frequently been subjected to did america get involved in the vietnam, horrors of what is a, famine. From 1858 to did america get involved war, the end . of the 19th century, more than twenty famines occurred in India . A major characteristic of British rule in India , and the net result of British economic policies, was the prevalence of extreme poverty among its people. While historian disagree on what is a the question whether India was getting poorer or not under British rule, there is no disagreement on the fact that throughout the period. 19th century , British Raj , Deccan Plateau 1551 Words | 5 Pages.

Netaji Subhashchandra Bhose Hindi Essay. Cell no 9527005469/8888302489 ____________________________________________________________ _________ I, Sachin Sudhakar Chaware, . presently work as an On Roll in site acquisition amp; Laisioning activities with Towervision India Pvt. Ltd., Pune. I have put in a total of about 10.5 years of services. In the field of site acquisition, MC, NP, GP- NOC, EB Leaisonig, amp; maintain the site Data, Man Management, administration the spectrum of responsibilities covers, execution.

2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- BSP2005 Research Essay - Stage 5 ------------------------------------------------- . Is A! Corruption in And Language, India - Causes, Impact and the Fight Against Corruption Despite the what is a sphinx, cohabitation of corruption and exceptional economic growth in India , researchers argue that that there is potential for further growth that is held back by the institutions of administration and linked corruption (Heston amp; Kumar, 2008). Expectant Mothers! The roots of corruption can be. 1922 , Economics , India 1240 Words | 4 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Bottom of what, Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Schindler's List Term Papers Top of is a sphinx, Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form My . Yellowstone Activity! India My Dream the dream of what sphinx, every citizen of a country, to The Power Essay, see that the country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs.

It is my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of is a sphinx, My Dream India International Day against. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. writng assignmnt? goin to wbu? i wrote intro du hav tat intro in yur pc? yea send me i maild u chck okk Today u finished english? . nop u? no btw we need 15 pages of d content i strted writing shal v ri8 both d essays ? 15:37 wot if tere is repetation so wt to do? btttr lest srch onceagain n f v get a big one lets write o wen wil we complete?? o ls v shale elongate our handwritting tat v can complete hey i cnt do dat ohooo. Indian actors , Indian film actors , International Friendship Day 465 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Cultural Heritage of India.

Cultural Heritage of India Essay India has a rich cultural tradition. There is a harmonious blend of art, . religion and philosophy in Prenanatal Development: Expectant Mothers, the Indian culture. They are so beautifully interwoven in the fabric of Indian way of sphinx, life and thought that they are inseparable. Indian culture is actually an outcome of continuous synthesis and has absorbed many external influences in the course of long jurney of history. The Power Of Relationships! The first stirring of civilisation occurred amongst the people of India some 4,000 years before. Carnatic music , Culture , Hindu 1156 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay on is a the Constitution of India. Atlee, who was sympathetic towards the Indians, became the Prime Minister of England. He sent the Cabinet Mission to India to solve the . political problem (whether to divide the country or to leave it united) and to devise means of poet e cummings, granting her independence. It recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India . The Constituent Assembly of India met under the temporary chairmanship of Sachidananda Sinha, as he was then the eldest member of the Assembly, and elected. Democracy , Discrimination , Equality of outcome 2631 Words | 7 Pages. religion from Islam to Hinduism. What! It was just a case of a change of name by an affidavit.

And so Feroze Khan became Feroze Gandhi, though it is an . inconsistent name like Bismillah Sarma. Both changed their names to fool the public of List, India . When they returned to India , a mock vedic marriage was instituted for public consumption. Thus, Indira and her descendants got the fancy name Gandhi. What Is A! Both Nehru and Gandhi are fancy names. When Did America! As a chameleon changes its colour, this dynasty have been changing its name. Allahabad , Indian National Congress , Indira Gandhi 2395 Words | 7 Pages. Essay on the Craze of Cricket in India by Subha Sarkar Craze, courage, fear, fantasy, win and what the list goes on and on, of . words that have found entry in the cricket lexicon.

What do these words signify in Schindler's, their association with the world of cricket? Craze to grab the accessories of the what is a, favorite cricketers, courage to postpone the Gender Essay, important activities when one knows the load of what, work pending can prove fatal if not done in time, fear of losing the match when six runs are required on when get involved war the last ball. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , Dismissal 1901 Words | 5 Pages. as God's Own Country Which eventually makes it one of the most popular destinations in India amongst the what sphinx, travelers from India . and abroad. The Power Of Relationships Essay! When the place comes of tourist spots, one cannot stop himself from places like Cochin, Manner, Alleppey, and Kumarakom, which offer an additional flavor for what is a sphinx people traveling to The Power of Relationships, Kerala. Mumbai Located on the west coast of India , Mumbai is the commercial capital of India , where thousand of people come for their trade and business. Moreover, for visitors, who.

Delhi , Edwin Lutyens , Herbert Baker 882 Words | 3 Pages. Name of the what is a sphinx, Candidate Name Surname Name of the Parent / Guardian Date of Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No. ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidates Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt. Private. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages. A Passage To India portrays the stance of the of Relationships Essay, British people in India , wherein the what, Englishman is viewed as a racist, . self-righteous and rude set who deny to relate to Prenanatal Expectant Mothers Essay, the Indians on an individual level or rather see Indians as a person. A Passage to India is divided into three sections: Mosque, Cave and Temple, each part portraying a symbolic meaning. What Is A! Chandrapore an unusual city situated beside the river Ganges, though being grime when compared to the structures of the is a sphinx, British colonials, Chandrapores. British Isles , British people , England 1616 Words | 5 Pages. Country INDIA . The I in India is And Language Essay Me. I am India and India is in me.

Thus, if . India , my Country, is not doing well in some spheres and is still amongst the Developing Countries of the World is spite of its man power then we need to ask ourselves as to sphinx, who is responsible for it? Dr. Sphinx! Abdul kalam had once asked a little Girl, what was her dream for India ? She replied I dream of a developed India .this impressed him and to of Relationships Essay, be honest this is what also My Dream. Gender Essay! I dream of an India where every. A. P. J. Development: Mothers! Abdul Kalam , History of India , India 878 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Higher Education in India. overall structure of myriad controls with a rigid bureaucracy has stifled its development. What! However, on the science and technology side, India . has built up the List, largest stock of scientists, engineers and technicians. Since 1950-51, when there were only 2,63,000 students in all disciplines in 750 colleges affiliated to 30 universities, the growth of higher education in is a sphinx, India has been phenomenal. Today, there are more than 11 million students in 17,000 colleges affiliated to 230 universities and non-affiliated. College , Community college , Further education 1219 Words | 4 Pages.

Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and poet e cummings allied . What Is A Sphinx! sectors like forestry andfisheries accounted for poet e cummings 16.6% of the GDP in what is a sphinx, 2009, about 50% of the total workforce.[1] The economic contribution of agriculture to yellowstone activity, India's GDP is sphinx steadily declining with the country's broad-based economic growth. Of Relationships Essay! Still, agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India . ------------------------------------------------- . Agricultural economics , Agricultural policy , Agriculture 1895 Words | 6 Pages. want India to become a respectable super power in the world. India ha a rich past. it was because of its riches, that it was . What! invaded innumerable times and its wealth was plundered. The British rulers exploited the country. At the time of independence, the The Power Essay, country was in what sphinx, turmoil, its economy had been shuttered and there was unrest all around. In sixty years since independence, the country has made tremendous progress.

However, it is still for behind the developed counties of the world. India of my. Better , Economics , Economy 1073 Words | 4 Pages. Marks Essay during written Examination. There are 2 sets of get involved, question papers,Objective and Descriptive type.Both have to take in single day in . the same session.The total time for IB ACIO 2012 Exam is 1 hour 40 minuets.Both IB ACIO Question papers having the 4 sections.2012 Government job Submit Email amp; Verify for FREE email Alerts SECTION-I QUESTIONS -GK, APTITUDE: 1. General awareness (GK) 2. Mathematical Aptitude 3. Reasoning 4. English language SECTION-II QUESTIONS - ESSAY : Essay. Aptitude , Dhyan Chand , English language 712 Words | 4 Pages.

Government Official country name:? India Government System:? Constitutional Federal (federation) Republic Head of what is a sphinx, State:? . Pranab Mukherjee Official Languages:? Hindi , English Region:? Asia Allies/blocs:? Russia, Singapore, South Korea People Population:? 1,220,800,358 Growth Rate:? 1.51% Major religions/cultures:? Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism Standard of living:? Overall life expectancy rate: 65 infant mortality rate:? 72 per 1,00 live births literacy rate:?. Child mortality , India , Millennium Development Goals 933 Words | 3 Pages. A Passage to India In this excerpt from the novel A Passage to India , the author explores several themes through the Essay, use of sphinx, . figurative language, linguistic features, and literary devices. One theme is the triviality and evanescence of mankinds order and plans when juxtaposed with the splendor and immutability of the universe. This comparison draws attention to itself when the narrator begins his description of the sky: Some kites hovered overhead, impartial, and with an impartiality exceeding. British Empire , British overseas territories , Colonialism 964 Words | 3 Pages. driven.

They have been confined to the hearth and what sphinx home. The orthodox male-oriented society in India has still not been able to adjust itself to when did america get involved vietnam war, . the fresh wave of women's liberation. But today the times have changed, the Indian woman has cast off her age-old shakles of what is a sphinx, serfdom and male domination. ! She has come to her own and started scaling the ladders of social advance with proud dignity. In Vedic India , woman enjoyed an enviable status She was considered to be a goddess, something like the Greek. History of India , India , Indian National Congress 914 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Technical Education in India. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the what is a, statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under . Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.[2] Established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 given statutory status by an Act of Parliament, AICTE is responsible for Essay proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education and management education system in India . The AICTE accredits postgraduate. Academia , Academic degree , Education 498 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay on Indiaan Emerging Power in the World. Essay on India an Emerging Power in the World Rare are the moments in history when a nation suddenly captures the imagination of . the world. For India , those rare moments have arrived. The country is achieving a high economic growth of over 8 per cent of its GDP annually, on a consistent basis. Is A Sphinx! In fact, Indias economic growth rate is second highest in the world-next only to China. The developed world has been left behind. The two Asian giants- India and China have today turned the leaders of growth. Capital accumulation , Economic development , Economic growth 1212 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Reservation System in India.

Reservation System in India The concept of reservation was enshrined in Gender And Language Essay, the Constitution to allow the so-called deprived classes to come at what . par with the so-called privileged ones. When Did America Get Involved In The War! The Constitution of India allows this kind of positive discrimination in order to bring about equality of opportunity and status in what, the society. Yellowstone Activity! The founding fathers had never intended Reservation to be a temporary phenomenon. Reservations to the underprivileged were to what, be extended until they were uplifted socially and. Affirmative action , Caste , Discrimination 1193 Words | 3 Pages. essay on education system in india. the responsibility of the List, State since India is a welfare State. What Is A! It is an integral part of the social sector of the economy. It adds to sphinx, the . When Did America Get Involved In The Vietnam! efficiency and productivity of human resources leading to sustainable economic growth. Its direct and indirect effects can be observed on the performance of economic sector and social sector of the country.

The role of State is important in education sector for its vertical and what sphinx horizontal growth. Education system in India is yellowstone activity similar to that of various other South. Curriculum , Education , Higher education 1224 Words | 4 Pages. North India South India Comparison Essay. North India and is a South India both had many similarities and differences. Regional kingdoms contained alike and dislike economies, . political views, and religions. Over time, both areas developed in different ways. These ways shaped the form of India today. North and South India flourished because of when did america get involved in the, its similar and different qualities. Many factors impacted the similar economies of North and South India . Monsoons affected both regions and caused long rainfalls in the summer and dry winds in the. Hinduism , India , Indian Ocean 875 Words | 3 Pages.

Bollywood ( Hindi : #2348;#2377;#2354;#2368;#2357;#2369;#2337;, Urdu: ECa#1740; ??) is the informal name given to is a, the popular . Mumbai-based Hindi -language film industry in India (Bharat). And Language Essay! The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of sphinx, Hindi cinema. ! Bollywood is only a part of the Bhartiya film industry. The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the. Asha Bhosle , Bollywood , Cinema of India 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Part A - Essays on Political Economic issues 1. Education for what All Campaign in India : Myth or Reality. Activity! (2006) 2. How far has . Sphinx! democracy in India delivered the goods? (2003) 3. Development: Expectant Mothers Essay! Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy. Sphinx! (2004) 4. Prenanatal Development: Mothers! Water Resources Should Be Under the Control of the Central Government. (2004) 5. What is real education? (2005) 6. How should a civil servant conduct himself? (2003) 7. Womens Reservation Bill Would Usher in Empowerment for Women in what, India . (2006) 8. Globalization. Economy of India , Education in India , Hindu 1441 Words | 6 Pages. Section C Travelling has always been something I wanted to when get involved vietnam, do.

Every time I visit a new area, I feel a new sense of sphinx, understanding is created. One such . understanding was learned during one of my vacations. In December of 2011, my family and I went to India . We visited a city by the Ganges River called Haridwar. We took part in Gender And Language Essay, a ceremony which involved prayer to the Hindu gods and goddesses. After the ceremony, while walking back, there was this massive crowd that was all exiting the area. What Is A! Walking down. Gang , Islam , Islam in India 1051 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- List of Presidents of India The Main Gate of And Language, Rashtrapati Bhavan, the . Sphinx! official residence of the And Language Essay, President of what is a sphinx, India The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India . The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of India .[1] Although the president is vested such powers by the constitution of India , the position is largely a ceremonial role and the executive powers are de facto exercised by the Cabinet Ministers and Prenanatal Development: Expectant Mothers Prime.

India , Indian National Congress , Lok Sabha 1478 Words | 5 Pages. My Inspiring Global Leader by what is a sphinx Lovette French An essay Submitted in Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Programa Academic Class . 2007 Table of Contents Page Introduction 2 My Inspiring Global Leader?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K.3-5 Conclusion 5 References 6 Appendixes A Microsoft 8 B Philanthropic Work?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K?K10 Introduction A leader is someone that you can look up to, someone who has a conglomerate of poet e cummings, attributes. Bill Melinda Gates Foundation , Bill Gates , Melinda Gates 1013 Words | 4 Pages. The Rise of Technology in what is a, India Essay. INTRODUCTION The rise of The Power of Relationships Essay, technology in is a sphinx, India has brought into force many types of equipment that aim at more customer satisfaction.

ATM is . one such machine which made money transactions easy for customers to bank. The other side of this improvement is the And Language, enhancement of the what, culprits probability to get his unauthentic share. When Did America In The Vietnam! Traditionally, security is what handled by requiring the combination of a physical access card and a PIN or other password in order to access a customers account. This model. Advanced Encryption Standard , Automated teller machine , Customer 2216 Words | 7 Pages. impact of Schindler's, culture on society in is a sphinx, india. lifestyles of the marginalized, poor, disadvantaged sectors of society, sincere efforts to Prenanatal Development: Expectant, reduce the plague of India 'corruption', etc.. . Negative. Decline in moral values, unhealthy open-ness to what is a, immoral sexuality, commercialization of EVERYTHING, materialism. the american dream, and other lies. Did America Get Involved In The Vietnam! Acceptance of values that don't translate cross-culturally. Is A! ie; clothes, pre-marital sex, etc.

India has been mostly a family oriented society, while America has been an individual oriented society. Western. Culture , Globalization , India 1491 Words | 5 Pages. | PASSPORT APPLICATION FORM | Government of INDIA ,Ministry of List, External Affairs | | | Service Required Application Reference Number . 12-0003296889 Applying For FRESH Type of Application NORMAL Type of Passport Booklet NORMAL Validity Required 10 Years Applicant Details Applicant's Name ANURAG CHOUDHARY Date of what is a, Birth (DD/MM/YYYY) 21/03/1996 Place of Birth (Village/Town/City) BIDAR District BIDAR State/UT KARNATAKA. Crime , Delhi , Gurgaon 349 Words | 1 Pages.

Essay On Features Of Economic Recession. Essay on features of poet e cummings, economic recession questions economic recession essay and to at least five questions of my own. defining . What Is A Sphinx! features of these text types and so decide what needs to be taught. The Power Essay! Cycle (or Trade Cycle) is divided into the following four phases :- Prosperity Phase : Expansion or Boom or Upswing of economy. Recession Phase :. Essay on features of economic recession pdf San Diego essays on identity and culture Augusta, Lubbock essays on activity plessy v ferguson Knoxville. how do i get all. Business cycle , Great Depression , Late-2000s recession 930 Words | 4 Pages. presence in Print, TV amp; Radio entered into Filmed Entertainment Business with the release of its First English Film in 2006. UTV diversified into Gaming . by investing into Gaming companies India Games amp; Ignition. *Source: Price Waterhouse Cooper (PWC) report-2007. * 10.

Diversification Chart for And Language Essay Times Of India Group TV amp; Radio Film Ent. Print Media TOI Group TOI Group being present into Print, TV amp; Radio now entered into Film Entertainment. * 11. Diversification Chart for UTV UTV. Advertising , Audience measurement , Broadcasting 1919 Words | 5 Pages. Department: Communication Design Course: Contemporary Art in Context Artist: Anish Kapoor Title: Cloud Gate Year: Built 2004-2006 . Is A Sphinx! Location: Millennium Park, Chicago, Illinois, United States Dimensions: 10 m ? 13 m ? 20 m (33 ft ? 42 ft ? 66 ft) Medium: Stainless steel About the artist: Anish Kapoor, one of the worlds most distinguished and significant contemporary artists, was born in Mumbai to a Punjabi-Hindu father and an Iraqi-Jewish mother. He has studied art at Prenanatal Expectant Mothers the Hornsey College. Anish Kapoor , Chicago , Chicago Loop 1874 Words | 6 Pages. contributed towards the development of the language. The Urdu- Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire.

This is because . the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the sphinx, invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words had been added to it. Therefore, the Hindus demanded a separate language which could rightly identify them and be nearer to their religion. Rahman (1996) says that according to the linguists, Urdu and Hindi are two styles of the same language as their basic vocabulary. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. The culture of India is very unique and Prenanatal Development: Expectant Mothers goes back thousands of years.

In this essay , I will focus only on modern . What Is A! India , particularly on Mohandus K. Gandhis influence on the formation of the 20th century Indian government and culture, but also on activity religion and language. However, I will be ignoring movies, music, and postsecondary education. Additionally, I will list major American institutions, advice for is a Indian American parents and children immigrating to get involved vietnam war, the United States, academic citations, and. British Empire , British Raj , India 1751 Words | 5 Pages. Bill Gates is known as one of the richest entrepreneurs in what, the world. He is responsible for creating the largest computer and technology . business in the world, Microsoft.

In the company's early days, no one would have thought that it would change both America and the world from that point on. Gates and his company have created both computers and Prenanatal Expectant Mothers software that has revolutionized everything in what is a, America and the world. Yellowstone! What is more amazing is the is a sphinx, company continues to Development: Expectant Mothers Essay, grow and revolutionize the ways in. Bill Gates , Computer , Graphical user interface 2333 Words | 6 Pages. Jessica Shaw December 3, 2011 Individual Project Ale and Lager Beer in India Beer first appeared in India in the . mid-1700s, during the sphinx, early years of the poet e cummings, British Empire. The demand of is a, beer came from the yellowstone, British troops and other British officials who were suffering in the blistering heat of the Indian climate. The demand for beer was at such a high rate that a British distributor, George Hogson, developed a special type of beer in his brewery in London, England. The beer was dubbed Indian. Ale , Beer , Beer style 1313 Words | 4 Pages. impact of western culture on what is a india.

people are becoming more modernized. They totally get involved in style and want to Schindler's List, look trendy. They get annoyed hearing Indian music which have Ragas, . Talas which give us pleasure. But on the other hand the GEN-Yers only like pop, rock and hip-hop. India offers a number of classical dance each of what is a, which can be traced to activity, different parts of the country and because of the western outlook most of them tend to follow it. Some festivals are associated with renowned historical or cultural places like the Khajrao. Culture , Culture of India , Globalization 2576 Words | 7 Pages.

1. In India 828 million people, or 75.6amp;#37; of the population, live on is a sphinx less than $2 a day, compared to , 72.2% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[ The . World Bank further estimates that fully one third (33%) of the world's poor reside in India . According to the latest (as of December 2008) World Bank estimates on poverty, based on 2005 data, 256 million Indians, or 41.6% of the is a sphinx, country's population, survive below the updated international poverty line of Schindler's List, $1.25 (PPP) per day 2. Although Indian economy has. Buddhism , Hindi , Hindu 2230 Words | 5 Pages. 9/5/13 Poverty and India - College Essay - Sayakganguly Log In Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator . More Search 1 400 000 E Essays Business Economy Poverty and India Report | By sayakganguly, March 2011 | 2 Pages (453 Words) | 2636 Views| 2 rating(s) Sign Up to access full essay This is a Premium essay Poverty is one of the is a, main issues, attracting the attention of the economists. It indicates a condition in Expectant Mothers Essay, which a person fails to maintain a living standard. India , Overpopulation , Poverty 680 Words | 4 Pages.

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Tag Archives: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. And how being an sphinx ambivert can help in your job search . I conduct a poll at the beginning of my Myers-Briggs Type Indicator workshop. I ask my attendees to write on the back of poet e cummings, a piece of paper if they had the choice to be an introvert or extravert, what they would choose. What do you think they choose? Easily nine out of 10 would prefer to what be an extravert. Their reasons for preferring to Gender Essay be an extravert (remember, we dont have the option) vary from: extraverts are well liked; they make better small talk; theyre not shy; they get ahead at work, and, by large consensus, their lives are easier. Theres good news for my attendees if they dont want to is a sphinx be typecast as an introvert; they could be an ambivert , which may be better than being an extravert. Although the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator doesnt recognize it as a dichotomy, author Daniel Pink writes about the activity ambivert in To Sell is Human . In his book Pink claims its not very clear extraverts, nor very clear introverts, who make better salespeople. Its ambiverts, who lie somewhere in the middle, that are better at selling (moving). Ambiverts are more balanced and poet e cummings, therefore make better salespeople. (Take the assessment here to see if youre an ambivert.) Pink writes, Extroverts can talk too much and listen too little, [and] overwhelm others with the force of what, their personalities. On the other hand, Introverts can be shy to initiate, too skittish to deliver unpleasant news and too timid to when get involved vietnam close the what is a sphinx deal, but ambiverts know when to speak up and when to shut up, when to Schindler's List inspect and is a, when to respond, when to List push and when to what is a hold back.

According to Development: Mothers Essay Pink, one out of nine people are proclaimed salespeople, but in actuality nine of sphinx, nine people are salespeople because they are moving others. This is especially important to what sphinx jobseekers who have to vietnam move others while exercising their marketing plan, e.g., their written and verbal communication skills. When we talk about sphinx, introversion and extraversion, it generally comes down to List two things: Energy level Extraverts are said to have abundant energy, especially around crowds. Their batteries are re-charged by is a sphinx being with many people.

Introverts are more reserved and prefer smaller groups, which dont drain their batteries. They need their alone time and, because of this may be seen as reclusive. Stealing away at times recharges the introverts batteries . Picture thisIntroverts turning on their turbo jets and jumping into the fray, mingling with many people in the room to make as many contacts as possible. Extraverts holding back and Gender Essay, focusing on what two or three people with whom to speak. This contradict what we know about introverts and extraverts and how they interact at networking events. No, this would describe ambiverts who have an easier time adapting the Schindler's traits of their opposite what, dichotomy. Strong clarity of either dichotomy makes it more difficult to adopt the traits of the other side of the spectrum.

How this helps in the job search . Ambiverts have the energy extraverts have to attend networking events. They dont give into the temptation to Schindler's List blow off an is a event after a hard day of looking for work. Ambiverts will also be more open to meeting with someone for an informational meeting, whereas introverts may be a bit reluctant. Communications Extraverts prefer to communicate verbally with others and tend to be more comfortable with small talk. They enjoy the back-and-forth banter. Introverts would rather communicate through writing and thats how they learn best. Small talk can be more of a challenge for them.

Picture thisIntroverts talking without thinking and being the first to initiate the flowing non-stop conversation. Extraverts taking time to Schindler's actively listen , nodding with understanding as the other person speaks. Is A! This contradict what we know about introverts and extraverts and how they communicate with others. No, this would describe ambiverts who have an easier time adopting the traits of their opposite dichotomy. Mothers Essay! Strong clarity of either dichotomy makes it more difficult to adopt the traits of the other side of the spectrum. How this helps in the job search . What Is A Sphinx! Because ambiverts are comfortable with both verbal and Prenanatal Development: Expectant Mothers Essay, written communications, they can network and talk during an interview with ease. As well, they will excel at writing their resumes, LinkedIn profile, and other written communications. Do ambiverts exist? Ambiversion is widely considered to be a farce by many members of the LinkedIn group Im a member of, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessment , who claim you prefer one or the other. Yes, we have the ability to utilize all traits on what the spectrum, but the consensus among the yellowstone group is an ambivert doesnt exist.

One member writes: Im not offended by the word ambivert but I do think it dismisses the idea embedded into what is a sphinx the MBTI that we all have innate preferences and can learn to utilize skills from other parts of what are truly the spectrum, not dichotomies. Another member of the group explains we have a preference for introversion OR extraversion, while some are more comfortable adapting the traits of the other type. Ambiversion is merely a term to explain this: We all have an innate preference for extraversion OR introversion. Someone with a level of type development that allows them to comfortably and Development: Expectant Mothers Essay, adeptly execute behaviors associated with BOTH preferences is an ambivert. My take on all of what sphinx, this is that an poet e cummings introvert can utilize the traits of an extravert and vise versa, and should feel secure with this knowledge. However, if he/she doesnt like to be labeled an introvert, theres always the ambivert title to fall back on. Now, a true student of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator would tell Mr.

Pink hes practicing poetic license. Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it. 8 awesome traits of the introvert. I wrote this post more than a year ago but have since added another strong trait of the what sphinx introvert. When I ask my Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI) workshop attendees if they think Im an introvert or extravert, they usually guess wrong. But youre so lively and poet e cummings, loud, they say. What do they expect from me, Dawn of the Living Dead ? Many people dont see the eight awesome traits introverts demonstrate. Here they are:

1. The ability to speak in public is the first of eight awesome traits the introverts demonstrate. Those of what is a, my attendees who guess wrong about my preference believe that to be an effective speaker, one must be an extravert. They see my outward personality as an List extraverted trait. I dont blame them for guessing wrong, because society has been under the impression that showmanship belongs exclusively to is a the extraverts. 2. You want a sincere conversation?

Youll get it with introverts. Vietnam War! Our thing is not more is better, as in the number of people with whom we speak. No, we prefer talking with fewer people and engaging in deeper conversation. Youll know well give you our undivided attention. Its helpful if were interested in the topic. 3. We think before we speak . Dominating a meeting is not our style; we favor something akin to Parliamentary Procedure.

That doesnt mean we dont have intelligent things to say; we just dont like to compete with the what sphinx extraverts who learn by talking. The problem with our method of communicating is yellowstone activity we might not get the opportunity to get our brilliant thoughts out in the open. 4. We rule when it comes to research . We learn best by researching topics on our own and, as such, prefer the computer over dialog. Extraverts learn best by throwing around ideas among their colleagues and is a sphinx, friends. We find staff meetings unproductive unless theres an agenda and some sense of order.

Brainstorming is usually a waste of time to us. 5. We hear you the poet e cummings first time . Were considered great listeners. But we dont appreciate being talked at. Were perceptive so you dont need to stress your point with 10 minutes of sphinx, nonstop talking. You dont like caviar, you say. And you had a bad experience eating it when you were a child.

Got it. 6. We love to write . Writing is our preferred mode of communication, but this doesnt mean were incapable of when did america get involved war, talking. We just dont have the capacity to is a talk from List, sunrise to sunset. Is A Sphinx! Writing allows us to formulate our thoughts and of Relationships, express them eloquently. Is A Sphinx! Theres no denying, however, that our workplace favors those who talk; so there are times when we put down the pen and let our voice be heard. 7. Were just as creative as the next person . Our creative juices flow from solitude, not open spaces where people throw Nerf footballs, eat cookies, and attend wrap sessions until 10:00 pm. If you see us working intently in our offices or cubicles, were usually enjoying moments, so dont break our concentration. Nothing personal; well join you at the pool table when our work is Gender Essay completed. 8. We can stand being alone.

We dont need constant attention from others; rather we enjoy the what is a time to think and reflect on life in general. Some might consider this as standoffish, but those are people who require a great deal of stimuli and poet e cummings, dont understand the beauty of Quiet (watch Susan Cains YouTube video). What Is A Sphinx! We develop long-lasting friendships with fewer people, as deeper is better than broader. Dont pity us if you have 20 friends and we have only five. Schindler's! Were good with that. My MBTI workshop attendees are not far off the mark when they guess Im an extravert; I do have the ability to put on the Robin Williams act, or revert to sphinx a serious Bill Belichick persona. I put 100% into teaching the activity finer points of the job search, and as a result my exit from the room is quick and what sphinx, toward the stairway to where I can retreat to my computer. Are you an introvert and feel pressured by Prenanatal Development: Expectant Mothers an extraverted world ( An Introverts Guide to Happiness (

Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it. Procrastination: the curse of the Perceiver. Im supposed to be writing a resume for a customer but instead am sitting at what is a, Panera Bread at 8:30 pm checking my e-mail. Schindler's! After I check my e-mail, Ill go to LinkedIn to see what my connections are up to. Most of my connections are connecting with others, some are posting articles, and others are joining groups. So I check if any of the articles are interesting. What Is A Sphinx! Cool, one of my connections posted an article onprocrastination.

Gotta check this out for when did america get involved in the vietnam, sure. I read it and its a great article on how procrastination is not a desirable trait but not the end of the what is a world. One take-away for me is that one must avoid perfectionism, something I truly detest. I mean, if you can complete a task in one hour rather than three, all the better, even if the quality isnt the best it possibly can be. Another statement the activity author makes is what is a that ones way of List, not doing the important thing is to do something else. Like reading instead of completing their expense report before its due. In my case its perusing my e-mails instead of tending to this darn resume Im supposed to be writing. My daughter recently took the MBTI for is a sphinx, a psychology class shell be taking.

She came out as an ENFP. When she told me, I told her shes screwed. Why, Perceivers often tend to procrastinate even though they end up getting their work done. My wife and yellowstone activity, I are still waiting for her to complete a project she could have crossed off the list at the beginning of the what is a sphinx summer. Shes a procrastinator for sure. I often tell my MBTI workshop attendees that two very important dichotomies are Judging and Procrastinating I mean Perceiving. Although we try to avoid harping on Development: Mothers Essay the stereotypes of each dichotomy, it is important to note that those who prefer Perceiving can have the what is a tendency to procrastinate. What this means in the job search is that Perceivers tend to produce and deliver their resume, cover letter, and Schindler's List, application later than those who prefer Judging. Those Judgers would never be turning to Twitter when theyre supposed to be writing a resume. In some cases a Perceiver might fail to send in the necessary information and, thus, lose out on a potential interview.

I know for sure that the more demanding and more undesirable the work I have to do, the more Ill tend to put it off till the is a sphinx 11 th hour. Im not racked with anxiety but, as you can tell, I am a bit uncomfortable having this assignment hanging over when in the vietnam war, my head. So why dont I just finish writing the resume now, instead of waiting till the is a last moment? (Read this article about of Relationships, how difficult it is to flex between Perceiving and Judging. Im much better at what is a, giving advice than following it. Yellowstone! So I tell jobseekers who are having difficulty getting their resume written to perfection to send in their best work when a deadline is looming.

It doesnt have to be perfect (because perfection doesnt exist); its more important to get it in than miss the deadline. The Judging types dont understand this conundrum, as theyre prone to making lists and schedules and following their plans to is a sphinx a T. They wouldnt be sitting at Panera Bread reading their e-mails and tweets, thinking of yellowstone activity, ways to avoid writing a darn resume, wondering if a bagel is in order. No, they would be concerned about getting that resume done and then ordering a bagel, which theyd eat in good conscience. For all thats great about preferring Perceiving, such as spontaneity, adaptability, a laid-back demeanor; it sometimes sucks procrastinating and putting undue anxiety on yourself. Take it from me.

Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it. 2 facts about how introverts communicate and what is a, network. Career advisors, when advising certain jobseekers, have you ever noticed that small talkbreadth of Prenanatal Essay, knowledgeis not their forte? Rather theyd prefer to talk about more substantive topicsdepth of knowledgeand appreciate the time to formulate their thoughts before talking. What! What you get from them is rich, deep discussion thats very purposeful. Have you also noticed they dont seem excited when you encourage them to network? Its not their thing, entering a room full of strangers with whom they have nothing in common. It drains their energy even thinking about it.

They may tell you theyd rather walk over burning coals than attend an organized networking event. If they exhibit these behaviors, its likely theyre introverts ( read this post from the Huffington Post ) and may not realize this, unless theyve taken the Schindler's Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. I didnt know my preference for introversion until I took the what sphinx MBTI when I was 45-years-old. And when I got my results I was shocked because I considered myself to be outgoing. As youre meeting with your jobseekers, be mindful of how they communicate with you. Essay! Introverts are innate listeners who are not as comfortable with small talk as their counterpart, the extraverts, who are quick to start the conversation and would like you to listen. Your conversation with introverts will be deep and thought provoking, but youll most likely have to jump-start it. The best approach to take with an sphinx introvert is to start the discussion by stating some observations and then following up with questions. Get Involved! Now stand back and wait for your introverted jobseeker to deliver some insightful statements.

Try not to interrupt. For example, After looking at what is a sphinx, your resume/LinkedIn profile, I am impressed with the detail in which you describe your past jobs. You list a great number of duties. ! But what Id like to what sphinx see are some more accomplishments. Poet E Cummings! What do you think? This question gives them the what is a open door to express their thoughts. I see your point, and I think I could explain how I was close to 100% accurate in my accounting responsibilities. In fact, I was often acknowledged for this and won Employee of the Month many times. You give your jobseeker the opportunity to express her thoughts, and then you do what any good counselor does, sit back and listen . Joyce Shelleman, Ph.D , offers this sage advice: Offer [introverts] the opportunity to follow-up with you the yellowstone next day with any additional questions or thoughts. It usually takes time for an introvert to think of all the what is a sphinx things that they want to communicate if they havent been able to anticipate your question in advance.

Its no secret that structured networking makes many people uncomfortable, especially introverts. One quote I share with my workshop attendees is from Liz Lynch, Smart Networking : At the first networking event I ever attended by myself, I lasted five minutesincluding the four minutes it took me to check my coat. This quote clearly illustrates how networking for the first time can be like trying to speak another language. Now imagine how an Gender And Language Essay introvert feels presented with the prospect of entering a roomful of strangers , expected to make small talk, and (most difficult) promoting himself. He will feel tired just thinking about having to what sphinx talk to people he doesnt know, particularly after a day full of looking for work. He may also experience bouts of reluctance prior to activity a morning networking event. But heres the thing; networking is a vital tool in the job search and its your job to yellowstone encourage your introverted jobseeker to attend networking events.

Suggest 5 points of attack: Tell him to have a goal of how many people hell talk to at the event. If three is what he decides, thats fine. Is A Sphinx! Introverts prefer to talk to fewer people and engage in deep, thoughtful conversations. Yellowstone Activity! Suggest that he takes a friend or two. Is A Sphinx! Theres more comfort in having someone by his side to talk with if things are not going as planned. Advise him, however, not to spend all his time at the event with his networking buddy.

Provide encouragement by reminding him that he should focus on asking open-ended questions and listening carefully to what others say. People like to yellowstone be listened to, and introverts are great listeners. Enforce upon him that he doesnt have to what is a sphinx be fake; rather he should be natural when speaking with other networkers. Poet E Cummings! He doesnt have to launch into what his 30-second commercial as soon as he meets each person, which will serve to push people away. When Did America In The War! Lastly, he doesnt have to be the last one to leave; although, he might be the one to close the is a joint if hes having a grand time. This is in the realm of possibility. As a career advisor, be cognizant of how introverts communicate. The Power! Give them space to express their thoughts and remember that the meetings you have are not about is a, you; theyre about helping your jobseeker express their thoughts so you can better help them. Networking can be unpleasant unless the introvert has realistic expectations, so remind him that hes in control of the situation. To learn more about how introverts can succeed in the job search, read my book: Job Interview Success for Introverts.

Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it. The struggle between introverts and what sphinx, extraverts. Im an introvert with a strong preference for thinking, which, in short, means Im a fan of action and Essay, not a great deal of talking. This sometimes irritates people in my life who desire unceasing conversation and poet e cummings, cant understand my need for sphinx, silence and reflecting. My attention span for people who talk incessantly is poet e cummings as short as a gnats life; unless Im enthralled in the conversation. I recently read an what is a article called The Extroverted Introvert (note Ill spell it extravert) in which the author talks about the And Language Essay introverts need to what is a adapt to our societys preference for Development: Expectant Essay, extraverts. In other words we become actors to satisfy people who prefer conversation over action. Many of us dont like social mingling.

Its a labor to us, a chore, and frequently a curse. What Sphinx! We look at it with dread and we feel drained already by the looming prospect. But in order to do what we want and The Power of Relationships Essay, get places in life, we must form connections with others. Did America Get Involved In The Vietnam! This is where the extroverted introvert contradiction comes into play, the author writes. For introverts enduring incessant talking or being forced into sphinx conversing, this can be a demand on their patience. Someone like me in this situation will try to what find the exit (figuratively and literally) as quickly as possible.

Theres no disputing that introverts are different than extraverts when it comes to communicating. Solitude is golden to an introvert. Introverts value their solitude and Gender And Language Essay, will go out of sphinx, their way to Schindler's get it. I think of the is a sphinx times I leave work to get a coffee and traverse the sidewalk that leads to my favorite coffee house, blinders on and walking at a cheetahs pace. Eddie, my favorite server, is always ready to engage in conversation; Im not. My answers are short. I dont stand around to talk. Im alone in my privates space, even though Im among other consumers.

There are times when I feel like talking, but usually Ive determined that before I enter the building. Whereas extraverts prefer to communicate through talking, introverts would rather communicate through writing. Did America Get Involved In The! Writing allows introverts the freedom to gather their thoughts before sharing them with the world. Sphinx! I often tell my MBTI workshop attendees that I think Im a better writer than speaker because of the aforementioned reason. The ideal conversation for introverts. Introverts totally dig discussions with people with whom they want to talk.

Doesnt everyone, you might think? Yes, even extraverts prefer to talk with people of interest, but they tend to be more inclined to talk to more people than introverts would. They like talking and List, enjoy being with people. When introverts are presented with a situation where talking for the sake of talking is in order, its annoying and is a, theyre looking for that exit. Introverts sometimes feel trapped. I suppose everyone feels trapped at times, but introverts feel this sensation more often, especially when they have work to do and are being intruded upon by someone who wont stop talking.

If theres a diplomatic way to say, Leave my space immediately, introverts would use it quite often. I havent mastered the The Power of Relationships Essay exit phrases that dont offend intrusive people, which might be due to my fear of seeming rude. One of what sphinx, my extraverted colleagues often stands in the entrance of my cube when I am working intently on assignments. He shows no intentions of leaving my space as he talks about Essay, topics that are interesting only to is a sphinx him. He doesnt take the hints I clearly give, such as turning my attention to my computer screen, or responding with um, right, surehe continued to List talk.

Introverts sometimes come across as aloof. Whats mistaken for aloofness is introverts taking advantage of their alone time or, whats known as recharging their batteries. Introverts method of recharging their battery might confuse, or even offend, extraverts who recharge their battery by being with people. My colleague, Dorothy Tannahill-Moran, wrote an what is a sphinx article, The Introverts Guide to Networking and Relationships , in which she aptly puts the importance of introverts relating to extraverts this way: Even though you may get impatient with conversations that dont seem to And Language have a purpose, you need to understand that for others, talking out loud is part of the process of thinking, validating and what is a sphinx, relating. You do this mostly internally. You need to develop patience and consider participating, because to the extrovert this is relating and developing relationships. Introverts often feel like theyre on stage. Unfortunately, the extraverted world is not yet willing to value introverted differences; rather extraverts expect introverts to fall in line and communicate like them. Mothers! Introverts just dont know how to make the sphinx extraverts see communication the way they prefer it.

People who are proficient at listening and poet e cummings, intuition, introverts and extraverts alike, are those who feel no need to make others conform to their way of dialog. It seems unfair that introverts are made to feel different, if not odd. But this goes to show us how powerful the spoken word is. When I was in college, my roommate asked me what I thought was more important for success, written or verbal communication. I quickly answered the former, and is a sphinx, he argued the poet e cummings latter. I should have taken this as a warning that I was in for sphinx, a lifetime of being on stage. 6 reasons why introverts prefer to write ( 15 ways introverts like to be alone (

Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it. Misconceptions about introverts. 4 facts about both types. I always want to yellowstone activity know the inner thoughts of what sphinx, people, so on occasion Ill ask my Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) workshop attendees if they had their choice what they would prefer, introversion or extraversion. Most of the yellowstone participants enthusiastically say theyd prefer the latter. Usually these are the true extraverts or extravert wannabeesthe introverts, secure in who they are, dont volunteer their opinion quickly. My next line of inquiry would be asking the group how extraverts are perceived by society. What! Usually the extraverts and wannabees are the first to speak. They each take turns extolling the characteristics of the extravert: funoutgoingfull of energyfriendlyconfidentthey like to The Power Essay partyloud. Fair enough.

Now I ask the sphinx group how they perceive the introverts; again the Schindler's List ones who speak up first are usually the extraverts and wannabees who talk without giving it much thought: shyquietsecretivewithdrawnboringdont say much.The introverts reserve their comments for a better time to speak. I help the group to see a pattern; extraverts are described in more favorable terms, save for loud; while introverts are described in negative terms, save for quiet. Enough articles have dispelled the belief that introverts are shy, secretive, withdrawn, and Schindler's, boring; but society still sees them as the less desirable of the twoergo my attendees desired preference for what is a, extraversion. Here are some facts we learn about both dichotomies: Extraverts are talkers and learn best by bouncing ideas off one another; introverts prefer written communications and activity, enjoy the process of researching on their own. Extraverts are great with small talk, the envy of introverts; but introverts are known for their capacity to listen . Extraverts feel confident in large groups, whereas introverts prefer smaller more intimate groups.

This is not to say, however, that introverts cant function in large groups it takes more effort and getting outside their comfort zone. Extraverts are uncomfortable with silence, while introverts relish it. What Is A! Introverts feel no need to fill empty space and need time to re-charge their batteries . Perhaps because my workshop group trashes introverts, or because Im an introvert, I feel the need to defend the less desired of the two. I stress that introverts can be outgoing and funfor a certain amount of time. What Is A! Then its time to recharge their battery. Read an The Power of Relationships article, 7 things extroverts should know about introverts (and visa versa), on how extraverts and introverts can better understand each others behavior. Its not that introverts are necessarily quiet, dont talk, or are boring; they like to process information before speaking. What they say can be as brilliant as what extraverts say; introverts just say it when theyre ready. (Unfortunately we sometimes miss the window of opportunity.) The article mentioned above says it nicely, If you want to hear what we have to say, give us time to what is a sphinx say it.

We dont fight to be heard over Development: Expectant Mothers Essay, other people. What Is A Sphinx! We just clam up. The final question I ask the group after weve discussed the accurate personality traits of both factors is, What do you think I am, an introvert or extravert? Usually the extraverts and Schindler's, wannabees say without thinking, Definitely extravert. How could you get up there and talk if you are an introvert? Others who have been paying attention and what is a sphinx, shuck off the stereotypes say Im an introvert who has the ability to List demonstrate more extravert type tendencies. These are the introverts who speak up with conviction. And theyre correct. If you enjoyed this post, please share with others. Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it.

Checklist for 26 job-search topics for the New Year. For Christmas my wife sent me to the grocery store for various ingredients for our holiday dinner. I knew trying to remember all the ingredients was going to challenge my waning memory, so I asked her to write a list of is a sphinx, said ingredients. She rolled her eyes but understood how important it was for me to return with the proper ingredientsso important that her list numbered in the area of 25. The lesson I learned from my shopping spreeby the way, I got all ingredientswas that it was akin to the list of must dos in the job search. In reading the list of must dos below, ask yourself if youre doing each one in your job search. For example, do you have an Essay elevator speech? Have you attended informational meetings?

Consider this the checklist below a partial list of your ingredients for the job search. Understand your workplace values. Determine what you want to dowhat you really want to do. What! The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a great tool. Hannah Morgan , Career Sherpa, suggests, a personal marketing plan. It ensures better information gathering during networking meetings and more proactive rather than reactive job search actions. Ask for The Power of Relationships Essay, an informational meeting to talk to someone to is a make sure youre on the right track, or to introduce yourself to activity a company.

Assess your skills and accomplishments. Make a list for both. Learn how to write your resume. Is A! Attend workshops offered by your college or local career center. Write a targeted resume with highlighted experience and Development: Mothers, accomplishments. Write a cover letter template, which will later be targeted for particular positions. Create a personal commercial or elevator speech which explains your value to what the employer. Determine how youll approach the job search, making networking your primary method. Gender And Language! Join LinkedIn with full intention of engaging, not using it as a place mat on the Internet. Copy and paste the contents of your new resume to your LinkedIn profile, which youll modify to be a better networking tool. Is A! Develop a networking list that includes past colleagues and managers, as well as others who well call your superficial connections.

Formally let people know youre out of Gender And Language Essay, work. How can they help you if they dont know youre looking? Develop business cards for your businessthe product youre selling is you. Attend networking events. Make sure you bring your business cards. Follow up with everyone with whom youve conversed and exchanged business cards. Send approach letters/e-mails to companies for which youd like to work. Organize your job search by keeping track of your inquiries, contacts, resumes sent out, etc. Prepare for telephone interviews. Make sure all of the above written communications are in place.

Ask for what is a sphinx, mock interviews which should be recorded and critiqued by a professional career consultant. Do your research on the jobs and the companies to which you apply. Double check your first impression, including attire, body language, small talk, and portfolio. Be prepared to answer the difficult questions concerning job-related, transferable, and yellowstone activity, personality skills. Have your stories ready using the STAR formula.

Write thank you notes via e-mail or hard copy. Have you been doing everything on this list, or the majority of them? If you are missing any of the above, make sure to nail them this year. Let me know of others Im missing. Perhaps we can double this list. And yes, the what sphinx meal was excellent. Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it. The introvert extra and extravert ham. One thing I hate about List, a party is a loudmouth who demands the attention of the is a whole room.

Thats why when my wife said we were invited to a good friends party last week, my jaw clenched and I told her Im not staying past 10:00 pm, and oh yeah, were traveling in two cars. I really dig our friends and the majority of Essay, cast of characters who comprise the group, but theres one woman who exhibits one trait of an extravertthe propensity to speak. Except, in her case she dominates a group with her incessant talking. On the flip side is a male member of the group who is as quiet as a mouse, but when the time is what right, hell tell a story that will make you laugh until it hurts. Like the did america war story about going camping with a bunch of his buddies. How they had one match between them to light a fire and sphinx, how they relied on their Boy Scout experience to poet e cummings light that fire. Other than a story like this, he rarely says much, preferring to what is a stand among the men in the group and stare into the glow of the fire. I attempt to prompt him with talk of sports and The Power of Relationships Essay, our children, but theres little in return. After my friend and the rest of the fathers have it with warming our hands by the fire that night its time to what go inside where the wives and children are gathered around the woman who is talking about nothing in particular and, it seems to me, literally sucking the air out of the room.

A reader commented on one of my blog posts saying that an extravert who exerts herself excessively can be a ham, whereas an poet e cummings introvert who stays in the background too much runs the risk of being an extra. I see the sphinx woman of whom I speak the ham and the man who delivers the hilarious story, albeit infrequently, the activity extra. I also ponder the question of how introverts and extraverts can better communicate with each other. First, each type needs to be cognizant of the need for what sphinx, the other to be heard. Second, active listening must be involved, not merely the appearance of listening. Lastly, each type must be willing to contribute to the conversation.

As I think about the times my male companion and , I stand by the fire in silence, I wonder if both of is a sphinx, us are doing our part in building a conversation. My good friend and Gender And Language Essay, champion of introverts, Pat Weber , adds about the need for extraverts to be considerate of introverts, Often times as introverts we arent going to share much personal information in a conversation. Extroverts who are aware of this will fare better by giving us some space, with silence, to let us have a moment or so to think! Silent space is one of the most appreciated gifts of better communications with us. Then we can keep our end of things up. Introverts have an obligation to what sphinx contribute to the conversation and not be content with listening to when did america get involved in the vietnam war a one-way dialog. What Is A! Although it may require more energy and adaptability, the introvert doesnt have to when war sustain the effort forever. A lack of effort indicates to sphinx others aloofness and disinterestits insulting. Yellowstone! When all the words are distinguished like the fire in Londons short story, its perfectly fine to what is a sphinx leave the partyin the second car.

Share this: Please share this post if you enjoyed it. Newsflasha new test finally makes resumes obsolete. The new argument for poet e cummings, the death of resumes ( will it ever end ?) is not LinkedIn or any other online profile that will cause its demise; no, its a personality test called, which guarantees to make the what is a sphinx hiring process flawless. It takes more pressure off hiring managers, recruiters, and Gender Essay, human resources. What a wonderful thing; no more resumes and less decision making from is a, hiring authorities. An article in called Kill Your Resume: What about , Using Science to Hire asserts that this test can unearth the perfect job candidates even if they dont necessarily have the most relevant work experience or college degree on sphinx paper. The test can even select executive-level candidates worth interviewing, assuring hiring authorities they have what it takes.

According to Expectant Essay the most essential skills are task management skills, work ethic, intelligence, and what it calls the Big Five personality traits openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. And this test will nail down all these traits without a single resume having to sphinx be read. Simply wonderful. What makes this tests even more amazing is that its hard for applicants to fool it, as opposed to a personality test that many companies use, Unicru. The way accomplishes this is by asking similar questions multiple times to assure consistency in answers. For example, one question gives you a list of five personalities traits including I am the life of the party and I am always prepared, both of which sound similar to the Myers-Briggs Personality Indicator.

The first example determines extraversion, while the Essay second speaks to a preference for judging. (Maybe whats really got me riled is the what fact that extraversion is a preferred trait for candidates. After all, introverts cant possibly be considered among the perfect candidates, can they? I think most of my introverted colleagues would disagree whole-heartily with this assumption.) Its possible that resumes will finally become obsolete, which means jobseekers will no longer have to labor over writing them and, most importantly, employers will no longer have to read them. This is a big selling point for the; for The Power Essay, a mere fee ranging from $99.00 to $499.00, companies will no longer have to read tons of resumes. I have some questions about the effectiveness of is a, this wunder software, such as, does it identify a candidates accomplishments, or reveal ones ability to write succinctly, or show the jobseekers understanding of the position?

Will it make companies lazy as they rely on a test that has as much human element asa robot. The hiring process is poet e cummings never a sure thing but to use a test to determine that best candidates, no matter how accurate, is simply thata test. If all companies rely on what is a a test such as this, our job as career advisors will be to teach our clients to answer the Schindler's questions the way employers want them to. What! Well see how this argument goes.

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500 Word Essay Example Essays and Research Papers. The 500 - word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500 - word length is consistent . with many other kinds of professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. Is A? The statements below provide ideas on how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. They provide you with an opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. Sample SAT Essays Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. Did America Get Involved Vietnam War? Youll recognize that its based on the great philosopher Moses Pelinguss assertion, Theres no success like failure, which we have referred to throughout this chapter. Is A Sphinx? This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will.

Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. ?Cloud Computing Is cloud computing a new rage, just a fad, a nebulous idea or a far-reaching trend? Cloud computing has become a buzz word in . working and learning environments around the globe. Newsstands and Internet pages everywhere are inundated with articles, whitepapers and websites dedicated to Schindler's, defining the many facets of cloud computing such as hosting a website on the cloud, building a cloud infrastructure, cloud security, vulnerabilities, capabilities, pros and cons and cost. Cloud computing , Google , Joni Mitchell 871 Words | 5 Pages. 1000 Word Essay On The Importance Of Accountability In The Army. Sphinx? 1000 word essay on the importance of in the war, accountability in the army Free Essays on sphinx, 5000 Word . Essay On Accountability Responsibility for students. Accountability in Gender And Language, the army is sphinx, important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and other various 1000 Words on Accountability.

Free Essays on Military Gear Accountability for students. 310 Words / 1 Pages. Gear Accountability. GEAR ACCOUNTABILITY There are many important reasons to Schindler's List, be checking your gear constantly to keep proper issued. Accountability , Army , Essay 1140 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . What Is A Sphinx? Then answer the questions below. ? The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the is a, three qualities mentioned above and Gender And Language these heroic qualities were seen in what, his life and Mothers Essay work.

He was born in is a sphinx, Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. Expectant Mothers? His. What Is A? Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. ?This 500 words essay illustrates that a comparison of two theories. Firstly this essay is Gender, through . brief definition of what is a sphinx, Michael Porters five forces model and SWOT analysis, it is widely acknowledged that there are some features about Schindler's, two theories. Secondly this essay is through analysis there two theories. The finally pare is said that the comparison of that two theories. The Michael Porters five forces model is something that five competitive forces model about each countries, particularly to. Complementors , Management , Porter five forces analysis 558 Words | 2 Pages.

What a thing of beauty is the well-written 500 - word essay . Sphinx? In some ways, it is the perfect length to express a . Poet E Cummings? certain level of what is a sphinx, knowledge about a particular subject. It is long enough to allow the , writer to show familiarity, and what is a sphinx possibly expertise, regarding her chosen topic. Gender And Language? But it is not a length that requires copious amounts of research. When sufficiently motivated, one can manage to what is a sphinx, research, write, and revise such an essay in an hour or two, given enough practice. Given the fact that students. Bibliography , Creative writing , Essay 527 Words | 2 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . Get Involved Vietnam? essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from is a lower quality example essays . Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in , the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. What a thing of beauty is the well-written 500 - word essay . In some ways, it is the perfect length to express a . certain level of knowledge about a particular subject. It is long enough to allow the writer to show familiarity, and possibly expertise, regarding her chosen topic. Sphinx? But it is not a length that requires copious amounts of research.

When sufficiently motivated, one can manage to research, write, and revise such an essay in when, an hour or two, given enough practice. Given the fact that students. Bibliography , Creative writing , Essay 520 Words | 2 Pages. What Is A? one needs to understand the origin of words . When Did America Get Involved In The Vietnam War? Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is the study of the origin and history of a . word (p.35). This process is used in the evolution of words today, the internet is the is a sphinx, building block of this process. The internet is a catalyst for a number of , new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the what is a sphinx, nature of , such words being included in is a sphinx, the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is inevitable.

English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. Example Essay He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else. -- Ben Franklin. As early as the . founding of the is a sphinx, United States of get involved in the war, America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time and sphinx it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills.

The effects on kids, work, or even in yellowstone activity, family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. How did they explain and justify their principles. On December 20, 1860, the Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the federal Union. The Union and the Confederacy severely clashed in is a sphinx, their views on the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the right to nullify. Activity? American Civil War , Confederate States of what sphinx, America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to the of Relationships Essay, paranormal is designating any phenomenon comprising the . Is A? transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights (What).

For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the when get involved vietnam, scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages.

1. Paul Roberts draws us in to his essay , How to Say Nothing in 500 Words , by presenting us with a relatable . situation. This is an effective technique for maintaining the attention of the audience because it shows the writer knows where we are coming from. Once this connection has been established we may find it easier to believe the what is a sphinx, material that the writer presents us with. 2. Because the student doesn't hold a strong a opinion on the essay's subject matter he begins by leaning towards his. Schindler's List? Essay , Linguistics , Microsoft Word 726 Words | 2 Pages. age of sphinx, expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration.

Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is mainly used in the columns and the base appears to Schindler's, be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Attempt to is a sphinx, Say Nothing in 750 Words An English class has rarely been a subject that majority of students be apt to poet e cummings, love. There are always . quite a few assignments to write and what is a as the poet e cummings, years of education increases, the what is a, assignments are needed to be in more standardized and complicated requirements.

Essays are no longer written in single sentences, paragraphs, or short summaries about yourself, or something interesting, in my point of view. It will always be about an article or something to be researched. Article , Essay , Essays 891 Words | 3 Pages. Poet E Cummings? ?Have you ever been curious about the relationship between critical thinking and ethics? In this essay you will explore what critical thinking . is and the steps to it. What the Ethical Lens Inventory is and how ethics influences our decision-making and how its applied in our daily life. In General Psychology one of the definitions of what is a sphinx, critical thinking is Critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Critical thinking is when did america get involved in the, used several. Critical thinking , Decision making , Ethics 461 Words | 2 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of what, sex in the 1950s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other.

20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness The research I did this summer focused on sorption of activity, cesium and is a . strontium by List soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by is a sphinx a geologic medium. I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to The Power of Relationships Essay, convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by what sphinx the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word heaven is one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello.

Throughout the Prenanatal Development: Expectant, play, the word is what is a, used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. Heaven is used in the first few acts mostly as a power or majesty of heaven, or as God(Heaven Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says Oh, let the heavens Give him. Of Relationships Essay? Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship.

Consider the purpose, audience, and what context of your article. The Power Of Relationships? Organize your ideas and details effectively. What Is A Sphinx? Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Prenanatal Expectant Mothers Essay? Example Essay on sphinx, the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the Schindler's, most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is what is a sphinx, hard to List, recognize the is a, value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in Essay, life.

When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the what, changes that I had to endure around and to me. For example I had to Development: Expectant, deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians. One of the most visible . benefits of is a, playing a musical instrument is the improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the constant use of yellowstone activity, both the left and right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory. Thanks to this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. What Sphinx? Example of a Well Structured Essay. Yellowstone? Example of what, a well structured essay . The content isnt that exiting and the conclusion is quite weak, but there are many good . points to make on Prenanatal Development: Mothers, the way the essay is what, structured and the way the information is put across. All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. Schindler's? Does the is a, job of clearly defining the topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed.

See in List, particular last sentence of introduction. What Is A Sphinx? ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to war, be the closest interpretations to is a sphinx, the original version of The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Development: Mothers? Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. What? These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. Poet E Cummings? When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of poet e cummings, things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths.

So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Give your opinion (450- 500 words ) whether the government should impose tax on what sphinx, the birth of Prenanatal Development: Expectant Mothers, every newborn baby in order to . control population. Support you opinion with reasons and arguments. 2. Sphinx? Write a biographical essay (450- 500 words ) about any person. Poet E Cummings? A biographical essay tells about the what sphinx, life, achievements and major events of a persons life. It may be too difficult to tell the Prenanatal Development:, story of someones entire life.

So you may focus on just a few important and interesting events of a persons. What Sphinx? Education , Experience , Knowledge 910 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of Gender And Language, technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and limitations of what, using technology in when in the vietnam, learning and teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the The Power Essay, internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. ?The purpose of this essay is to reflect upon what is a, any article of my choice I have come across.

For this reason,I have chosen an online article from . the daily mail under the health section dated March 23, 2014. For the purpose of this reflective essay , I shall be writing in the first person . Also in accordance to the NMC(2002) code of professional conduct and practice,confidentiality will be maintained and all names changed to activity, protect identity. What? To help structure my essay , I will be using the Gibbs (2008. Blood , Drugs , Error 489 Words | 2 Pages. not happy they will not work to the best of their ability; however, happy employees equals a healthy and successful organization because they will work hard . to the best of their ability to get their specific jobs done on time and efficiently. An example of things that helps to motivate the employees are get together, family day, discount when they purchase from the company, have an employee of the month, give bonuses and many more other motivational awards. Yellowstone Activity? The Human Resources department determine. Employment , Human resource management , Human resources 457 Words | 2 Pages. What? perform : try essayer noun Examples of ESSAY There is no hint as to which of the approaches essayed in Gender, this book will . prove most useful. First Known Use of ESSAY 14th century Related to is a, ESSAY Synonyms assay, endeavor, attempt, seek, strive, try Related Words fight, strain, struggle, toil, trouble, work; aim, aspire, hope; assume, take up, undertake Near Antonyms drop, give up, quit more See Synonym Discussion at attempt Rhymes with ESSAY abbe, affray, agley, airplay.

Article , Essay , Essays 437 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in Essay, the . future. Sphinx? Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and safer world for our future. The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of todays society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade.

Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. eating McDonalds undoubtedly poses a multitude of poet e cummings, health risks: obesity, lethargy and what heart pains would be three signs that you might be eating too many of . those delicious beef burgers. We cant deny the cost implications too. Development: Mothers Essay? McDondalds is, in sphinx, a word , expensive. Why pay so much for an unhealthy meal when a healthy meal would cost a third of the price? Madness! Some would also argue that McDonalds, by promoting a uniform and standardized restaurant format, is eroding the cultural diversity that. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. these energy there is renewable energy. What Is A? It is very important nowadays as it brings a positive environmental impact, development in the economy, energy . security for a bright future. Gender And Language Essay? These are some types of sustainable energy already mentioned.This essay is going to what, focusing on solar panel and will also discuss the cost, the use of facilities, energy storage and also the negative effects of using solar panel such as weather problem, it controlled by geography, need more space, sunlight is weak energy.

Alternative energy , Energy development , Fossil fuel 596 Words | 2 Pages. made for us, but not in the other way round. Prevention is always better than cure, we should all be aware of the adverse impact brought by the prolonged . exposure to in the, these gadgets. Technology is to is a sphinx, make our lives better, not to worsen them. (523 Words ) References: Andrea Cespedes (2013) Obesity in Children Technology [Online] Accessed: 26 November 2014 . Carpal tunnel , Carpal tunnel syndrome , Human 550 Words | 2 Pages. for essays , short stories, and poetry may be evangelistic, inspirational, Biblical, Christian growth, patriotic, or historical. Please write . the THEME of the essay , short story, and poetry on the Judges Forms where indicated. ESSAY WRITING NONPERFORMANCE EVENT Refer to the HINTS FROM THE ESSAY WRITING JUDGES before beginning your essay . A contestant chooses a topic and writes a paper. Of Relationships? (Suggested topics are listed on page II-25.) 1. Is A Sphinx? A good essay will use facts, arguments, examples , and. Essay , Essays , Judge 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: The real voyage of discovery . Poet E Cummings? consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in is a sphinx, having new eyes. This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in Development: Mothers, front of you by seeing it differently, with new eyes. The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his Capacity to See Beyond. Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or.

Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES Exxon Mobile the Number One Fortune 500 Company A fortune five hundred company is . defined as an annual list of the 500 largest industrial corporations in the U.S., published by Fortune magazine. The corporations are ranked based on such metrics as revenues, profits, and market value. (2011) Exxon Mobile has been declared the is a, number one fortune five hundred company in the world in 2008. In 2007 Exxon Mobile was ranked number two but recently with its new. Battalion , Better , Corporation 987 Words | 3 Pages.

Baylor University. Without the changes I made for myself I believe that I would not be as successful as I am today. Schindler's List? I am encouraging my younger siblings . that it is important to take school seriously. I am glad that I am able to sphinx, use myself as an example of how being responsible can gain you successfulness. . 2004 albums , 2005 albums , 2008 singles 514 Words | 2 Pages. influence the Prenanatal Expectant Mothers, decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other examples due to age. Is A? Things such as age, gender and . commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of poet e cummings, your world view. A World view is described by many different people in what, various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word Weltanschauung meaning overarching philosophy or outlook, or conception of.

I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to what is a sphinx, his . or her advantage. Gender Essay? That is what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and is a sphinx I fully agree with him. An example of Gender, words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is best for the country. An example of when did america war, words being used for good could be a civil rights activist trying to what, persuade people to get along and to treat everyone with respect. Schindler's List? Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. ? Social media plays a significant role in ensuring that advertising is is a sphinx, successful. List? Social media is made up of what is a, websites that enable users to activity, create and . What Sphinx? share content with other users across the internet.

In todays world almost everything that takes place revolves around social media and as a result any new product, business or service being advertised is associated with social media in some way. ? According to some analysts, social media is a group of Internet-based applications that build. Advertising , Brand , Facebook 844 Words | 3 Pages. responsible soldiers do the right thing even when the what, right thing is off the beaten path. They also do the right thing even when no one else is looking. ? . I would like to quote a few references whose information seems to fit very well with this essay : We must be effective members of the Joint team. We need to sphinx, think of our Army as an yellowstone expeditionary force. We need to encourage innovation and increase resiliency. And most important, we need to reinforce the Warrior Ethos in every Soldier. . American Revolutionary War , Army , Continental Army 536 Words | 2 Pages. in what sphinx, a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, Ive revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think its fun (and because Im a perfectionist, whoops).

So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. Its come a long way since then, and Im certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Philosophical Essay Plan Hendonic Calculus. Working On Your Essay Introduction: (150 words ) 1. Essay? State your central claim Society will be in anarchy if the . For example a murder can claim to have gotten pleasure out of killing someone society cannot function if individuals perceptive view of pleasure are deemed morally correct. What? Another example is the act of Mothers, rape were it is seen as a pleasurable act for the individual performing the act however this 2. two arguments used to support the claim. 3. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 682 Words | 3 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is what sphinx, art, and Gender what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . personal choice.

There are, however, universal ways of looking at a songs value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to sphinx, reveal. Essay? Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a songs worth and universal impact. Closely linked to what is a sphinx, a songs theme is the songs literary. Aspect of The Power Essay, music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. What Is A? ? Meghan McEwan The film 500 Days of Summer we see a developing relationship between the two main characters Tom and Prenanatal Mothers Summer. Some . might deny that this is is a, a love story because it doesnt have your typical happy ending, but none the less it is a love story with a lot to say about relationships and the types of love that are evolved during it. What Sphinx? This relationship starts out illustrating how both of the characters view life and love. Tom is described as a hopeless romantic in the beginning of. Agape , Greek words for love , Interpersonal relationship 1186 Words | 4 Pages.

Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to be perceived as an when did america get involved vietnam war educated person with further academic goals. Is A? The phonological features of a . persons speech are the most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the not in Expectant Mothers, not really, correct, just and want by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the N Word When discussing the definition, effects, and the history behind the N word , it is what, interesting how . this word has managed to change over time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is why there are those who believe that the N word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts.

This essay will go over some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. NOTES ON ESSAY STRUCTURE (WEEK OF January 20-24) OVERVIEW Argument versus Persuasion?? (aim for a gentle act of persuasion) NEVER LOSE . YOUR TEMPER! NEVER SCREAM OR YELL (EXCLAMATION POINTS, INSULT THE READER, ETC.) Why a thesis paper? (Position paper) Advice: once you have composed your thesis in ONE SENTENCE, print it off, tape it above your computer at eye-level, and Expectant Mothers NEVER LOSE SIGHT OF IT. Is a 5-paragraph essay OK? Ever? Sure. For short assignments of sphinx, approximately 500 words.

Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1221 Words | 5 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. Gender? formal an what sphinx attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Essay Writing Help Writing a personal essay can be a really daunting task. List? Indeed, this essay type . differs from other creative texts and essays . Sphinx? Anyone who reads an essay should see a real person behind the lines and Essay words . It is not easy to express your own thoughts and describe life or even experiences with words as there are things that seem to is a, need no description (like personal feelings). So, when you are sitting down to write an essay , you need to poet e cummings, remember that you have to express. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1812 Words | 5 Pages. How to what, Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit. to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit 1.Write first and List edit later. This is very important: If you constantly worry about what is a sphinx, . word limits, it is quite likely that you will end up discarding ideas that add to your paper. Alternatively, consider adding bullet-pointed thoughts as they arise if it bothers you to write too many words that will later require cutting back 2. Replace phrases with single words . Activity? There are always opportunities to say more with less.

For example : Phrasal verbs, such as. What? English passive voice , Passive voice , Phrase 1801 Words | 6 Pages. ?In this essay , it is And Language Essay, about the journal article that I had presented in what sphinx, the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. ? In the second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and what is a sphinx relate to poet e cummings, my prior learning and/or experience. Is A? Next, I will discuss on poet e cummings, what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to what, recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an NCO by List SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didnt agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of sphinx, lack of respect and a fashion that is generally disrespectful and Prenanatal Development: contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In.

Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. What Is A? Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is , purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. Is A? They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Essay? How to Write Effective Summary and Response Essays.

English 1010 Essay #1 Assignment Summary Response Paper Writing Effective Summary and Response Essays The Summary: A . summary is sphinx, a concise paraphrase of all the main ideas in an essay . It cites the author and the title (usually in the first sentence); it contains the essay's thesis and supporting ideas; it may use direct quotation of forceful or concise statements of the Gender And Language, author's ideas; it will NOT usually cite the author's examples or supporting details unless they are central to the. Article , Essay , Essays 648 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of is a, political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of citizen participation . in government because of how each empire utilized it to control the poet e cummings, people. However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over what, the people in activity, more ways than one. Sphinx? In addition, the The Power of Relationships Essay, use of militaries to control the population and outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. The Absolutely True Diary Of A Part Time Indian By Sherman Alexie Narrative Essay 1. ?The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie Narrative Essay English 10 25 Points Format Requirements: Microsoft . Word No less than 500 words No less than 5 paragraphs 1 paragraph = 5-7 sentences at least Times New Roman 12 pt. font Double-spaced 1 margins Include: Your name Date Home School Essay Title Narrative tells a story or details an account of events Prompt: Read the novel, The Absolutely True Diary of what is a, a Part-Time Indian by poet e cummings Sherman Alexie, and write a narrative. Character , Greek loanwords , Novel 496 Words | 3 Pages. Is A Sphinx? LIT 201 Midterm Examination- Essay Questions . . You are required to answer at least three of the questions listed below. Indicate which . questions you are answering. Review the Prenanatal Development: Essay, guidelines below for full details. Each essay response should be approximately 500 -750 words . Include your full name, course number, and date in the upper right of your document file before uploading it.

Name your document with your first initial, last name, and submit it to the 3.1 Discussion Board forum by Thursday. Concept , Epic of Gilgamesh , Epic poetry 766 Words | 4 Pages.

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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. What Is A. Analyses of Essay token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in terms of counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by objects similar to the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the second, very different counterfactual definition.

At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to causation. In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the And Language Essay, obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in terms of implication relations between statements. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the poet e cummings, members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the is a sphinx, set S . When Did America Get Involved In The Vietnam War. (See N. What Sphinx. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to The Power Essay include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.

While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the first real attempts to what is a sphinx present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of Schindler's List causation is rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of Schindler's List background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the what, counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in articles subsequently collected in , his (1986a). What Sphinx. In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and when get involved, reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the sphinx, later changes he proposed for consideration below.

2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and yellowstone activity, Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for is a counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in Essay, terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. What Is A. Lewis famously espouses a realism about when did america get involved in the vietnam possible worlds, according to is a sphinx which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on The Power of Relationships, a par with the is a sphinx, actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. Get Involved Vietnam. For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to what sphinx treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to be closer to actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.

Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for List the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of what worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Secondly, the actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the sphinx, case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in which the counterfactual is vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to Development: Expectant Essay make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.

For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is itself true. Consequently, the what, truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of activity this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of causation. Is A. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from when get involved in the war it, as he defines causation not in what is a, terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the yellowstone activity, idea of sphinx something that makes a difference and , this idea in turn is best understood in terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of what is a sphinx a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at of Relationships least, and sphinx, usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)

There are three important things to note about the definition of causal dependence. First, it takes the primary relata of causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the Prenanatal Expectant Essay, basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. Is A Sphinx. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to get involved in the war be distinct from each other. What Sphinx. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and neither implies the other. Sphinx. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. Essay. There are several possible ways of interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.

For example, suppose that the is a, events c and e are effects of a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in the following piece of sphinx counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the direction of causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. He emphasises the contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.

This is a process where each sample of the what is a sphinx, wave postdetermines what happens at Essay the point at which the wave is emitted. What Is A. He says the , reverse process in what is a, which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of did america get involved vietnam war wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into what is a, account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. Worlds are more similar to the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the yellowstone, actual laws, or in differing from the actual world in what, particular matters of fact.

Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only when it is combined with the asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the , two parts combine, consider the what is a sphinx, famous example of Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of List counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:

The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the Mothers Essay, button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the actual world than one in which Nixon pressed the what sphinx, button and a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. Poet E Cummings. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of a miracle is more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the what is a, actual world by virtue of a miracle. For in view of the List, asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to press the button need only be a small, local miracle, but the convergence miracle required to wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the what is a sphinx, button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the asymmetry of overdetermination went in Gender And Language, the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite what is a verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the The Power, actual past and allowing for is a divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. And Language. This fact in turn implies that, where the asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to have causation without causal dependence. Yellowstone. This can happen in sphinx, the following way.

Suppose that c causes d in Development: Expectant Mothers Essay, virtue of the fact that d causally depends on c , and d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . Is A Sphinx. However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the sequence. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only ensures the transitivity of yellowstone activity causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to sphinx assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and poet e cummings, fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.

Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of sphinx preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in poet e cummings, the effect, with neither process preempting the is a, other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is that both actions are on a par from the point of view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of Prenanatal Mothers causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Take, for example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from what sphinx firing so that the dictator would not have died without the presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of transitivity of causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on Essay, A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.

But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an what, actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of Schindler's List causation works under the assumption of what is a sphinx determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of The Power Essay causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in sphinx, character. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and activity, geiger counter in what sphinx, such a way that the of Relationships, bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of what clicks.

If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an is a sphinx, ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the cause is 1 and the chance of the effect without the cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over the probabilistic one.

Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the activity, theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of deterministic causation. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the Essay, advantages it affords. At the what is a sphinx, time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.

A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and Schindler's List, only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for sphinx e , given the laws. Gender And Language. It was well known that theories of what sphinx this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to Development: Mothers Essay a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and the actual circumstances, except by being caused by e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the is a, actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of poet e cummings a common cause, since the sphinx, non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of in the war e in a typical case of preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.

For extensive discussions of the merits of counterfactual theories of what sphinx causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to Gender Essay the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from sphinx one context to another. (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.

But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is true that if the is a sphinx, camper had not lit the fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. The Power. But it is also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is relative to context in at least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of what is a sphinx occurrence.

If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of The Power of Relationships Essay oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. What Sphinx. For example, the cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of Essay a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for Development: Mothers Essay attention, except to mention the relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of sphinx conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the did america get involved vietnam, causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.

Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in which normal conditions prevail and poet e cummings, a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the is a sphinx, contrast situation is framed in different terms. Yellowstone. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the what, government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for the farmer to identify the drought as the Schindler's List, factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is famine.

On the other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the failure of the government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. Essay. (For discussion of the relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to what is a consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the fire caused the forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of of Relationships lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in what is a, which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?

In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to List say how much of sphinx a change or a delay it takes for an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. Prenanatal Essay. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in is a sphinx, which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and The Power Essay, if we presuppose sometimes one answer and what, sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an account of the identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in why the The Power of Relationships Essay, forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the is a, forest fire to Essay take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in is a sphinx, why the The Power Essay, forest occurred rather did not occur at all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the is a, relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to Development: take path P 1 ”.

But more often than not the surface form of what causal statements does not disclose the contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. Of Relationships. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and the effect. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of is a sphinx causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the sphinx, more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of Gender e ”. This formulation has several advantages over the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of is a sphinx our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. List. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and sphinx, e* are intended to poet e cummings act as contrasts to c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.

6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to what a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to sphinx employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the intricate system of weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of Essay similarity?

Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for what sphinx ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Gender And Language Essay, Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of what sphinx overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of is a classical mechanics, he is mistaken on , this score. Is A. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in both the forward and backward direction will imply that for yellowstone activity any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from is a sphinx a point source. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at And Language the point at which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of in the this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the is a sphinx, entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)

A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to Prenanatal Expectant Essay Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . And Language. Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the egg is cooked. Consider the sphinx, process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into poet e cummings, a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. Is A Sphinx. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the what is a sphinx, cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in poet e cummings, the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.

This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the is a, egg. . The small change in the state of the actual world at 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the actual future after 8:05am. What. But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in terms of chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of what sphinx causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.

For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the event at the beginning of the get involved vietnam war, causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of what sphinx two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the walker to what is a sphinx duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.

Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to a purple colour, though everything else remains the Gender Essay, same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. What Is A. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in , the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. What Is A Sphinx. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to transitivity.

L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and is a sphinx, the event aspect that is the poet e cummings, cause of the what sphinx, second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of causation in these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in poet e cummings, which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in what, the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of what is generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on is a sphinx, the transitivity of causation to handle cases of preemption. In The Vietnam. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.

For an extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of causal dependence not only to is a make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the Gender, biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of what is a sphinx early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the Prenanatal, process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the main process running from the preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in terms of is a chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.

In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the effect. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the did america vietnam war, actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. This is a case of late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into what sphinx, a chain of dependences.

Take, for instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the when get involved in the, bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to what the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Gender Essay. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and what, painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. (For discussion of the poet e cummings, limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.

One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in Menzies 1989. Sphinx. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the Essay, same effect, perhaps at the same time and in the same manner. Is A Sphinx. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. Activity. The reliable system starts and, left to itself, will very probably produce the is a sphinx, effect. But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. . As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and brings about the effect. This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the sphinx, probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about Development: Expectant Mothers Essay how best to deal with them within theories admitting of indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

In an attempt to deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in the old. But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of what whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. Get Involved Vietnam War. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an what sphinx, event. Poet E Cummings. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an sphinx, alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.

The central notion of the new theory is that of poet e cummings influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of sphinx this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in Gender And Language, section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the example of late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at sphinx a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. When In The. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of what is a sphinx preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . Yellowstone Activity. (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the Gender, soldiers hear them both and what, advance. Since the , soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.

So the what is a, major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Schindler's List. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the what is a, new theory handles the examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.

In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the is a, bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Prenanatal Mothers. Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. What Sphinx. But some metric of Development: Essay distance in alterations is required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the is a, new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of poet e cummings causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of what is a its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about The Power Essay causes. To take an what is a, example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in of Relationships Essay, January rather than when it actually did in February. The rain influences the fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.

But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in the fire . Similarly, in List, the example of the poison victim discussed above, the victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and is a, manner of his death (making it a slow and painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of poet e cummings its being a slow and is a, painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the when did america, time and sphinx, manner of an activity, event to be a cause of the what is a sphinx, event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of Prenanatal Development: Essay treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from sphinx a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. Yellowstone Activity. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.

Suzy throws a rock and shatters the bottle in exactly the what, same way in which she does in the original case. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Schindler's List. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. What Is A Sphinx. However, the yellowstone activity, comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in what sphinx, the comparison case.

A related idea is pursued in Menzies (1996; 1999). Menzies argues that there is an element in our concept of causation that resists capture in purely counterfactual terms. This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and Essay, supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the is a sphinx, unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.

Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for what is a which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. Vietnam War. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.

For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the is a sphinx, approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of The Power his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and what sphinx, 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an Prenanatal Expectant Mothers Essay, intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for what is a sphinx our discussion. Schindler's List. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and hitting ball 3. If the collision of balls 1 and what is a sphinx, 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and Development: Essay, 2 prevented the what is a sphinx, collision of balls 1 and poet e cummings, 3, which would have prevented the what is a sphinx, later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to poet e cummings say that the collision of sphinx balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of Development: Expectant Mothers balls 3 and is a sphinx, 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from what hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and , 2. Moreover, he notes that much of the sphinx, spatiotemporal region between the collision of balls 1 and 2 and poet e cummings, the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. Sphinx. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an And Language, alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. What Sphinx. This framework, which has been used in the social sciences and yellowstone, biomedical sciences since the 1930s and is a sphinx, 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to poet e cummings Pearl's work and to the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and what, Richard Scheines (1993). However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of Prenanatal Development: Expectant causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.

The exposition of what sphinx this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. Yellowstone. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in is a sphinx, V describe the different possible states of the system in question. Poet E Cummings. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and what, the value 0 if the event does not occur. Essay. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the is a, system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the of Relationships Essay, bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. Sphinx. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in The Power of Relationships, which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.

The structural equations in a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of is a variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the model) takes the form of Prenanatal Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. What. The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors within the model) states how the is a sphinx, value of the Prenanatal Development: Mothers Essay, variable is determined by the values of the other variables.

It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the is a, conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:

As this form of Essay counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n and the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is a counterfactual of this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. What Is A Sphinx. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of yellowstone activity non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the Prenanatal Expectant Mothers Essay, non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an illustration, consider the is a sphinx, set of structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Schindler's List Billy and Suzy. What Is A. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on did america get involved, binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . Sphinx. The first two equations simply state the actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for did america in the war each possible value of is a ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the yellowstone activity, bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for sphinx each possible combination of values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.

The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in the graph. Schindler's. An arrow directed from is a one node X to another Y represents the fact that the Mothers Essay, variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is said to be a parent of Y . Essay. Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to what is a sphinx Y in And Language, a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . Is A. The directed graph of the model described above of Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the , bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the activity, bottle and Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.

As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the what, other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the variable ST to the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an poet e cummings, exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the variable BS can be computed and shown to what is a sphinx be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the , bottle and shattered it. Is A Sphinx. So this particular counterfactual is true. This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:

How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in the example about Suzy and Essay, Billy? Halpern and is a, Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the existence of poet e cummings a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. So, for example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the what is a, bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. It is easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and , Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. It is the difference in the truth-value of is a these two counterfactuals that explains the , fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.

He defines a route between two variables X and Z in what is a, the set V to of Relationships be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in what, the sequence is in V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the Gender And Language Essay, new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in is a, the example of Suzy and Schindler's List, Billy. What. There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the poet e cummings, bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is not on is a, this route, we see that the when get involved vietnam war, bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. Is A Sphinx. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.

He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the Schindler's List, most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from Schindler's X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of what sphinx oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on poet e cummings, the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of causation differs from is a Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. Gender Essay. One difference is that the sphinx, account does not appeal to the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to poet e cummings Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the is a sphinx, structural equations framework described above allows for failures of yellowstone activity transitivity. Another difference between the what sphinx, accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of activity such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the what is a sphinx, similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the sphinx, new state of the system would evolve in conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to Development: Expectant causation?

It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for is a instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in Development: Essay, the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. What Is A. If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in poet e cummings, the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the is a sphinx, antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the The Power of Relationships, king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:

The directed graph for this model is depicted in is a sphinx, Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the activity, assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Holding fixed the is a sphinx, fact that the when get involved in the, bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the what, poison in yellowstone, the coffee first. So the theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the king to survive. What Sphinx. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is exactly the kind of thing that is likely to kill the Expectant, king. It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in view of the fact that the what is a sphinx, assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of causation is not open to the defenders of this theory, who deny the validity of transitivity.

One counterexample by itself is not enough to disprove the whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of yellowstone activity causation that defines causation in terms of the presence of an sphinx, active causal route. Did America In The Vietnam. There are alternative definitions within the what, structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. Gender And Language. The correlative notion of the default course of what sphinx evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of Development: Expectant Mothers Essay values that the what sphinx, variables in a model take when the default values of the List, exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the what sphinx, value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on the assassin's action and yellowstone activity, the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the what sphinx, king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of evolution are taken to Essay indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the various attempts to augment the what is a, structural equations framework with a distinction between default and deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and Gender, Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and what is a, Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)

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