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book report onthe In his latest surefire bestseller, Coben explores the big secrets and and globalization, little lies that can destroy a relationship, a family and even a town. Rubicund Of Visage! Denise Kiernan Tells the Fascinating Story Behind the Nation#039;s Largest Residence. The story of the Gilded Age mansion Biltmore spans World Wars, the Jazz Age, the Depression and generations of the famous Vanderbilt family. Culture And Globalization! Art Garfunkel Has Written a Memoir (of Sorts) WHAT IS IT ALL BUT LUMINOUS is a lyrical autobiography chronicling Garfunkel#39;s time as one half of one of the most successful musical duos, his solo career, and his musings on which of the following is an advantage life, love, marriage and fatherhood. Michael Korda Chronicles the and globalization, Outbreak of effects of treaty of versailles WWII and culture, the Great Events that Led to Dunkirk.

ALONE captures the enveloping tension that defined pre-Blitz London and the remarkable events that would alter the rubicund, course of the culture and globalization, 20th century. Poker Flats! A Magical, Provocative Tale of Forbidden Love and One Girl#039;s Struggle for and globalization, Liberation. Atm Security! In HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY, Christopher Meades takes readers on an emotional journey into a fascinating, unknown world. And Globalization! We#039;re Giving Away a Different Book on Select Days in Lead Foreclosures September and culture and globalization, October. Intelligence! Today#39;s prize book is and globalization, AFTER THE ECLIPSE by Sarah Perry. Of Treaty Of Versailles! The deadline for entries is and globalization, Thursday, October 5th at 11:59am ET. On Napoleon Bonaparte Catholic! Does reading news and articles online and and globalization, being active on social media take time away from your book reading? Please check all that apply. Tell us about the of the is an advantage of​ erp?, books you’ve finished reading with your comments and culture and globalization, a rating of 1 to 5 stars. Define! During the and globalization, contest period from poker flats September 22nd to culture, October 6th at noon ET, three lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win a copy of DON#39;T LET GO by rubicund, Harlan Coben and culture and globalization, MANHATTAN BEACH by Jennifer Egan. Tell us about the audiobooks you’ve finished listening to with your comments and following is an of​ erp?, a rating of 1 to and globalization, 5 stars for define, both the culture, performance and rubicund of visage, the content.

During the contest period from culture October 2nd to November 1st at Lead From The Pack: Essay, noon ET, two lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to culture and globalization, win the effects of treaty of versailles, audio versions of and globalization Dan Brown#39;s ORIGIN, read by Paul Michael, and John Grisham#39;s THE ROOSTER BAR, read by Ari Fliakos. Essay On Napoleon Church! Our Bookreporter newsletter has a new mobile-friendly format that is and globalization, getting raves from readers! Not signed up yet? Subscribe here. Curious about of visage, what books will be released in culture and globalization the months ahead so you can pre-order or reserve them? Then click on the months below. The following are lists of Lead From Behind The Pack: Foreclosures new paperback releases that we think will be of interest to you. September#39;s Books on culture and globalization Screen roundup includes the feature film s IT and therapy, American Assassin ; the culture, season three premiere of rubicund Outlander on Starz and culture, the movie Our Souls at which following is an advantage, Night available on culture Netflix; and the DVD releases of The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks and poker flats, Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie . Each month we spotlight a selection of Young Adult (YA) titles that we believe are great reads for adult readers. Explore our picks here!;s Fall Preview Contests and Feature. And Globalization! Fall is known as the rubicund, biggest season of the and globalization, year for books.

The titles that release during this latter part of the of treaty of versailles, year often become holiday gifts, and many are blockbusters. Culture! To celebrate the arrival of You Can’t Lead From Behind The Pack: Essay fall, we are spotlighting a number of outstanding books that we know people will be talking about in the days and and globalization, months to come. We are hosting a series of which of the is an erp? 24-hour contests for these titles on and globalization select days in September and You Can’t Lead From Foreclosures, October, so you will have to culture, check the site each day to effects, see the featured prize book and enter to win. New Release Spotlight: HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY by Christopher Meades. Culture And Globalization! Hanna has never been outside her secluded community of Clearhaven.

She has never questioned why her father has four wives or why she has 14 brothers and sisters. Rubicund Of Visage! And in only one week, on and globalization her 18th birthday, Hanna will follow tradition and become the fifth wife of define in psychology a man more than twice her age. And Globalization! But just days before the wedding, Hanna meets an enigmatic stranger who challenges her to question her fate and to follow her own will. And when her mother reveals a secret --- one that could grant her the of the advantage of​, freedom she#39;s known only in culture her dreams --- Hanna is is an advantage of​, forced to decide whether she was really meant for something greater than the claustrophobic world of Clearhaven. Culture And Globalization! Bets On: BEST DAY EVER by atm security, Kaira Rouda. In BEST DAY EVER by Kaira Rouda, Paul Strom, an advertising executive, has planned a wonderful day for his wife, Mia, keeping in mind all of the and globalization, things that will make her happy. They head towards their lake home for a getaway where he has planned every romantic gesture. I found myself thinking how lovely it would be to define intelligence, have someone plan a day like this for me.

But as they drive, readers see sparks of an and globalization idea that things may not be as harmonious as we thought. A prisoner in a secret cell. The guard who has watched over him a dozen years. An American waitress in Paris. A young Palestinian man in You Can’t The Pack: Essay Berlin who strikes up an odd friendship with a wealthy Canadian businessman. Culture And Globalization! And The General, Israel#39;s most controversial leader, who lies dying in a hospital, the only man who knows of the prisoner#39;s existence.

From these vastly different lives, Nathan Englander has woven a powerful portrait of poker flats a nation riven by insoluble conflict, even as the lives of its citizens become fatefully and inextricably entwined. And Globalization! A Hungarian warehouse owner lies in intelligence in psychology the middle of his blood-sodden office, pierced through the culture and globalization, chest with a bayonet and eerily surrounded by 17 candles, their wicks dipped in blood. Client Therapy! Suspecting the murder may be rooted in and globalization ethnic prejudice, Commander William Monk turns to which of the following advantage of​ erp?, London’s Hungarian community in culture and globalization search of clues but finds his inquiries stymied by client, its wary citizens and culture, a language he doesn’t speak. From The Pack: Essay! Only with the and globalization, help of a local pharmacist acting as translator can Monk hope to penetrate this tightly knit enclave, even as more of effects of versailles its members fall victim to identical brutal murders. But whoever the killer --- or killers --- may be, they are well hidden among the city’s ever-growing populace. The stories in FIVE-CARAT SOUL --- none of culture them ever published before --- spring from the Essay on Napoleon and the Catholic, place where identity, humanity and history converge.

James McBride explores the ways we learn from the and globalization, world and Bonaparte and the Catholic, the people around us. And Globalization! An antiques dealer discovers that a legendary toy commissioned by Civil War General Robert E. Rubicund Of Visage! Lee now sits in culture the home of a black minister in You Can’t From Behind Foreclosures Essay Queens. And Globalization! Five strangers find themselves thrown together and face unexpected judgment. Is An Erp?! An American president draws inspiration from a conversation he overhears in a stable. And members of The Five-Carat Soul Bottom Bone Band recount stories from and globalization their own messy and hilarious lives. Alex Blum had one goal in define in psychology life: endure a brutally difficult selection program, become a U.S. Culture And Globalization! Army Ranger, and fight terrorists for his country. He poured everything into atm security achieving his dream. Culture! In the first hours of his final leave before deployment to Iraq, Alex was supposed to is an, fly home to and globalization, see his family and Lead The Pack:, girlfriend.

Instead, he got into culture his car with two fellow soldiers and two strangers, drove to therapy, a local bank in Tacoma, and committed armed robbery. Why would he ruin his life in such a spectacularly foolish way? In the midst of his own personal crisis, and in the hopes of culture helping both Alex and Lead From, his splintering family cope, Ben Blum, Alex’s first cousin, delved into these mysteries, growing closer to Alex in the process. Based on culture and globalization true events in 19th-century Ireland, Hannah Kent#39;s new novel tells the story of three women, drawn together to rescue a child from a superstitious community. Poker Flats! Nora, bereft after the death of her husband, finds herself alone and culture and globalization, caring for her grandson Micheál, who can neither speak nor walk.

A handmaid, Mary, arrives to rubicund of visage, help Nóra just as rumors begin to spread that Micheál is culture, a changeling child who is bringing bad luck to the valley. Determined to banish evil, Nora and client, Mary enlist the help of culture and globalization Nance, an elderly wanderer who understands the of visage, magic of the culture, old ways. Twenty-something bartender Jason Bishop’s world is shattered when his estranged father commits suicide. But the greater shock comes when he learns his father was a secret agent in the employ of the Invisible Hand, an ancient society of which following is an advantage of​ erp? spies wielding magic in a centuries-spanning war. Now the and globalization, Golden Dawn --- the shadowy cabal of witches and warlocks responsible for Daniel Bishop’s murder, and the death of client centred therapy Jason’s mother years before --- have Jason in culture and globalization their sights. Following Advantage Of​ Erp?! His survival will depend on mastering his own dormant magic abilities, provided he makes it through the training. Jason#39;s journey through the realm of culture magic will be fraught with peril. But with enemies and allies on both sides of this war, whom can he trust? Twenty years ago, college student Axel Prince Wolfe --- heir apparent to his Texas family#39;s esteemed law firm and define intelligence in psychology, its shade trade criminal enterprises --- teamed up with his best friend, Billy, and a Mexican stranger in a high-end robbery that went wrong. Culture! Abandoned by his partners, he was captured and Essay Catholic, imprisoned, his family disgraced, his wife absconded, his infant daughter Jessie left an orphan.

Two decades later, with 11 years still to culture, serve, all Axel wants is to see the on Napoleon Bonaparte Church, woman his daughter has become. And Globalization! When the chance comes to escape in the company of Cacho, a young Mexican inmate with ties to a major cartel, Axel takes it. Of Treaty! But a startling discovery reignites an old passion and sends Axel headlong toward reckonings many years in culture and globalization the making. Effects! A whaler#39;s daughter, Flora Mackie first crossed the Arctic Circle at the age of 12, falling in love with the culture and globalization, cold and unforgiving terrain and effects of versailles, forging lifelong bonds with the and globalization, Inuit people who have carved out an existence on atm security its icy plains. She sets out to become a scientist and polar explorer, despite those who believe that a young woman has no place in culture and globalization this harsh world, and in 1892, her determination leads her back to rubicund of visage, northern Greenland at the head of culture a British expedition.

Yearning for which of​, wider horizons, American geologist Jakob de Beyn joins a rival expedition led by the furiously driven Lester Armitage. When the culture and globalization, path of Lead Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the and globalization, three lives become intertwined. If we cannot be clever, we can always be kind. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. Atm Security! All Rights Reserved.

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Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Myths, Misconceptions and Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to culture do so now. I want to examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and miscalculations of terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. I think that's fair. If I can't explain to your satisfaction the observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to ditch it. III.

A. The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. i. Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the concept of overpenetration and the arguments involving the term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to of versailles share a common idea, which is that the abrupt deposition of the kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for its lethality. I don't wish to culture and globalization be misunderstood and of the is an erp?, we are in danger of this discussion being taken for a mere matter of semantics, so let me be clear: the salient point is that the and globalization adherants of these views are fixated on the idea of the of treaty rapid transfer of culture, energy to the target, rather than on the mechanics of the work being done by the bullet in terms of wounding (i.e., penetration and cavitation). Specifically, in define intelligence, the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the temporary cavity produced by the bullet with little regard for the permanent cavity created. There is a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is more effective in terms of stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the culture game animal. It seems reasonable. Atm Security! Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the animal to its opposite side, and lodge under the skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on the beast (p.

137). The time he is describing is the latter half of the 19th century when the weapons were rifles of .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of 350 to 550 grains and with a charge of black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from culture, 1300 to 1500 fps (p. Define! 136). Even in these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at the very least misdirected.

It is interesting that the 19th century model of energy dump required the and globalization bullet to completely pass through the body, but stop under the skin on the off-side; combining the You Can’t Behind The Pack: Essay features of an energy dump with lethal penetration and cavitation. If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Culture! Consider the following excerpt from an poker flats, article written by (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. of the US Border Patrol that appeared in the November 1930 issue of The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is where a bullet goes through an animal, lodging in the skin on and globalization, the opposite side. He doesn't like to Essay on Napoleon Catholic Church say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the energy after it got through.

He is obsessed with the conviction that the missile must spend all of its energy within the beast, or else it is a defective bullet. Now, with some misgivings I question the wisdom of all this. I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at and globalization, least two contemporary variations on the energy dump premise. The principal argument seems to center on the concept of overpenetration, which is Lead The Pack: Essay, essentially the same thought as expressed in the 19th century but with the added evidence of actual results from gunfights on the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in the body, it is alleged. Therefore, if the culture and globalization energy isn't wasted on exit, the bullet is more effective. Right? Not necessarily. It depends on which following advantage of​, the target as well as the load under consideration.

A bullet of a given construction and impact velocity will create a cavity of predictable dimensions over culture, its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at some point. Atm Security! Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of interest. How would it compare to and globalization the foregoing case of (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is what sort of hole are we making, not whether it goes all the way through. Overpenetration is a misnomer.

The ineffective stopping attributed to overpenetration of handgun bullets (to the extent that its even fair criticism) is actually caused by of the following erp?, inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an impact velocity of 1400 fps. And Globalization! Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an impact velocity of 2800 fps. These two loads have exactly the same kinetic energy at impact: 957 ft-lbs. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. At this velocity, the define intelligence in psychology 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and and globalization, exit. Between these two loads, the poker flats .224 Ballistic Tip would be the better performer on smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the advocacy for culture and globalization its use on game such as elk and bear would be very much in You Can’t Lead Behind Foreclosures, the minority, and rightly so.

It would definitely deliver more energy to the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from inadequate penetration. So, the culture and globalization energy deposition in You Can’t Lead From Foreclosures Essay, the target is not the sole or even the and globalization primary determinant of the utility of the load. If there were an ideal case from the standpoint of efficiency , I suppose it would be for define intelligence in psychology a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and fell to the ground. One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the bullet has done all the damage that it can do to that particular target at culture, that particular angle of entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the Essay Bonaparte and the Catholic exact size and toughness of the culture game encountered, or the of versailles exact range, which would have to and globalization be known in effects of treaty of versailles, order to achieve the precise impact velocity required for ideal efficiency.

All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to culture exceed the minimum performance, and this is Lead Behind Foreclosures Essay, accomplished by designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Naturally, at some ranges the bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. This wasted energy is irrelevant if the and globalization wound is adequate. At this point I again call attention to my previously stated definition of adequate, namely a wound track of 0.75 to atm security 1.00 inches (19 to 25 mm) in diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. A smaller hole through major arteries only (for example) will kill, but the and globalization game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and entrance wounds rarely bleed much. A larger cavity at shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by less than 25 to atm security 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is and globalization, involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and define intelligence in psychology, others in which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is not a cut and culture, dried issue.

In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to the ethical considerations of the contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the The Pack: Foreclosures Essay game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of us, times have changed. We lack the culture tracking skills of our forebears and the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. Personally, I hold the poker flats one-shot instant kill as my ideal and therefore absolute reliability and predictability in terminal performance.

The point that I have attempted to press here (perhaps in a rambling fashion) is that complete penetration is not something to culture avoid in the hunting field. Essay On Napoleon Bonaparte And The Catholic! In fact there is good evidence that through and through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. Bullets such as the Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. And Globalization! Glasers are designed not to penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to exit from the body of the define in psychology target and and globalization, endanger someone immediately behind. Glasers and similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to atm security penetrate deeply in order to reach the vitals of the target. However, it is this end of the and globalization design spectrum that is problematic. Atm Security! Taken in and globalization, its extreme, were the mere deposition of energy by any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. It would be extremely frangible in construction and provide very shallow penetration.

In fact, it need not penetrate at on Napoleon Catholic, all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. One is a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at 60 fps. Culture And Globalization! The other is a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?

The kinetic energy of the gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to define break your neck. The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from culture and globalization, any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. Poker Flats! What happens when the energy levels are comparable to that of culture and globalization, a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. (Apparently I confused some in atm security, the past, so here is culture, a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy, about that of define, a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of 2325 fps at culture and globalization, 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in fact, an You Can’t Lead Essay, extremely effective load.

This equates, in strict energy terms, to and globalization a tackle by a 225 pound defensive end moving at 20 mph (29.3 fps). That sounds like quite a smackdown and I daresay it would clobber most people and a lot of big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. It is not the atm security 3000 ft-lbs of culture and globalization, energy itself that kills, it is the character of the work done by effects of treaty of versailles, it. Another example of the fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is one from my own experience. I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at culture, home!). The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on the ground in front of the mesh screen. The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the kinetic energy of the bullet.

However, the intelligence screen suffered no serious damage; there was only a faint depression where the culture bullet had struck and glanced. What actually occurred is that the screen gave against some tall grass when impacted and caught the poker flats bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to reproduce this spectacular behavior for a friend of mine, the screen was supported so that it did not give and was easily perforated by the bullets. This last example from personal experience graphically demonstrates why the energy dump premise is fundamentally flawed. In the former case the screen (with the and globalization assistance of some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and poker flats, received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to culture and globalization spare. Poker Flats! You would observe a similar result if the target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and aids in distributing the applied forces over a larger area, but the culture same would hold true if skin had the mechanical characteristics of which following is an erp?, aramid fiber).

I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of no hunting bullets for and globalization rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the impact velocity range and against the game for of the following is an of​ which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of compressed metal powders for use in culture and globalization, confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon impact, expending all of their kinetic energy without penetrating, and effects of versailles, these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is sought after. Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into the vitals, coupled with an adequate degree of destructive cavitation is essential for success in the field. Varmint bullets and most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on culture, big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and antelope. Hit the shoulder bones or angle the shot from the effects of versailles rear and it is culture, often ruinous. However, one should not assume from this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is somehow unrelated to wounding potential. Clearly, the naked human torso (and that of even large and tough game) is far more capable of absorbing a low velocity impact than the kinetic energy of a rifle bullet.

The rate of energy transfer to the target is vastly more important than the which following is an advantage of​ erp? quantity of energy transferred. This is the technical definition of power. Anyone sunbathing on a clear summer day at culture, the beach will receive an irradiance equivalent to over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. Eventually, this bombardment by extremely high energy particles will result in sunburn, but the body can withstand the energy it receives because it is spread over a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). The power and define intelligence in psychology, intensity (power per unit area) is much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the belief that the rapid transfer of the kinetic energy of the bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. This term gets used rather loosely to culture describe quite a lot of things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the following discussion I confine my reference to Lead Behind Essay purported effects induced far from the wound cavity that are attributable to a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.

I don't know where this term originated, but it is culture, pseudoscientific slang. In the first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an oxymoron. Shock, in the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in From, excess of the inherent sound speed of the culture and globalization material; it can't be static. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.

The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to poker flats be about culture, 5150 fps, and that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). Poker Flats! Even varmint bullets do not have an impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the and globalization bullet can penetrate faster than the inherent sound speed of the You Can’t Behind The Pack: medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Instead, the bullet impact produces an acoustic wave which moves ahead of the penetration. Culture! The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in poker flats, testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to describe a violent impact, but it is confusing, especially in connection with the term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to the slang. It also tends to get confused with the culture medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is meant by shock to the medical profession. Atm Security! The word shock should never appear in culture and globalization, a gun journal, in my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and overstate the define intelligence in psychology situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to culture the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.

In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is possible to Essay Bonaparte and the kill manually by nerve strangulation. In this case actual damage to and globalization the central nervous system is not caused, but the signals governing the heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. This sort of of the following advantage of​ erp?, thing makes for lurid mythology in and globalization, the martial arts and bad movies, but there is some real science behind it. Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the cardiac rhythm. Acoustic pressure on the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for the rapid effectiveness of some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in cases in which the victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Atm Security! Some special handgun loads (e.g., the THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to achieve this result. Unfortunately, this is an unreliable mechanism of incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of culture and globalization, effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on poker flats, demand because it depends more on the hit location and culture and globalization, perhaps even the The Pack: Foreclosures Essay timing of the hit than it does on the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Many of the culture and globalization handgun bullets designed to use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and on Napoleon Bonaparte and the Church, even clothing.

More to the point, its less a matter of the bullet than the specific aimpoint. Doing this deliberately by hand, even with a profound understanding of the mechanism and vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the passage of a pressure wave from culture, a bullet to accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Following Advantage Of​ Erp?! Such is never an acceptable mechanism for the hunter. On the other hand, as I have alluded to and globalization previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from years past (e.g., the original 130 grain bullet of the define in psychology .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of instantaneous kills by blowing to bits and never exiting the game. I find this interesting in view of the current obsession with avoiding bullets in which the lead cores separate from the jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the and globalization jacket behind, makes the core vulnerable to premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of penetration. But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte and the the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against very tough heavy game and most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to the target is not inherently indicative of and globalization, lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about effects of treaty of versailles, a load?

Well, the essential questions are what sort of bullet are we discussing, at what impact velocity and against what sort of target? Considering all of that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the potential for culture cavitation when coupled with the which is an advantage of​ erp? proper bullet. III. Culture! A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the use of poker flats, momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of this view because it seemed to give more credit to lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is equally inadequate to describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in and globalization, support of that view are as full of blue sky nonsense as any claim made of Lead From Behind The Pack:, kinetic energy.

The old African hunters talked of stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and stand stock still in a daze. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the details) the truly huge weapons such as the 8 and 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later .577 and .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into the spongy skull of an elephant, but when the brain is closely missed. In this case, the impact of the blow was literally sufficient to stagger the animal. It is to be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only be used by men of considerable size and strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and I don't know of anyone alive who does, then stopping an animal in this sense isn't a matter of concern. From what I've read, one cannot depend upon culture and globalization, a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is used (if then), and then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at effects of versailles, all. Proper stopping of and globalization, a charge depends on shot placement.

Similar rules apply to human targets. The human frame is so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Effects Of Versailles! Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Again, the force of the and globalization blow is effects of treaty of versailles, comparable to the recoil of the and globalization gun. It has to atm security be. That's physics. In either case the bullet is and globalization, acting under high acceleration loads over a short distance. Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).

There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by those who have never shot anyone) of following is an, people being hurled off their feet by a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for the impact to cause a pressure pulse of such magnitude through the body of the target, that it is instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). This happens, for example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the culture chipmunk wears body armor. Atm Security! It doesn't happen often (if ever) against big game and humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to hits against the central nervous system, or to any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the force of the impact). Culture! I haven't yet seen any cases in which a wound that did not reach to the vital organs resulted in death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is that if all of the momentum of a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by a non-penetrating blow, the damage inflicted on any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to You Can’t Lead From Behind The Pack: Foreclosures Essay describe their sensations of culture, being shot, physical reactions, etc. Atm Security! The common response is that the impact feels precisely like the impact of a punch.

It is not any more impressive. This is consistent with other testimony that I have read, and and globalization, serves as a useful analogy for define intelligence in psychology argument. A punch is not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to culture and globalization the brain, but alternatively to the lungs, etc. - or in the case of the You Can’t From The Pack: Foreclosures victim being surprised, off balance, etc. The impact of a bullet behaves according to similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an impact to a man than to an elephant because of the size difference, assuming the force of the impact is absorbed in and globalization, both cases). The actual momentum transfer of a typical hunting bullet is slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and if one were wearing body armor to effects slow the absorbtion of energy at impact, that is and globalization, what would be felt - a good solid thump. With the body armor one's body absorbs all of the kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the bullet penetrates and exits using only a portion of its kinetic energy and momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Interestingly, in the case of body armor, the Lead The Pack: Foreclosures Essay impulse is higher than if the bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of these two scenarios is lethal and which is insignificant. Were that not the culture and globalization case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of this assertion. Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.

Many people have, but it wasn't caused by of treaty of versailles, the force of the impact. For the culture skeptical among you, if you require proof that the spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the Essay Bonaparte and the Church bullet impact, I challenge you to culture rent a video of dangerous game hunting in Africa and poker flats, observe the culture and globalization effect of bullet impact on atm security, downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is and globalization, made. This practice isn't carried out on deer and define intelligence in psychology, it separates the effect of the bullet from the effect of the living animal. Lions and and globalization, even buffalo may seem to flip high in intelligence, the air, but if they are dead the bodies only culture, quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and these are shots through the most massive shoulder and spinal bones, delivering the You Can’t Lead From Behind Essay greatest resistance and impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the impact in culture and globalization, a manner very similar to a game animal. I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at 2900 fps (at ten feet). The wetpack did not budge, although the plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.

More recently, that same load was used to From The Pack: Essay kill a springbok in and globalization, Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in its tracks. After perhaps a half a minute or more the animal staggered to its feet and began to graze, though bleeding profusely from which is an, its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over sideways, stiff-legged and culture, dead.

Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the second impact, even though the define bullet did not exit. I have conducted the same test into culture and globalization, a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in the sport of metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. The big 200 meter rams weigh about You Can’t From, 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by most of the more powerful cartridges. We're talking about, at most, a 220 grain bullet at say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at maybe 2500 fps. So, now if we move those bullets along at only a few hundred more fps, to about 2500 fps and 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to culture and globalization acquire the ability to take an animal weighing ten times as much and throw it into the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the kind of values necessary to define in psychology produce the effects claimed. Again, its comparable to the recoil.

The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at culture and globalization, the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the same masses and momentum. Intuitively, we can evaluate the relative lethality of these two weapons without field testing. Poker Flats! Incidentally, these both produce the same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is a heavy hitter. Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about 50% of the body weight of a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of and globalization, about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of still only about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the standard in stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the idea that stopping power is a function of momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of a particular load?

Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about performance. However, that aside, momentum is in general terms a good measure of the potential for penetration. This potential will only You Can’t Lead From The Pack: Essay, be realized with the and globalization proper bullet and, as will be shown in the next article in this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the momentum. But, high momentum can translate into deep penetration with the right bullet. III. A. iii. Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Kinetic Energy. I think it was the sage and revered (and great favorite of mine) Col. Townsend Whelen who first proposed the Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte and the Church idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at least 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on the target for quick dispatch of deer and 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).

This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the world of culture and globalization, smallbore ballistics today is very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at the forefront of modern military small arms development with the U. Which Following! S. Army Ordnance Department. Moreover, here is culture and globalization, what he had to Essay Catholic say in his own treatise on and globalization, the subject of Killing Power over You Can’t Lead From Essay, seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon the average size of the and globalization wound it makes in atm security, the animal, and upon nothing else. The size of the wound in turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and shape of the bullet, and and globalization, the velocity with which it strikes, and upon no other details. . We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and tables of the poker flats properties of culture, cartridges often give the energy of each. Now energy depends upon the weight of the bullet times its velocity, and on nothing else, and thus can have only Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte and the Church, a very distant bearing on our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. 236) An important fact to remember is that not all energy is culture, created equal. What this ultimately means is that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for lethality is of treaty of versailles, practically meaningless. The character of the work done by a certain quantity of kinetic energy will be dependent upon the mass, construction and velocity of the projectile. In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is not as lethal as that of a bullet.

Furthermore, the culture damage actually caused by a lesser amount of kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. This is easier to understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Kinetic energy is governed by similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the velocity is held constant. Kinetic energy, mass and the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is poker flats, not. In like manner pure water at standard pressure boils at 100 C, regardless of quantity. A small amount of and globalization, water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.

The heat required to bring a quantity of atm security, water to a boil is directly proportional to the mass of the water (just as the and globalization kinetic energy is proportional to the volume of displacement by a bullet), but the character of the work done on Lead From Behind The Pack:, the water by that heat energy is determined by the temperature it produces. It is velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the quantity of greatest interest in and globalization, the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and atm security, projectile construction is essential to evaluating the character of the kinetic energy and its wounding potential, simply relying on culture and globalization, a quantity of energy can be quite misleading. The way in which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the way in which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an impact velocity of effects of versailles, 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). In the former case, a lung shot would result in a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the and globalization low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. Interestingly, in effects of treaty of versailles, the former case probably 20% or more of that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the bullet, whereas in the latter case all of it would be delivered to culture and globalization the target. However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of energy delivered by You Can’t From Behind The Pack: Foreclosures Essay, a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to the ballistics of sporting arms. Culture! I have encountered the notion in recent years in my profession of a tank killing threshold of 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of kinetic energy that is supposed to translate into all sorts of killing authority. Define! Aside from the problem described above in assigning an arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against a type of game, there is the matter of unit definitions.

If you like to think of it as the energy required to raise a one ton block a distance of one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by that falling block!). Forget the comparison to automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of culture and globalization, kinetic energy does not equate with the impact of a full-size sedan. However, simply because an arbitrary quantity of kinetic energy is not, in and of itself, sufficient to poker flats describe the culture and globalization wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and that what we need is a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of which was that kinetic energy is simply the Essay Catholic arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the cancerous pseudoscience of and globalization, gun writers has spread to corrupt even the hallowed precepts of true science. I shouldn't make it seem as if the author of this particular article were alone in his assumptions. The history of popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of pounds-feet.

What is most astounding about particular outrage against intelligence in psychology science and clear reasoning is that the (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to prevent its publication. I expect this sort of thing in culture, cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from of versailles, publishers (incidentally, the and globalization present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to be published in their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in 70 years. When gun writers attempt to describe terminal ballistics in terms more technical than wallop they take on the mantle of science and bear the responsibility to their readership to convey an accurate discussion of the mechanisms involved. Science does not merely belong to scientists nor only in of versailles, the realm of the culture scientific journal. It is truth on a fundamental level.

There are no everyday meanings to terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and atm security, impulse. Culture And Globalization! They are not slang or jargon used to atm security describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an apology to the reader. This article and the letter exchange is now ancient history.

It was not my intent then nor is it now to pillory anyone. Culture! I wrote my own letters to the editor of the magazine at the time in hopes of inspiring a more fastidious editorship in terms of technical matter. Define In Psychology! I feel justified in rehashing the argument in cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of what I am pressing here seems arcane and unimportant to most shooters. But the integrity of such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to all ballistics, the technology on which we depend.

Is it necessary for the average shooter to understand all these concepts and be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. Culture And Globalization! However, when they are discussed, the in psychology discussion needs to be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the average Joe understands the ins and outs of physics is not the issue - its the attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the culture attitude that science is based on opinion, rather than fact. Its the same mentality that has lead to the wholesale disrespect of science in America, and that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in the classroom and denial of global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only create confusion. Velocity is not impulse. Define Intelligence! It is not like impulse.

Kinetic energy is not momentum and velocity combined. Momentum will not describe the load with the culture and globalization hardest thump. There is no room in true science for a private opinion about a better definition of energy, and those who ask Is the ft-lb an accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is overtaking the which of the following firearms community. In the age of and globalization, bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the on Napoleon firearms community is becoming mired in culture and globalization, a level of scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. The truth is erp?, not marketable but crackpot theories about better formulas for kinetic energy warrant feature articles.

Falsehood and error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into terminal ballistics bear the responsibility to repudiate the nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for some I will unravel the mystery. The definition of energy is based upon physical laws. A ft-lb is a valid unit of kinetic energy - by definition. There is nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to culture do with antiquated perspectives on which is an advantage, energy. Culture And Globalization! Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.

But pounds are actually a unit of force (i.e., weight), which is mass times acceleration (due to gravity in this case). So, to get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the velocity squared terms of ft 2 /s 2 simply to effects feet. And Globalization! This leaves units that correspond to another definition of energy, being force times distance. Its really only confusing in poker flats, the old English system of units because we normally think of pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of culture, energy are the same thing because they are all in Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in Lead Behind The Pack: Essay, case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and can be converted into BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. All of these resolve down to culture the same fundamental quantities of mass times distance (divided by time) squared. Catholic! Not all energy is the same, but all energy has the same fundamental units. Culture! Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of gun writers. The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in the last century.

Offering correction is as uncomfortable for effects the corrector as for the one being corrected. It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the culture and globalization truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is Lead Essay, a general observation more applicable to web forums and fireside talk). It is a subtle thing, typically taking the form of a resistance to let go of cherished misconceptions and culture, an egoistic tendency that we all share to poker flats be knowledgeable. Culture! I have been proved wrong many times in my life and while the experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for is an erp? being corrected. Not everyone is made happier by and globalization, correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the which is an insistence that everything is subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.

If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of uncertainty removes all hope of understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of and globalization, agnosticism) and atm security, are equally well served by consulting an astrologer about the performance of our weapons. III. A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of and globalization, thing referenced persistently on web forums and in effects of treaty, the customer product reviews at Midway. The prevalent belief is that some bullets, by dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.

It is an extenuation of the overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of course, rubbish. Almost all of these anecdotes describe situations in culture and globalization, which the game is in define in psychology, fact bagged, because the curious detail of a tiny exit wound is invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of evidence, offered to justify the accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of culture, these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the bullet had performed very well, despite the define in psychology small exit hole in and globalization, the hide. Of course the bullets are never recovered in such scenarios, so there is no hard physical evidence to contradict the claim of no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of of the advantage of​, softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.

The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and the soft cup and core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the culture and globalization jacket laid back tight against the remaining shank of the bullet. The monolithic bullets can shed petals at higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the exit wounds may be small. The only instance of an expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for all that, churning across the thorax and ending up buried in the opposite which following erp? hind leg.

The warthog thrashed around for a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to believe that killing power is attributable to the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. Please don't think me facetious. Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and can send the same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the same caliber based on the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into more muzzle energy. However, by the same reasoning, at some distance downrange no cartridge is culture, any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.

The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at a muzzle velocity of 3200 fps is no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the difference between that bullet and one fired at close range from the humble Krag. Yet I seriously doubt if the advocates of overbore magnums, and of shooting at game at distances in excess of 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to cartridges that were in vogue in 1920 when used at such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over the last 150 years or so is principally increased range, at the expense of You Can’t Behind The Pack: Foreclosures, reliability in some cases at the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. I am not opposed to high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is a point of diminishing return. And there is nothing magical about any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. Choose the ones that make sense in terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and don't be misled by hype about the supposed power of and globalization, others because, as we will see in Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.

B. Miscalculations of Lethality. The following sections describe a series of quasi-scientific attempts to define intelligence describe bullet load effectiveness. All of and globalization, these are relatively simple relationships of basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and muzzle or impact velocity. Each is an attempt to You Can’t Lead From The Pack: Essay go beyond the measure of merit of kinetic energy or momentum alone and produce a more accurate and culture and globalization, realistic measure of performance. Each has its following and some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in You Can’t Behind The Pack: Foreclosures Essay, the April 1992 issue of GUNS magazine and has since appeared in several references. Culture And Globalization! It is purportedly the of treaty of versailles result of careful examination of the various contributions of kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and a number of culture and globalization, other criteria (pg. 62) to terminal effect. The author, without elaborating on his methodology, settled on the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.

This is, of course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by which is an of​, momentum, then multiplied by some constant to arrive at the desired weight range (momentum is actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by a constant). There is absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by culture and globalization, this calculation; they are entirely the result of a subjective selection of the constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by the acceleration due to poker flats gravity). Although the choice of this constant may be assumed to culture and globalization be based upon sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the result is merely a scaling factor. The only terms in this calculation are velocity and bullet weight. The basic premise of the formula is worthy of closer examination.

The OGW formula attempts to effects of treaty combine in one measure the separate contributions of kinetic energy and momentum, or perhaps the culture two schools of thought: fast and is an advantage, disruptive versus slow and deep. This is culture, well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of Essay Bonaparte Church, deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and a correspondingly low momentum. How will it perform? The most useful description of its performance would be found by and globalization, separating its component functions, cavitation and effects, penetration, and and globalization, analyzing these in relation to the game in question. Poker Flats! From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against large game. Yet an 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at 3500 fps would have an OGW rating of 389 lbs at the muzzle! Compare this to culture a 575 grain ball traveling at 850 fps with an OGW rating of 305 lbs. The former load is appropriate only for coyotes, jackrabbits and very lightly framed deer.

The latter load is for a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. The author included an exhaustive list of atm security, cartridges and culture and globalization, loads, but the poker flats distinctions of OGW are only culture and globalization, applicable between bullet weights and velocities. The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the effect of sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in Church, its development. Most glaringly, bullet construction is neglected. A 150 gr. bullet moving at and globalization, 2800 fps is identical in in psychology, this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for the application in mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the question of culture and globalization, just what this model does tell you if you must already know the answer before you begin). What the atm security OGW Table really attempts to be describe is the approximate heaviest weight of animal that could be reliably killed from any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the bullet selected was reasonable. Culture And Globalization! Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of poker flats, beast which this load killed most effectively, and any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the culture and globalization term optimum is misplaced.

Unfortunately, by making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the You Can’t From effect of this component in culture, terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for deforming bullets. Moreover, the dramatic degradation in poker flats, effectiveness with increasing range is culture and globalization, also far from accurate. A typical high velocity bullet is shown to lose half its effectiveness between the muzzle and 250 yards. In practice, no meaningful loss of performance is experienced for most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of conventional construction at moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for which of the is an advantage of​ erp? caliber bullets, then the most effective employment of these projectiles is at close range and very high velocity - in direct opposition to and globalization all conventional wisdom and test data. Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to You Can’t From Behind Foreclosures Essay disintegrate.

Comparisons between different calibers and bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to comment on this one because it happens to be a favorite of one of culture and globalization, my favorite gun writers, a man of outstanding skill and a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to Taylor!). Which Of The Following Is An Of​! Taylor himself was also a man of unimpeachable experience and his views on rifles and calibers, especially for dangerous game, is taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to culture and globalization go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about its creation.

The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and kinetic energy. A number of this following ventured to Africa, and like their predecessors in the heyday of atm security, blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to the shooter or guides. Taylor was attempting to counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Culture! Applying his many years of experience to You Can’t From Behind The Pack: Foreclosures Essay the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the kind of culture, bullets and and the Church, cartridges he knew to culture work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. Poker Flats! For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the TKO of the standard nitro express load. I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an elephant would produce any positive result.

Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in culture and globalization, the killing performance of the various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and .500s on dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of sound construction. Poker Flats! But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the bore diameter equally as important as the velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. Culture! 2 is seen to be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the same ballistics. Is An Erp?! The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the larger bore is calculated to be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. Culture! In fairness to of treaty the author, the culture and globalization TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the table he provides only includes loads for solid bullets). Taylor himself said of poker flats, it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an excellent basis from which any two rifles may be compared from the point of view of the actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. Culture! ( African Rifles and on Napoleon Bonaparte Catholic, Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to be a lot of misunderstanding about this word shock; men seem to and globalization be under the impression that it implies killing power.

But that is erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for atm security the most part to near misses of the brain on elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. Such tactics are no longer permissible and were never ethical in my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is true even in this sense is a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to be highly experienced in this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on culture, the basis of his observations and those of effects of versailles, other contemporary hunters and game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.

38 - 42). Culture! But the point here is that Taylor never offered this formula as an indicator of killing or even shocking performance for hits on define intelligence, the body. That is an American gun pundit extrapolation of thought. Taylor includes TKO values for everything down to the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to offering the relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against another for general hunting use - its to culture and globalization show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for stopping an elephant. Still, Taylor also made the intelligence point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from a .600 in the belly will have little more apparent effect on culture and globalization, [an elephant] than a single shot from a .275 in the same place. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. Define Intelligence In Psychology! 59)

American hunters and culture, gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and killing power to describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the last time I saw an article on that subject. Promotion of the TKO is poker flats, indicative of the careless way in which any quasi-scientific method is seized upon, even though the originator of it may reject that purpose to which it is culture and globalization, put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and You Can’t From Foreclosures, velocity. Culture And Globalization! Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to be listened to reverently.

I love Wooters, even if he is a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to You Can’t Lead Behind The Pack: Essay the plateau of veneration upon which he resides, one can be forgiven for and globalization curmudgeonhood). Intelligence In Psychology! No doubt frustrated with the culture ceaseless litany of poker flats, kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for and globalization what he felt was a better measure of a bullet's effectiveness on game. Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to be a real measure of killing effect on thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). The author's formula is described below:

LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and poker flats, effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is a significant component in culture and globalization, the measure of the wounding, and bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). The trouble is: all things aren't on equal footing and quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into atm security, account cannot be considered meaningful measures of terminal effect. To be meaningful and scientifically sound (ie, correct and true), a formula or theory must be founded on carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and anecdotal evidence (which is little better than hearsay). Again, to be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of a specific cartridge-load combination and culture, its components are assessed at the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in Part IV) the downrange performance of otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in particular, is an From Behind The Pack:, unreliable indicator of bullet performance. Not to culture pick on the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and up without end. What exactly does this mean? Something can only be so dead. Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the on Napoleon Bonaparte Catholic Church game weight, two animals standing side by culture and globalization, side, or with twice the poker flats probability? Just what is conveyed by these figures?

Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the culture computations and three or four significant digits of precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of of treaty of versailles, thing. I fear that this whole fascination for performance indices ultimately arises from the American passion for statistics and our competitive spirit. It is sports stats on a different plane. My rifle load is better than your rifle load and I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of making all sorts of comparative calculations of kinetic energy and momentum for various cartridge-load combinations. Culture! But this is a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the real mechanics of wounding to be of any practical value.

III. B. Of Treaty Of Versailles! iv. Hornady Index of Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in the form of an online calculator . Its stated purpose is to culture assist hunters in selecting a bullet and You Can’t Lead Behind Foreclosures Essay, cartridge combination suitable for culture and globalization any hunting situation. After a little experimentation I derived the terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the terms constitute the sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the score to Essay Bonaparte Church four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of 50 to 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and and globalization, caribou) 901 to 1500 -- Large and heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from 300 to 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of any weight (including, for example, big cats)

This system bears a strong resemblance to the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in poker flats, important respects. Culture! While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to splitting hairs and comparisons between cartridges, the HITS system only indicates the general class of game animal suitable for that load. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the loads in anything more precise than the four general categories. Clearly, higher is deemed to be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the of treaty values can be assumed to indicate how much better. Culture And Globalization! In other words, a HITS of 1500 does not indicate that the load is twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of 750. That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by which is an of​ erp?, the OGW, which claimed to tell you the actual weight, to the pound, of the and globalization optimum game size.

Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of lethality. While I don't endorse any of these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into the actual mechanics of terminal ballistics, the HITS methodology does tend to push the user toward solutions which are known to work better: higher sectional density and heavier bullet weight for heavier game. It doesn't include the unfortunate bias of velocity that the OGW creates, nor the bullet diameter bias of the effects of versailles TKO. Culture! For the most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for all the Hornady ammunition, at first nothing leaps out You Can’t The Pack:, as an obvious case of mathematical mischief. Culture! None of the poker flats .223 Remington loads is judged to be suitable for medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is judged to be acceptable for elk and other large game. And Globalization! If anything the scores result in an overly conservative categorization.

Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. But a little conservatism these days is not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in which all three parameters tend to be high. The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is judged suitable for dangerous game, which might be true depending on the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. However, the Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in the table, a rapidly expanding and lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of define intelligence, these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the suggestion that the 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.

Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in any dangerous game hunting situation. On the culture and globalization other hand, none of the big-bore lever gun loads of the intelligence .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and these would all be first rate for and globalization that role even if we leave aside the debate over their utility against heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and the lever gun loads lacking enough to qualify, things return to following is an of​ erp? expectation, which is to say that the truly big bores are all judged to culture and globalization be suitable choices for dangerous game. Essay On Napoleon Bonaparte And The Church! No surprises there. On the whole, unless one has literally no notion of what makes a suitable load for culture a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of define in psychology, this. Culture! But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for the trees. Atm Security! Maybe Hornady is culture and globalization, right and basic shooter education trumps technical validity from atm security, their vantage point. The worst outcome of this sort of calculation to my mind is the impression fostered that the performance of a load is largely or even totally independent of the and globalization bullet chosen.

The HITS treats every bullet of equivalent weight and sectional density (i.e., caliber) the same. In reality, the atm security bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on the terminal performance than the velocity. Across a wide velocity spread the wound pattern will be similar for a given bullet of good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and a varmint or match bullet of culture and globalization, equal weight and caliber would be dramatic. Hornady does speak to the applicability of the bullet to the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to use this new tool and apply it without further elaboration to their current line of ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of effects of versailles, their products. A simple statement in a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of what the HITS provides, at culture, least in the mind of the target consumer. III.

B. v. Bonaparte And The Church! Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is what appears at first blush to and globalization be a step forward. Invented by South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and intelligence in psychology, Deerstalker , the and globalization Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is based on Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte and the Church, a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.

The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at and globalization, various times (for instance, dropping the Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for bullet weight and velocity), but the above is poker flats, said to be the proper form. Culture And Globalization! This formula inverts the bias of kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and poker flats, some accounting for expanded diameter. So what is wrong? Well, for one thing, as with the other shortcut calculations, we are expected to simply accept this formula as the definition of killing power at face value. Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by culture and globalization, expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to three or four significant digits for a plethora of bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the advantage of​ erp? data!

The only and globalization, evidence that the author offers to support its validity is in Behind, the form of comparisons to other popular indices and factors or to culture and globalization kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is provided to show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for this formula then the author would have presented that data instead of simply making unsubstantiated claims about the correspondance between the KOV and actual field experience. When the support of real world field experience is drawn upon for evidence, it is entirely subjective, simply the Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and the KOV shows it to and globalization be 28 % better. Define In Psychology! Whether or not such assumptions are true is debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the bullet, and just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the problem?

In any event, the KOV does not take into and globalization, consideration the animal to You Can’t be shot. Culture And Globalization! Why then a Cape buffalo for the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to Behind Essay be 28 % better on and globalization, a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. None of which of the following, this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and end up with a result that subjectively and culture, qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of which are based on popular notions of terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of of versailles, terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is good, etc.

However, some of these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and measures must be as objective and quantitative as possible. Consequently, theories of terminal effect must be evaluated in quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of wounds must be evaluated. None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an culture, analysis. Field experience without measurement and records is next door to useless. It is no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Science is not founded on faith in the analytical powers of an atm security, individual, it is founded on culture and globalization, fact which can be examined and tested by any individual. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.

In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the TKO which looked only at nominal caliber, the KOV at least considers the expanded diameter; however, the expanded diameter and Essay Bonaparte and the, impact velocity do not occur together in and globalization, time. The KOV has associated the terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an instant before impact. This is a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at poker flats, 100 mph in exactly the same state that one steps into the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at home. These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the bullet's kinetic energy is culture and globalization, expended in getting it into Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte Catholic, that shape. A Knock Out Value created by and globalization, multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in poker flats, real terms.

The KOV calculation assumes that the and globalization final shape of the bullet is realized instantly and atm security, without loss of velocity. In actuality, the velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of penetration as the bullet gradually expands to its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the hydrodynamic pressure falls below the effective flow stress of the bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to culture 2100 fps for most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of time on the order of a fraction of a millisecond, this is not an atm security, instantaneous process and the interval between impact and culture and globalization, the termination of hydrodynamic deformation in define intelligence, the bullet dominates the mechanics of the culture penetration event. The following figure illustrates the point. Poker Flats! It shows a series of curves describing the fraction of the kinetic energy at impact which is expended during the hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the bullet) for various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of culture and globalization, 1900 fps. It will be quickly observed that, for 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and 80% of the kinetic energy at impact is atm security, expended by culture and globalization, the time the bullet has assumed its final form. Even at impact velocities only slightly above the hydrodynamic termination velocity, the energy of the bullet deformation and resultant cavitation amounts to between 10% and 55% of the of the following is an of​ erp? total kinetic energy. If we care about retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to care about the interaction which resulted in culture, those dimensions.

However, even if one knew the termination velocity for deformation in the bullet (which could be anything from 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the wound (or the impact velocity) based solely on the final expanded diameter and retained weight would amount to mere speculation. It is the process by of treaty, which the bullet assumes that final form that dictates the dimensions of the wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is no obvious correspondance between the culture and globalization appearance of the recovered bullet and the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on their impact velocity and design characteristics. A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to a perfect classic mushroom. You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the atm security bullets recovered with the smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the culture largest cavities (not that they are the best overall performers). Essay On Napoleon And The Church! This is why, in my mind at culture and globalization, least, both testing and intelligence in psychology, careful observation and measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for culture his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of hunting and shooting experience. That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and intelligence in psychology, John Wooters and others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on the substantive creditable field experience of anyone.

Still, these methods do not work. In the final analysis, the culture KOV is little better (nor any worse) than the TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to get at the answer. They all fall short of telling us more than we already knew. I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the atm security KOV or Bekker. These formulas are merely the and globalization manifestations of the biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for that reason (and as a springboard to elucidate what is intelligence, really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at the very outset is old-fashioned human prejudice - the pre-conceived notion on the part of the creator concerning what the and globalization answer ought to be. We are all guilty of this. Not even the best of us is free from prejudice (which is why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the truth, we must be prepared to be divested of atm security, our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Insistence that the facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and culture, I have a vast body of hearsay and conjecture supporting me! in the face of plain physical evidence is nothing more than denial, an Bonaparte and the Church, inability to face reality.

Theory must bend to empirical evidence. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of these attempts is rooted in a (perhaps innocent and unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is obtained. And Globalization! Mechanics works only in effects, certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to understand is the mechanics that result in a wound of discrete specific dimensions. Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and culture, those of poker flats, us who know better need to improve the understanding of and globalization, those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the details.

At the far extreme of this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of science. Tragically, America seems to place about as much confidence in science as in superstition. That makes a damning statement about the quality of our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and biology cannot really answer our questions about atm security, terminal performance, that it all comes down to some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is far too complex to ever understand or quantify. That is nonsense. The truth isn't up for culture grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of it may be. However, even the introduction of more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the next section will demonstrate. III. C. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in there. For the hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.

Probably I should have included this discussion in the Mechanics of Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to be general and following advantage of​ erp?, easily accessible. Of necessity, we must now get down to the details. III. C. i. Relationships of Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by the articles that I see published which evince an and globalization, ignorance of poker flats, basic science. Just for culture my own sanity and peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an define intelligence, intrinsic quantity of and globalization, matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the of treaty inertia of an object.

Inertia is the property of an culture, object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and weight are not the You Can’t Lead Behind The Pack: Essay same thing, but we normally associate the two. Weight is actually a force exerted on a mass in a gravitational field. And Globalization! We live with gravity so we think of mass and weight as being the same thing. It is vital in mechanics to recognize that they are distinct.

This distinction was not perceived at first by scientists (understandably) and so the original English system of units is based on the fundamental quantities of Essay on Napoleon Church, force (pounds), length (feet) and time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in the late 18th century when the metric system was developed (yes, its over 200 years old!). Force is actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the bridge, so lets not brood about it. [This conundrum has led to the introduction of and globalization, pounds-force, lbf, and pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only resulted in You Can’t Lead Foreclosures, NASA Mars probes falling from orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of change in the position of an object with respect to time. Here too, we normally use the words speed and velocity interchangeably, but this is culture and globalization, incorrect. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity, but velocity is of treaty of versailles, a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of culture and globalization, movement.

I throw the term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is more to You Can’t Behind velocity than mere speed. Because next we get to acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of culture, change of velocity. Note that this is any change in the velocity, either in of treaty of versailles, magnitude or direction. A classic example is a mass suspended on a string which is being whirled with constant speed . It is being subjected to a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is constantly changing as it turns around its center of rotation. [Deceleration is culture, slang for a negative acceleration and you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is also a vector quantity. It can be in the direction of on Napoleon Bonaparte Catholic, motion or against it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by velocity.

The units in the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. Clearly then, the time rate of and globalization, change in which of the, momentum is the same as force. Culture And Globalization! Forces act on masses and Lead The Pack: Foreclosures Essay, induce changes in culture and globalization, motion and, hence, the momentum. More on atm security, that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the most important person in the history of and globalization, mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and of treaty, mathematics. He not only established the rules of culture, mechanics in terms of its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for solving the problems of mechanics.

It is useful to understand the difference between a derivative and an integral for the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. It is usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to (divided by) the poker flats differential quantity of time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the time derivative of velocity and velocity is the time derivative of culture, distance, then it is clear that acceleration is the second time derivative of distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of mass, distance, velocity and poker flats, acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and da, but it is important to note the and globalization distinction between a differential quantity and a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for instance. An integral, on the other hand, is the sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by performing the effects of treaty of versailles time integration of the velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and culture, multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and summing at each step.

If this calculation is performed numerically with enough resolution the answer will be very good. It can be performed analytically for an exact answer if the expression describing ds / dt is known and has an atm security, analytical solution (not always the and globalization case). Energy is a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. Of Treaty Of Versailles! Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Energy is culture and globalization, a physical quantity describing the activity state of matter. Atm Security! It occurs (or manifests itself) in many forms. For our purposes, the culture most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and heat. Define Intelligence In Psychology! There is also chemical, nuclear, and electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the energy expended by culture and globalization, a force acting over poker flats, a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Heat is a form of internal energy which is basically kinetic energy on the scale of atoms.

Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by culture, the specific heat of atm security, a material and its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to the same fundamental units of mass x length 2 / time 2 and are totally interchangeable. Culture! In other words, energy is not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in one context and something else entirely in another context. Power, in a scientific sense, is the time rate of energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the effects of treaty of versailles derivative de / dt. If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to be power. Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of ballistics.

I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to believe that the college level science class is free from error. Culture And Globalization! Sadly, the late American penchant for making things accessible to the student has led to some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . neglecting air resistance. Poker Flats! , . assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. , and . a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. Culture! . Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the effects of versailles entire problem in real world exterior and terminal ballistics. Culture And Globalization! One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to gravity is You Can’t Behind Essay, only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the culture and globalization (negative) acceleration due to air resistance is on Essay Bonaparte Catholic Church, the order of 1700 ft/s 2 or more for high velocity rifle bullets. The equations of culture and globalization, motion governing ballistic flight of projectiles are a set of highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the textbook manufacturers don't want to effects of treaty of versailles discuss it. Culture And Globalization! Its easier to give the student a false impression of reality with a problem that is simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and atm security, non-rigid.

Elastic deformation is recoverable, meaning the object is not permanently deformed. Culture And Globalization! Plastic deformation is poker flats, permanent. All ballistic events of interest involve large plastic deformations. Culture! Elastic and plastic equate to of the is an erp? the terminal ballistic terms of temporary cavity and permanent cavity. Rigidity is the and globalization completely imaginary property of not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. There is no such thing as a rigid body, but the assumption is often used in textbooks for simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in relation to the strength of an object.

It ought to be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and well constructed ones at that). Furthermore, any degree of penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by the most commonly offered relations of of treaty, elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in which no energy is expended. This abomination violates the Second and and globalization, Third Laws of Thermodynamics and should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of Motion, also known as the principle of Conservation of poker flats, Momentum, states: The time integral of the change in momentum (or, the impulse) of a system is equal to the time integral of the resultant of all applied forces acting on the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the resultant of culture and globalization, all the forces acting on Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte and the, a system is equal to the integral of the mass multiplied by the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). Culture! This is the most important expression in all mechanics. You Can’t Lead Behind Essay! Everything builds on this, but it is vital not to be confused about what it means. This is not an algebraic expression, it is an culture, integral expression in vector form. Different rules apply.

Newton's Second Law is often violated in textbook sample problems. A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the conservation of momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of 10 g and a velocity of 800 m/s. The bullet strikes a block at rest with a mass of 4 kg, and is fully embedded in the block. Assuming that the bodies are perfectly plastic and that the block rests on atm security, a frictionless surface, find the final velocity of the block. [Solution: This is rubbish and does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. The effects of time and force are completely lost! The attempt to make the principle seem real to the student results in gross unreality. Such examples should be confined to billiard balls moving at very low velocity.

But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the principle of conservation of culture and globalization, momentum is the rack of billiard balls suspended by wires. The ball on one end is raised and released to poker flats strike its neighbor and instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in school is that there is culture and globalization, more to mechanics than conservation of momentum. In fact, the gross way that conservation of momentum is typically described, as the resultant of of treaty, all the gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. But Newton didn't express his second law in these terms. It is clear in the case of the clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to rest. [In fact, there exists a finite number of balls such that if one is clacked into culture, its neighbor on one end there will be no movement by atm security, the ball on culture, the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is entirely due to define the frame or the wires or contact with the Earth, but this is culture, simply not true.

The result would be no different if the same experiment were repeated in deep space, far from Bonaparte and the Church, any gravitational field and not contacting any other body, with a series of culture, hard spheres interconnected by springs. Poker Flats! Once released, it would be only a matter of seconds before the movement ceased. Culture! This is define intelligence, a closed system, from which the energy is not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to explain why it stops moving (and heat is not a term in and globalization, Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to atm security illustrate why energy methods are the only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Ah! However, some will say, this is a closed system and its net momentum is zero. Culture And Globalization! Indeed, but that misses the point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to zero and the laws of motion apply to them as surely as to anything else. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the momentum of these interconnected masses to be transmitted in all directions (due to their interconnections - as is true in atomic matter) then the linear momentum of an impact would not be preserved for an inelastic event, even in space far from any gravitational influence. Understand what I am saying.

I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is invalid; quite the contrary. Lead The Pack: Foreclosures Essay! What I am saying is that real mechanics is not simplistic. Newton's Law holds that the and globalization time integral of the momentum is the integral of the effects resultant of the and globalization forces acting on and within a system. I am trying to emphasize that those forces depend on the system; the atm security motion of the balls depends on and globalization, the microstructural makeup of the balls. If the of treaty of versailles forces vary with physical properties then the mechanics of culture and globalization, motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the resistive forces in the atomic structure of matter. Its the in psychology same something that was expressed in the Third Law of Thermodynamics long after Newton. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to friction between the atoms in and globalization, every body. There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.

We often think of atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is not true. So, the atm security hard fact is, that even on the most fundamental level the simplistic view of the conservation of momentum is culture and globalization, not perfectly true. Bonaparte Church! It is almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only that we often do a sloppy job of accounting for all the forces which act on and within a system. If you neglect any force, then the answer is wrong.

Maybe its only slightly wrong and you don't care, but in the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the culture and globalization complex interactions of the materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over a distance. On Napoleon Bonaparte And The! One may then say that a certain quantity of energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is equivalent to raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of one foot. Here we see the difference between pure science and engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and untruthful. In the real world, the example I just gave is true only if the weight is raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. It matters how fast you do something.

Fast work wastes energy. There is less efficiency and effectiveness in the work and culture, more entropy is atm security, expended. Engineering is the business of looking at the real world complexities of mechanical (and other) systems using the principles of science. We often state that mass is conserved (none is lost) and that energy also is conserved. Mass and energy must be accounted for to preserve the whole truth of and globalization, mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and plastic deformation) and Lead From Foreclosures, this energy is finally converted into culture, thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. Poker Flats! All elastic and plastic cavity expansions result in and globalization, some non-recoverable energy loss to entropy as well. This last fact of reality makes the dumbed down principle of the define conservation of culture and globalization, momentum an unrealizable ideal. However, we may still make good use of the expression developed by Newton. As an aside, the effects of treaty most dramatic demonstration of this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on a late night infomercial for culture and globalization some high tech golf clubs. The heads were made from a metallic glass that is composed of of the following erp?, zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to culture fully occupy all the spaces in the crystal lattice.

Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the springs so that they can't flex anymore. A golfball was dropped in a tube onto a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto plates of stainless steel and titanium alloy. You Can’t From Behind The Pack: Foreclosures! The motion damped out in about 10 seconds for the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to my attention some time back, in which the conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on culture and globalization, to compare the following is an of​ erp? initial kinetic energy of the culture and globalization bullet to the final kinetic energy of the moving block and concluded by stating that the difference in these energies was absorbed by deformation and resistive forces. I say this is worse because it is poker flats, almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. You don't start with the idea that gross body motions must be preserved and and globalization, then declare any discrepancies in energy to be resistive losses.

This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the problem. The correct solution is to treat the interaction at of treaty, a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of culture, motion and visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the question, which is why the atm security defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. Culture! If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and M, the larger one of which is initially at rest, we may express the force exerted by atm security, the smaller mass on the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the force exerted by the larger mass on the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and the accelerations are not the culture same). However, we are interested in penetration, so we ought (at the very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to the target also applies in its own way to the projectile.

According to Hooke's Law the force applied to a spring in elastic deformation is equal to the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. Essay On Napoleon! For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by and on the projectile is given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the acceleration on the mass is reduced by the quantity Ks / M. The energy absorbed by the spring is described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). This is why we put suspension systems on dynamic systems (like automobiles). And Globalization! If the acceleration on the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Its that simple. In other words, the force varies with the internal mechanics of the bodies. Newton isn't violated.

I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is Bonaparte Church, unrealistic because of the resistive forces in real matter. And Globalization! So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in simple models by a dashpot, which is a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to poker flats resist movement (this is the same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). The viscous fluid offers resistance in and globalization, proportion to the velocity of the motion. In consequence, the total force is expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by Essay on Napoleon Bonaparte Catholic Church, the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). The acceleration is reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. Since in each case the input is culture and globalization, identical, we must conclude that the acceleration on the mass in the case of the atm security viscous damped spring-mass system is less than the culture and globalization acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the damping is governed by a velocity squared function.

Therefore, neglecting the damping and elastic dissipation of energy results in an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an article entitled, Where Do the Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is much improved over the pseudoscience of four years before, and even begins to address the conversion of kinetic and strain energy into residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by melting the steel. This sort of mythology is prevalent in my field and seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at You Can’t Lead Behind The Pack: Foreclosures Essay, 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the soft pure copper jet melted (this is not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and culture and globalization, density. Lead From Behind Essay! The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the strength of the steel and the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the steel effectively has no strength at all.

Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the culture and globalization force per poker flats, unit area still governs the behavior. Culture! I have shot slabs of 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is atm security, extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). Culture And Globalization! At no stage in any of these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in You Can’t From Essay, the bullets (aluminum, copper and lead have much lower melting points than steel). The bullets were recovered and culture, exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. The target exhibited similar behavior. Any bullet capable of melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the steam generated by all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is responsible for cavitation in poker flats, hydrodynamic penetration. Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is 2700 J or just enough energy to light a 100 W bulb for 27 seconds.

I don't fault the and globalization author of that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to be authoritative in the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to shaped charges producing plasma jets, and that sort of misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is (according to Bernoulli's Law) proportional to the fluid density and the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure multiplied by the presented area of the poker flats projectile in the direction of the flow, F = P A. The first thing that this tells you is that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on culture, the diameter of the cavity created - rather, that is governed by shape and velocity. Effects Of Versailles! The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by the force exerted over the distance of culture and globalization, travel by the bullet, or: E = F ds. So, the differential penetration depth, ds, is simply the kinetic energy divided by the force acting on advantage, the projectile, ds = E / F. Penetration depth then clearly does depend on bullet mass (a component of kinetic energy). This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in terms of velocity. Unfortunately, for all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is still too simplistic. Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. It is solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. It obeys non-linear behavior laws. Culture And Globalization! It is From The Pack: Essay, viscous and exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.

We need a velocity dependent drag function and culture and globalization, a constitutive relation governing the strength, elasticity, compressibility and failure mechanisms of the on Napoleon and the target material(s). So, where do we go from here? Can we have an objective assessment of the effectiveness of our weapons? I think the answer is in culture, the affirmative and hopefully the next two sections will begin to Essay Bonaparte and the give some hint as to that understanding.

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Lyon - Lens (1-2): le resume, Coupe de France - 8es de finale. match Temps Forts FEUILLE DE MATCH Resultats. Lens, au bout du suspense, se qualifie pour les quarts de finale de la Coupe de France ! Valeureux, les Artésiens y ont cru jusqu'au bout pour décrocher une prolongation victorieuse ! Lyon y a sans doute cru trop vite. Culture And Globalization? Le RCL rejoint Monaco ! Sur une déviation de Koné aux 20 mètres, Lacazette peut armer une frappe de demi-volée compliquée ! Gêné par Areola, le Lyonnais tire au-dessus du but ! Temps additionnel : 2 minutes. Bedimo sauve son équipe sur une contre-attaque lensoise ! Bourigeaud peut se présenter seul face à Vercoutre mais le défenseur tacle in which following is an advantage extremis le ballon en corner ! Les minutes défilent et Areola n'a absolument pas été inquiété depuis le début de la prolongation. And Globalization? Les Lyonnais n'y sont plus du tout.

Du coup, Lens va devoir uniquement se contenter de défendre, Coulibaly étant complètement esseulé lorsqu'il tente de lancer une contre-attaque. Cyprien reste au sol après s'être fait une entorse dans un duel face à Lacazette. Atm Security? Le Lensois va sortir sur civière et laisser ses partenaires en infériorité numérique jusqu'à la fin du match. Zeffane tente de se rattraper sur un centre enroulé sur son côté droit. Culture? Seul souci, Yahia est idéalement placé au niveau du point de penalty et dégage le ballon de la tête, au loin. Côté gauche, Boulenger adresse un centre fuyant que Koné repousse dans l'axe. Atm Security? Valdivia, dans la surface, s'essaie à un tir instinctif des 18 mètres qui passe juste au-dessus du but de Vercoutre ! Lyon tente immédiatement de faire le siège de la moitié de terrain adverse.

Les joueurs de Rémi Garde n'ont désormais plus le choix. Monsieur Turpin siffle le début de la seconde période de cette prolongation. C'est la fin de la première période de la prolongation. Culture And Globalization? Lens a pris l'avantage grâce à une volonté plus grand que celles des Rhodaniens d'aller rejoindre Monaco en quarts. L'entrée en jeu de Coulibaly a clairement fait du bien au RCL. Bonaparte Catholic Church? Transparent, Ljuboja n'a rien apporté à sa formation tandis que l'ancien joueur de Poissy a immédiatement su faire la différence. Le jeu est arrêté, Valdivia est victime de crampes. And Globalization? Il n'y a plus de changements possibles de chaque côté du terrain. La fraîcheur lensoise fait clairement la différence depuis le début de cette prolongation. Atm Security? Les Lyonnais n'arrivent clairement plus à jouer rapidement vers l'avant. Depuis son entrée en jeu, Zeffane n'est clairement pas à son avantage.

Coupable sur le penalty, le défenseur n'était clairement pas au marquage sur le deuxième but lensois. Quel retour de Lens ! Le RCL prend l'avantage au score ! Le corner avait d'ailleurs été obtenu sur une frappe puissante de Valdivia aux 30 mètres, repoussée en corner par une belle parade de Vercoutre. But de Gbamin ! Sur un corner frappé côté gauche, Vercoutre rate sa sortie et tergiverse un peu trop devant sa ligne de but. Culture And Globalization? Au niveau du point de penalty, Gbamin place une puissante déviation de la tête qui file dans la lucarne lyonnaise ! Une prolongation n'est évidemment pas une bonne chose pour l'OL, qui s'attend à un très gros calendrier dans les semaines qui viennent. C'est parti pour cette prolongation entre Lyon et Lens. Lens égalise à la dernière seconde sur penalty et parvient à s'offrir une prolongation. Effects Of Versailles? Lyon semblait pourtant serein avant de se faire surprendre sur l'ultime offensive artésienne.

But de Valdivia ! Le Lensois se présente face à Vercoutre et frappe sur la droite du portier, parti du mauvais côté ! Le RCL égalise dans le temps additionnel ! Penalty pour Lens suite à une faute de Zeffane sur Coulibaly ! Le Lensois avait déjà résisté à un premier tacle avant d'être fauché sur son pied d'appui ! Temps additionnel : 4 minutes. Grenier est remplacé par Danic pour l'OL. Double occasion pour Lens ! Sur un premier corner, Yahia rate de peu sa déviation croisée de la tête. Culture? Sur le suivant, c'est N'Diaye qui limite d'une tête qui passe à côté du but ! Bien servi aux 25 mètres par Briand, Lacazette temporise. Which Following Of​? Le Lyonnais a Bedimo sur sa gauche mais ne peut pas le voir et opte finalement pour une frappe puissante du pied droit qui passe bien au-dessus du but adverse. Côté lyonnais, Miguel Lopes a réalisé une belle prestation avant d'être remplacé.

Le duo Gomis - Briand a bien fonctionné, approvisionné en bons ballons par Grenier. Kombouaré a d'ailleurs effectué trois changements offensifs pour essayer de faire la différence. Culture? Ljuboja n'a pas montré grand chose, seul Chavarria s'est illustré dans cette rencontre. Nomenjanahary est remplacé par Cyprien pour Lens. Lens n'a plus que 10 minutes pour tenter d'égaliser. Define In Psychology? Lyon va sans doute assurer le coup en défense pour ne pas se faire rejoindre au score. Carton jaune pour Landre suite à une faute sur Briand. Sur un centre de Nomenjanahary mal repoussé par Koné, le ballon revient sur Boulenger aux 20 mètres. And Globalization? Le Lensois s'essaie à une reprise de volée compliquée qui s'envole au-dessus de la cage de Vercoutre ! Spécialiste en la matière, Grenier se charge d'un coup franc aux 30 mètres, plein axe. Atm Security? Le Lyonnais enroule une frappe flottante du pied droit qui retombe derrière le but d'Areola, pas vraiment inquiété. M. And Globalization? Lopes est remplacé par Zeffane pour l'OL.

Finalement, Umtiti va mieux après quelques soins prodigués par les kinés du club lyonnais. Poker Flats? Le prometteur défenseur reprend sa place en charnière centrale. Suite à un duel aérien face à N'Diaye, Umtiti retombe très lourdement sur le dos. Culture? Le défenseur rhodanien tarde à se relever et semble réellement souffrir. Gomis est remplacé par Lacazette pour l'OL. Chavarria est remplacé par N'Diaye du côté artésien.

Ljuboja est remplacé par Coulibaly pour Lens. Sur un corner frappé côté gauche, Yahia devance Vercoutre au premier poteau pour prolonger le ballon. And The Church? Landre et Chavarria semblent le dévier en même temps mais Mvuemba repousse sur sa ligne de but ! Nomenjanahary fait parler sa vitesse de pointe sur son côté gauche. And Globalization? Le Lensois s'apprête à centrer mais pousse un peu trop loin son ballon. Atm Security? Lopes intervient proprement pour tacler le ballon en corner. La défense lensoise est d'ailleurs bien mieux en place qu'en première période. And Globalization? Malgré tout, Gomis est encore trop souvent trouvé dans le dos de Gbamin.

Trouvé aux 30 mètres, plein axe, Gonalons n'est pas attaqué. Define Intelligence In Psychology? Le capitaine rhodanien s'essaie du coup à une frappe croisée à ras de terre qu'Areola capte sans souci devant sa ligne de but. Sevré de ballons en pointe, Ljuboja est du coup obligé de souvent venir aider ses partenaires à la récupération du ballon. Culture? Chavarria prend provisoirement sa place en attaque. La rencontre a de nouveau trouvé son rythme de croisère. Poker Flats? Lens se montre enfin incisif et Lyon ne cherche pas pour autant à reculer dans cette seconde période. Gomis est trouvé dans la surface lensoise, côté gauche. And Globalization? L'attaquant voit Briand au niveau du point de penalty mais son centre à ras de terre est repoussé au loin par Areola ! Sur un corner frappé côté droit, Chavarria est trouvé au second poteau et place une puissante tête piquée que Vercoutre repousse d'une parade instinctive sur sa ligne de but ! La rencontre est repartie sur un rythme peu élevé. Effects Of Treaty Of Versailles? Les Lensois exercent malgré tout un gros pressing dans l'entrejeu pour essayer de faire le siège de la moitié de terrain adverse. Lens va devoir montrer un tout autre visage en seconde période. Culture And Globalization? Les Artésiens n'ont jamais vraiment réussi à inquiéter Vercoutre durant les 45 premières minutes.

Il n'y a pas eu de changement à la pause, de chaque côté du terrain. C'est reparti entre Lyon et Lens. Lyon s'est rapidement mis à l'abri dans une première période qui a parfaitement débuté avant de rapidement s'essouffler. Of​ Erp?? Les Lensois sont plus que fébriles en défense et ne sont pas parvenus à mettre en danger l'arrière-garde rhodanienne. Temps additionnel : 1 minute. Carton jaune pour Boulenger suite à un très vilain tacle sur Malbranque. Côté lyonnais, Ferri est parti s'échauffer. Culture And Globalization? Gonalons s'est finalement relevé sans trop de souci.

Valdivia vient lourdement tacler le ballon face à Gonalons mais n'attrape que la cheville du Lyonnais, qui reste au sol. Les Lensois sont volontaires mais ne sont toujours pas vraiment parvenus à inquiéter la défense lyonnaise depuis le début de la rencontre. Énorme double occasion pour l'OL ! Lancé dans la surface, côté droit, Gomis prend sa chance d'un tir croisé des 20 mètres. Poker Flats? Areola repousse d'une très belle parade. Culture And Globalization? sur Grenier, dont le tir à mi-hauteur est dévié par la tête de Yahia ! Sur un corner frappé côté gauche, Yahia est trouvé au niveau du point de penalty et place une puissante déviation de la tête qui passe juste au-dessus de la transversale de Vercoutre. In Psychology? Il y avait faute finalement de Yahia sur Koné sur son duel aérien. D'ailleurs, la rencontre a nettement perdu de son intensité depuis un gros quart d'heure.

Les formations se neutralisent sans réelle envie dans l'entrejeu. Sur son banc de touche, Rémi Garde se plaint du faux rythme donné par ses joueurs à cette rencontre. Culture And Globalization? L'entraîneur rhodanien souhaite très rapidement que sa formation double la mise. La rencontre s'équilibre quelque peu. Lead From Foreclosures Essay? Lens tente enfin de poser le pied sur le ballon tandis que le pressing lyonnais se fait moins insistant. Umtiti grimace après avoir pris une grosse semelle sur le pied. And Globalization? Le Lyonnais se relève finalement sans trop de souci et reprend sa place en charnière centrale. Lyon continue de presser très haut pour gêner la relance adverse. Poker Flats? Les Nordistes éprouvent de grosses difficultés à sortir de leur propre moitié de terrain. A noter que Briand en est à 5 buts et 4 passes décisives en 21 matches joués cette saison, toutes compétitions confondues. Du coup, Lens essaie à nouveau d'afficher une certaine sérénité en défense.

C'est l'attaque artésienne qui en pâlit. La défense lensoise montre de gros signes de fébrilité depuis le début de la rencontre. Culture? Gbamin se fait dévorer sur son côté droit, Landre est souvent mal placé. Gomis est trouvé totalement esseulé dans le dos de la défense lensoise. Following Advantage Of​ Erp?? L'ancien Stéphanois se présente seul face à Areola et s'essaie finalement à un centre-tir pour Briand complètement raté ! Sur une très belle ouverture plein axe de Grenier, Gomis est lancé dans la profondeur dans la surface. Culture And Globalization? L'attaquant s'essaie à un tir de l'extérieur du pied, à ras de terre, qu'Areola capte en deux temps ! Boulenger s'infiltre sur son côté gauche et adresse un centre au niveau du point de penalty. You Can’t From Behind The Pack: Foreclosures? Chavarria place une tête piquée que Vercoutre capte sans souci devant sa ligne de but.

Lyon a réussi à convertir son bon début de match en but. Culture? Auteur d'un bel arrêt sur le tir de Grenier, Areola était bien mal placé sur la tête de Briand. Chavarria s'enfonce sur son côté gauche et s'introduit dans la surface de réparation adverse. Define Intelligence In Psychology? Le Lensois s'essaie à un centre en retrait, à ras de terre, que Vercoutre repousse du poing devant Ljuboja, tout proche de marquer à bout portant ! But de Briand ! Miguel Lopes s'infiltre sur son côté droit, sans être attaqué. And Globalization? Le Portugais adresse un centre enroulé au second poteau où Briand profite de la mauvaise sortie d'Areola pour ouvrir le score d'une tête piquée ! Sur la gauche de la surface adverse, Grenier réalise un petit festival et parvient finalement à repiquer dans l'axe pour armer un tir croisé qu'Areola repousse sur sa ligne d'une magnifique parade ! La pluie a cessé depuis quelques instants et les conditions de jeu devraient permettre aux joueurs d'évoluer plus sereinement sur la pelouse si cette météo perdure. Rapidement, les Rhodaniens ont posé le pied sur le ballon. On Napoleon And The Catholic Church? Lens reste sur la défensive et ne veut surtout pas prendre de risque en défense. Chaque formation évolue sous ses traditionnelles couleurs : tout de blanc vêtu pour l'OL, sang et or pour le RCL.

Gerland est loin d'afficher complet pour la venue de Lens. Culture? Les conditions de jeu sont compliquées, il fait froid et il pleut sur Lyon ce soir. Poker Flats? La pelouse risque de rapidement se dégrader. Monsieur Turpin siffle le coup d'envoi de la rencontre ! Ce match s'annonce donc particulièrement disputé et engagé. And Globalization? Lens voudra créer la surprise tandis que l'OL rêve de rejoindre Monaco en quarts de finale. Lens est à la lutte pour la montée en Ligue 1 cette saison. Poker Flats? Les Artésiens voient évidemment cette Coupe de France comme un énorme bonus à décrocher, même si cela s'annonce compliqué sur la pelouse rhodanienne.

Très en forme depuis le début de l'année, la formation lyonnaise poursuit sa bonne série en Championnat et peut encore rêver de faire le doublé Coupe de la Ligue - Coupe de France. Bienvenue à Gerland pour ce dernier 8e de finale de la Coupe de France opposant Lyon à Lens.

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Aboriginal Art Culture: an American eye. Philp Gudthaykudthay, Miny#8217;tji, c. 1993. Several weeks ago I wrote about a panel discussion at culture and globalization the Toledo Museum of From Behind Foreclosures, Art in which the culture topic of restricted knowledge in Aboriginal paintingwhat Stephen Gilchrist referred to as #8220;registers of knowledge#8221;created a degree of consternation among some members of the audience. A couple of people were irritated or offended at the notion that there were levels of meaning in Aboriginal art that were inaccessible to #8220;outsiders.#8221; The discussion has been pricking at me ever since. In part this is because the intent of the panel and of the effects exhibition was to increase the appreciation of Aboriginal art and culture for the members of the audience, to convey the culture and globalization sense of its value , and to impart an understanding of its values . It may be too strong a statement to say that the exchanges around this topic of restricted knowledge had the opposite effect of creating hostility to atm security, those values, but nonetheless I felt that we on the panel had somehow failed our mission. And so I#8217;ve been wondering how I might have handled the exchange differently, and what I might do to correct the misapprehensions. My assertion that I, too, had once set myself the goal of culture and globalization, penetrating that secrecy through study and sympathy seemed to miss the mark, as did my statement that coming to terms with the value system that restricted knowledge was in itself part of the following advantage of​ erp? process of coming to appreciate the art.

I have made my peace with being given only public, or outside, knowledge. But I understood that for others, that peace might seem like a failure in itself. I also mentioned in another recent post that I#8217;ve been dipping into Ian McLean#8217;s How Aborigines Invented the Idea of Contemporary Art: writings on culture, Aboriginal contemporary art (Institute of Modern Art/Power Publications, 2011). This is a book that had been sitting on the shelf for a long time; I put off starting it after a quick browse revealed that it consists mostly of short excerpts from writings about Aboriginal art from many different publications over a span of decades. I am not by nature a lover of anthologies, and define intelligence in psychology, so I decided that this particular volume wasn#8217;t high on my reading list. But recently I#8217;ve been taking advantage of the odd moment here and there when I don#8217;t have the time to sit down to sustained reading to absorb the snippets McLean has gathered together, and culture and globalization, I#8217;m finding it a most rewarding experience, both for pointing me to articles and books I hadn#8217;t encountered before and for reminding me of what I#8217;ve learned from those that I have already read. Last week, in one of those brief encounters, I came upon a selection from Howard Morphy#8217;s Ancestral Connections: art and an Aboriginal system of knowledge (University of Chicago Press, 1991) that McLean had headlined #8220;The mask of secrecy: inside and outside, knowledge and power.#8221; It was doubly apposite in that it bore directly on the topic that has been biting at my conscience and because all three of us on atm security, the panel had so often referred to Morphy#8217;s work in our remarks that it became a source of amusement to us. It seemed that no matter what point we were trying to and globalization, make, a quotation from Morphy helped us make it better. The two and a half pages of Morphy#8217;s text McLean chose to of the following, include in his anthology bear directly on the problem of culture and globalization, revealing #8220;inside#8221; or restricted knowledge, both in Yolngu and balanda (outsider) contexts. Bonaparte Church? I hope that a brief discussion of some of those points will help to add some nuance to culture, the discussion of what is too often tossed off as the #8220;secret/sacred#8221; nature of define intelligence in psychology, Indigenous knowledge. Let me begin by quoting from Morphy, who notes that there are #8220;reasons why too much stress should not be placed on and globalization, the significance of intelligence in psychology, secrecy to the system as a whole.#8221; Yolngu knowledge is cumulative, and in many respects the layering of culture and globalization, knowledge can be thought of as a pedagogical technique, though it is one that emphasizes the variability in understanding that exists at a given moment among different members of the society.

The layering is as important as the of versailles secrecy, and secret and nonsecret knowledge are organized in an analogous way so that all members of society have the possibility to progressively acquire knowledge and understanding. #8230; #8216;Inside#8217; ( djinawa ) and #8216;outside#8217; ( warrangul ) can be used to refer to a continuum of more restricted to less restricted knowledge#8230;. Culture And Globalization? (Morphy, pp. Effects Of Treaty? 77-78) Thinking about the problem in terms of this continuum, or of Morphy#8217;s concept of #8220;layering,#8221; more accurately describes the phenomenon that the dichotomous #8220;secret/sacred#8221; formulation, which implies that the sacred and and globalization, profane are mutually exclusive arenas whose firm boundary is never penetrated. Which Following Is An Advantage? The progressive acquisition of knowledge ought not to be unfamiliar to those of us in Western societies, nor should the idea that such progressive learning be subject to controls. This is what we generally call education, and that we implicitly recognize as a layered process when we speak of culture and globalization, #8220;higher education.#8221; In another sense, we are also familiar with the concept of certification, one which requires rigorous training and the passing of qualifying examinations in order to poker flats, achieve a certain prestige, or the license to engage in certain activities. I can build a shed in my back yard without too much external oversight, but I may be required to obtain a building permit if the project is above a certain size. I would most likely not be allowed to design and construct a house, and certainly not a skyscraper, without being subjected to a prolonged period of initiation and and globalization, testing. That is of the following advantage of​ surely analogous to the acquisition of knowledge among Yolngu. And if Yolngu require such rigorous education in order to paint, where we require it to become an architect, that says more about the relative values we place on those endeavors than about the systems which insure that appropriate knowledge is culture and globalization acquired and respected. I should note that my analogy is imperfect. I may be building a shed, and Frank Gehry a museum, and those are quite different activities. For Yolngu, knowledge is acquired and atm security, enacted in the context of ceremony, which I would broadly define to include painting.

Morphy points out that among Yolngu, #8220;the same overall ceremony includes within its structure more or less restricted contexts which people can be denied entry to or admitted to, Individuals, as they go through the ceremony again and again, are gradually admitted to more aspects of it, until finally (for men) the barriers are removed and the gain freedom of and globalization, movement#8221; (p. 94). Lead From Essay? But what of the commonly held belief that there is some point beyond which no balanda can progress? This is, after all, at culture and globalization the heart of the disgruntlement I heard voiced in Toledo. If I want to become an architect and build skyscrapers, there is nothing (theoretically) to define intelligence, stop me. Here again Morphy offers the critical insight. Culture? The delicate and complex relationship between inside and Lead From Behind Foreclosures, outside provides the culture and globalization context for understanding the release of knowledge to Balanda. The release of knowledge to them involves their incorporation within the Yolngu system of knowledge #8230; In order that Balanda should value the inside, they too have to experience it through its release, and their inclusion.

I have shown elsewhere that an explicit reason for releasing knowledge to You Can’t Lead From Behind The Pack: Foreclosures Essay, Balanda has been to get them to acknowledge the value of Yolngu culture, to make them understand and consequently to culture, recognize Yolngu rights. In such a case, Balanda first have to be persuaded that the knowledge is of value . This process of getting Balanda to which of the following advantage of​ erp?, accept the value of culture and globalization, Yolngu knowledge has involved both the release of knowledge on a broad basis to Balanda through the sale of paintings in the crafts store and of the following is an erp?, the opening out of ceremonies to a wider public, and the selective release of inside knowledge to people such as missionaries, teachers, anthropologists, lawyers, and politicians. Such releases of knowledge can be easily understood as an extension of Indigenous practice in a new context (Morphy, p.98, my emphasis). I am tempted to say that knowing that there are restricted, potentially unknowable levels of meaning in culture and globalization, an Aboriginal artwork should not be viewed as an invitation to prise open the lid on this box of secrets; but rather it offers a moment to stand back and ponder why such knowledge exists and and the, is deemed worthy of control. In discussing the domain of #8220;inside#8221; knowledge (which can necessarily only culture exist if there is outside knowledge, since the terms are defined relative to one another), it is effects important to admit of the possibility, given appropriate understanding of the system as a whole, that one may be admitted where previously a seal of exclusion was in place.

Morphy was writing nearly twenty-five years ago, as his reference to culture and globalization, the sale of bark paintings in the #8220;craft store#8221; hints. Much has changed since then, including an enormous growth in the visibility of Aboriginal art worldwide, and the appetite for it. Bark painting for balanda in 1991 was still primarily focused on very public presentations of stories and concepts, and poker flats, that is and globalization no longer the case. Indeed, some of the paintings included in the Crossing Cultures exhibition were created in the effort by Yolngu artists to negotiate and redefine the boundaries between what was traditionally considered inside knowledge and which of​ erp?, what might now, as the possibility of more fully appreciating the value of and globalization, Yolngu knowledge is realized, be considered outside knowledge. What once were secrets may no longer be so. However, the inclusion of Balanda has not left the systems unaffected: both quantitative and qualitative changes have occurred. Which Is An? #8230; The overall body of public knowledge is culture and globalization increasing. More significantly, however, the relations within which secrecy were embedded are changing: the inclusion of Balanda in the Yolngu world has changed, or is in the process of changing many of the internal relations within Yolngu society, and the system of knowledge is Lead Behind beginning to articulate with those new structures of relations. Increasingly there has been a substantive opening out as women in particular gain access to certain contexts from which they were previously excluded. Culture? Although change appears to leave the inside : outside continuum intact, the point where exclusion enters into poker flats the system and the value of exclusion do, however, change (Morphy, p. 99). There is a clear message here: Yolngu society (and by extension Aboriginal culture more broadly) is and always has been dynamic, adapting itself to its environments, physical and cultural.

Yolngu negotiate many things with balanda and want balanda to be similarly open to negotiation and exchange. What they insist upon, and which has not changed, is the recognition that their culture has value to offer others, just as they have been quick to absorb what they perceive as advantageous from outsiders, be they seventeenth-century Macassans or twenty-first century balanda. And Globalization? In short, knowledge must be respected before it can be attained. That#8217;s not such an alien concept after all. Great post, Will! Your reflection on Morphy, and Catholic Church, his notion of a knowledge/value equation reminds me of Foucault#8217;s knowledge/power formulation. In a (balanda) culture in which knowledge is culture a form of power, perhaps the response of being irritated by the fact that one can never gain access to and thus #8216;mastery#8217; of Yolngu knowledge is gut reaction to being confronted with the (externally imposed) limitations of a modern Western worldview that purports neither limits nor externalities.

Put differently, the of the following testy audience response wasn#8217;t due to any failure on the part of the panelists. Culture And Globalization? In fact, it might be an of treaty of versailles, indicator of the panel#8217;s success in conveying an culture and globalization, uncomfortable truth!

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code hero essay Crime and Gangster Films are developed around the sinister actions of criminals or gangsters, particularly bankrobbers, underworld figures, or ruthless hoodlums who operate outside the law, stealing and violently murdering their way through life. And Globalization? In the 1940s, a new type of crime thriller emerged, more dark and atm security cynical - see the section on film-noir for further examples of crime films. Criminal and gangster films are often categorized as post-war film noir or detective-mystery films - because of underlying similarities between these cinematic forms. Crime films encompass or cross over many levels, and may include at culture and globalization, least these different types of following advantage of​ erp?, films: the culture gangster film, the detective (or who-dun-it) film, the crime comedy, the suspense-thriller, and You Can’t Behind The Pack: Essay the police (procedural) film. Crime stories in this genre often highlight the life of a crime figure or a crime's victim(s).

Or they glorify the rise and culture and globalization fall of a particular criminal(s), gang, bank robber, murderer or lawbreakers in personal power struggles or conflict with law and define in psychology order figures, an and globalization underling or competitive colleague, or a rival gang. Headline-grabbing situations, real-life gangsters, or crime reports have often been used in crime films. Lead From The Pack: Essay? Gangster/crime films are usually set in and globalization large, crowded cities, to provide a view of the secret world of the criminal: dark nightclubs or streets with lurid neon signs, fast cars, piles of cash, sleazy bars, contraband, seedy living quarters or rooming houses. Exotic locales for crimes often add an element of adventure and wealth. Writers dreamed up appropriate gangland jargon for the tales, such as tommy guns or molls. Film gangsters are usually materialistic, street-smart, immoral, meglo-maniacal, and self-destructive. Rivalry with other criminals in gangster warfare is often a significant plot characteristic. Crime plots also include questions such as how the criminal will be apprehended by police, private eyes, special agents or lawful authorities, or mysteries such as who stole the valued object. Effects? They rise to power with a tough cruel facade while showing an ambitious desire for success and and globalization recognition, but underneath they can express sensitivity and gentleness. Gangster films are often morality tales: Horatio Alger or 'pursuit of the of treaty of versailles American Dream' success stories turned upside down in which criminals live in an inverted dream world of success and wealth.

Often from poor immigrant families, gangster characters often fall prey to culture and globalization, crime in the pursuit of wealth, status, and of treaty material possessions (clothes and cars), because all other normal avenues to the top are unavailable to them. Although they are doomed to failure and culture and globalization inevitable death (usually violent), criminals are sometimes portrayed as the victims of on Napoleon, circumstance, because the stories are told from their point of view. Early Crime-Gangster Films Until the Dawn of the Talkies: Criminal/gangster films are one of the most enduring and popular film genres. Culture? They date back to intelligence, the early days of culture and globalization, film during the silent era. You Can’t From? In fact, even Edwin S. Culture And Globalization? Porter's silent short western The Great Train Robbery (1903) has often considered a classic hold-up story and define intelligence chase film - a movie about crime.

Perhaps the earliest 'crime' film was Sherlock Holmes Baffled (1900) , a 45 seconds long short (released in 1903) that was shown one-person at a time in hand-cranked Mutoscope machines or nickelodeons in amusement arcades. It was also the culture and globalization earliest known film featuring Sherlock Holmes. The plot was about poker flats how the famed Arthur Conan Doyle detective, a cigar-smoking gentleman, was 'baffled' when a black-clothed thief magically disappeared (through trick-photography) with a sack of stolen goods. Culture? Also, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1905) , released by Vitagraph (although now a lost film) has been considered the atm security first Sherlock Holmes film since it was created for a theatrical audience rather than as a one-person Mutoscope production. One of the first films to officially mark the start of the culture gangster/crime genre was D. Which Following Is An Advantage? W. Griffith's The Musketeers of Pig Alley (1912) about organized crime. It wasn't the first gangster movie ever made, but it was the first significant gangster film that has survived. Outdoor scenes were shot in culture and globalization the gangland territory of NYC's Lower East Side with its slum tenements, and cast members included possible gang members. The story was about a poor, virtuous, and vulnerable Little Lady (Lillian Gish) who was threatened, victimized and terrorized by Snapper Kid (Elmer Booth) - the of the is an advantage erp? gangster leader of a gang known as the and globalization Musketeers. [Note: There were some one-reel 'gangster' films before Griffith's film, such as Biograph's The Moonshiners (1904) , Edwin S. On Napoleon Church? Porter's and Wallace McCutcheon's primitive chase film A Desperate Encounter Between Burglars And Police (1905) , and McCutcheon's docu-melodrama kidnapping story The Black Hand (1906) , but their importance and/or availability have been problematic.] French director Louis Feuillade's Fantomas series from the Gaumont film studio popularized the crime serial - Fantomas (1913-1914, Fr.) featured the character of culture, supercriminal Fantomas (René Navarre).

Based on the novels of poker flats, Marcel Allain and Pierre Souvestre, Fantomas was released as five separate films, running roughly an hour each. Other characters included police inspector Juve (Edmund Breon) and newspaper journalist Fandor (Georges Melchior), who worked to bring down the arch-villain-thief (a master of culture and globalization, disguises), who also committed identity theft and murder. The Pack: Foreclosures Essay? The five episodes were: Fantômas - À L'Ombre de la Guillotine (1913, Fr.) (aka In the Shadow of the Guillotine) Juve Against Fantomas (1913, Fr.) (aka Juve versus Fantomas) The Dead Man Who Killed (1913, Fr.) (aka The Murderous Corpse) Fantomas Against Fantomas (1914, Fr.) (aka Fantomas versus Fantomas) Le Faux Magistrat (1914, Fr.) (aka The False Magistrate) Feuillade's later Judex (1916, Fr.) , another popular film serial, featured a female criminal. Traffic in Souls (1913) (aka While New York Sleeps) , a six-reel melodrama, was a photo-drama expose of white slavery (entrapment of young women into culture, prostitution) at the turn of the century in define NYC, although the film exploitatively promised steamy sex in its advertisements.

Mutual released The Gangsters and the Girl (1914) , a short starring Charles Ray as undercover Detective John Stone investigating neighborhood urban gangs and culture a wrongly-condemned slum girl. Raoul Walsh's first feature film, the define in psychology silent crime drama The Regeneration (1915) has been regarded as the first feature-length gangster film, with presumably the first complex characterization of a criminal anti-hero. Culture And Globalization? It showcased violent lawlessness on define intelligence, the streets of New York (it was shot on location in NYC's Bowery District on the Lower East Side), and the rise of an orphaned Irish-American slum boy named Owen Conway (Rockliffe Fellowes as a 25 year-old adult). He grew up to become a drunken gangster (prone to gambling) due to repressive social conditions in his environment. However, he was 'regenerated' (saved from culture and globalization a life of crime) after falling in love with do-gooder social worker Marie Deering (Anna Q. Nilsson).

The upcoming 1920s decade was a perfect era for the blossoming of the crime genre. It was the period of Prohibition, grimy and overpopulated cities with the on Napoleon and the Catholic Church lawless spread of speakeasies, corruption, and moonshiners, and the flourishing rise of organized gangster crime. Josef von Sternberg's gangland melodrama Underworld (1927) with George Bancroft and Clive Brook, reflected the and globalization 1920s. It has often been considered the effects of treaty first modern gangster film, with many standard conventions of the crime film - and it was shot from the gangster's point of view. And Globalization? It won the atm security Best Original Story Award for Ben Hecht - the culture first Oscar ever awarded for an original screenplay, and the first of Hecht's two Oscar wins (among six writing nominations during his career). Define In Psychology? [The first 'gangster' pulp had the same title, Underworld , a breeding ground for many crime thriller plots.] And Lewis Milestone's The Racket (1928) , a Howard Hughes-produced film, concentrated on culture and globalization, big-city corruption and a municipality controlled by the mob, and was banned in Chicago because of You Can’t Behind, its negative depiction of the police. Expressionistic German Crime Films: Three German directors contributed a number of expressionistic black and white crime films, noted for chiaroscoro lighting, sharp-angled shots, and monstrous characters (i.e., insane scientists or doctors, or crazed individuals): Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919/1920, Germ.) (aka Das Kabinett Des Doktor Caligari) told about a ghost-like hypnotist-therapist in a fairground-carnival named Dr.

Caligari (Werner Kraus). He used his power of hypnotism to commit crimes, through his performing somnambulist Cesare (Conrad Veidt). The influential film featured the culture shadowy, disturbing, distorted, and of treaty dream-nightmarish quality of the macabre and stylistic 'Caligari,' with twisted alleyways, lopsided doors, cramped rooms, crooked and culture overhanging buildings, and atm security skewed cityscapes. F.W. Culture? Murnau's silent classic Sunrise (1927) , was about a country village farmer (George O'Brien) who fell for the allure of a sophisticated, vampish seductress/temptress (Margaret Livingston) from the which is an of​ erp? City. Culture And Globalization? She tempted him under the moonlight in a swamp, persuading him to devise a murderous plan to kill his pure, innocent wife (Janet Gaynor) - by drowning her during a trip to the City. German director Fritz Lang also released several important silent crime films - influential post-war films that helped to launch the entire genre in the 1930s, including a series of Dr. Mabuse films about a mastermind character:

Dr. Mabuse, The Gambler (Parts I and II) (1922-1923) - a two-part silent crime melodrama about an evil, criminal boss capable of disguise, conspiracy, and tremendous hypnotic powers. The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933) (aka Das Testament das Dr. Mabuse) , a crime thriller and Lang's second sound feature, resurrected the ruthless genius (Rudolf Klein-Rogge) running a crime ring while imprisoned, and a tenacious Scotland Yard detective (Otto Wernicke) in pursuit. The film was noted for a spectacular car chase scene, explosions, and murders. The government interpreted the film as subversive and having anti-Nazi sentiments - causing Lang to hurriedly leave Germany (he soon relocated in the US and ended up directing in Hollywood by 1936). Intelligence? [Note: Ironically, the legendary director's swan-song film (his first film made in Germany since 1933), The 1000 Eyes of Dr. Mabuse (1960) , spotlighted the same arch-criminal character.] Lang's most seminal film was M (1931, Germ.) - his first sound feature (bridging the gap between silents and talkies). Culture? It was an poker flats expressionistic psychological thriller about a child molester serial killer.

The pedophile-psychopath was identified as Hans Beckert (Peter Lorre) - his coat back was marked in chalk with the letter M. He was caught hiding in an attic, and culture and globalization taken to a large abandoned brewery building to stand trial, where he was questioned by a panel of underworld boss-leaders. The Gangster Film in the Era of the Talking Picture: It wasn't until the sound era and the 1930s that gangster films truly became an entertaining, popular way to attract viewers to the theatres, who were interested in the lawlessness and violence on-screen. Of The Advantage Of​ Erp?? The events of the Prohibition Era (until 1933) such as bootlegging and the St. Valentine's Day Massacre of 1929, the existence of culture, real-life gangsters (e.g., Al Capone, John Dillinger, Pretty Boy Floyd, Baby Face Nelson) and the rise of contemporary organized crime and escalation of urban violence helped to encourage this genre. On the You Can’t From Foreclosures other side were law-enforcing G-Men (or government men) led by the FBI's J. Edgar Hoover.

Many of the sensationalist plots of the culture early gangster films were taken from the day's newspaper headlines, encouraging the public appetite for atm security crime films. The allied rackets of bootlegging, gambling and prostitution brought these mobsters to and globalization, folk hero status, and audiences during that time vicariously participated in the gangster's rise to power and wealth - on the big screen. On Napoleon And The Catholic? They vicariously experienced the gangster's satisfaction with flaunting the system and culture and globalization feeling the thrill of violence. Poker Flats? Movies flaunted the archetypal exploits of culture and globalization, swaggering, cruel, wily, tough, and law-defying bootleggers and urban gangsters. The talkies era accounted for the rise of poker flats, crime films, because these films couldn't come to life without sound (machine gun fire, screeching brakes, screams, chases through city streets and squealing car tires).

The perfection of culture, sound technology and mobile cameras also aided their spread. The first 100% all-talking picture and, of course, the and the Catholic first sound gangster film was The Lights of culture and globalization, New York (1928) - it enhanced the urban crime dramas of the time with crackling dialogue and poker flats exciting sound effects of squealing getaway car tires and gunshots. Rouben Mamoulian's City Streets (1931) from a story penned by Dashiell Hammett was reportedly Al Capone's favorite film, starring Gary Cooper and Sylvia Sydney as two lovers trapped by gangland connections. And Tay Garnett's violent Bad Company (1931) was the first picture to and globalization, feature the define intelligence gangland massacre on St. Culture? Valentine's Day.

Three Classic Early Gangster Films from effects of treaty Warner Bros: Warner Bros. was considered the gangster studio par excellence , and the star- triumvirate of culture and globalization, Warners' gangster cycle, all actors who established and defined their careers as tough-guys in this genre, included Edward G. Robinson, James Cagney, and poker flats Humphrey Bogart. Others who were early gangster stars included Paul Muni and George Raft. Three great classic gangster films (among the first of the talkies) marked the genre's popular acceptance and started the wave of and globalization, gangster films in the 1930s in the sound era. Bonaparte And The Catholic Church? The lead role in each film (a gangster/criminal or bootleg racketeer of the culture and globalization Prohibition Era) was glorified as he rose to the top with infamy and power, but each one ultimately met his doom in the final violent scenes of these films, due to censors' demands that they receive moral retribution for their crimes. The first two films in the cycle were released almost simultaneously by which following is an advantage, Warner Bros, setting the pattern for numerous imitators (with tommy guns, fedoras, double-breasted suits, etc.): (1) Little Caesar (1930) , directed by Mervyn LeRoy, starred Edward G. And Globalization? Robinson as a gritty, coarse and Essay Bonaparte and the Church ruthless, petty Chicago killer named Caesar Enrico (or Rico) Bandello (a flimsy disguise for culture a characterization of Al Capone), who experienced a rise to prominence and then a rapid downfall. Robinson was the first great gangster star. (2) The Public Enemy (1931) , directed by William Wellman, starred James Cagney (in his first film and breakout role) as a cocky, fast-talking, nasty, and define intelligence brutal criminal/bootlegger named Tom Powers - most memorable in a vicious scene at the breakfast table where the and globalization snarling gangster assaulted his floozy moll girlfriend (Mae Clarke) by pressing a half grapefruit into her face. [Both were still in their pajamas, indicating that they spent the night together.] The startling finale included the door-to-door delivery of Cagney's mummy-wrapped corpse to of versailles, his mother's house - the bandaged body fell through the front door. The main story was about two brothers, Tom (Cagney) and his straight, uptight brother Mike (Donald Cook) who grew up and pursued very different lifestyles.

The pre-Code film emphasized how the early developmental environment clearly contributed to culture and globalization, an evolving life of adult crime - and his inevitable gruesome death. (3) Scarface: The Shame of the atm security Nation (1932) , directed by Howard Hawks, a Howard Hughes' produced film from UA, starred Paul Muni as a power-mad, vicious, immature and beastly hood in Prohibition-Era Chicago (the characterization of Tony Camonte was loosely based on and globalization, the brutal, murderous racketeer Al Capone). Atm Security? Other stars were George Raft (as his coin-flipping emotion-less, right-hand killer) and Ann Dvorak (as Tony's incestuous sister Cesca). Both The Public Enemy (1931) and Scarface (1932) tried to deflect criticisms that they were sensationalizing the lifestyle of the hoodlums, with unconvincing prefaces or disclaimers. In particular, Scarface (1932) began with a critical, written statement to indict gangster hoodlumism and the public's and government's indifference.

The audience was then blamed for promoting the culture and globalization role of the gangster with its perverse fascination in the phenomenon of poker flats, mob activity - and and globalization then challenged: It is the You Can’t Behind The Pack: Foreclosures Essay ambition of the authors of 'The Public Enemy' to honestly depict an environment that exists today in and globalization a certain strata of American life, rather than glorify the hoodlum or the criminal. This picture is an intelligence in psychology indictment of gang rule in America and of the callous indifference of the government to this constantly increasing menace to our safety and our liberty. Every incident in this picture is the reproduction of an culture actual occurrence, and the purpose of this picture is to demand of the government: 'What are you going to do about it?' The government is erp? your government. What are YOU going to do about it?

The Influence of the Hays Production Code on Gangster Films: The coming of the and globalization Hays Production Code in the early 1930s spelled the end to glorifying the criminal, and approval of the ruthless methods and atm security accompanying violence of the gangster lifestyle. The censorship codes of the day in the 1930s, notably the Hays Office, forced studios (particularly after 1934) to make moral pronouncements, present criminals as psychopaths, end the culture and globalization depiction of the gangster as a folk or 'tragic hero,' de-glorify crime, and emphasize that crime didn't pay. It also demanded minimal details shown during brutal crimes. One way the studios quieted some of the protest and uproar over Bonaparte and the Catholic Church, America's shame was to shift the emphasis from the criminal to culture and globalization, the racket-busting federal agents, private detectives, or good guys on the other side of the law. In William Keighley's G-Men (1935) , the best example of in psychology, this new 'gangster-as-cop' sub-genre, screen tough guy James Cagney starred as a ruthless, revenge-seeking, impulsive, violent FBI agent to infiltrate criminal gangs on a crime spree in the Midwest. Although he was on the side of the law working undercover, he was just as cynical, brutal, and arrogant as he had been in his earliest gangster films. A police detective (Edward G. Robinson in an against-type role) went undercover and joined a NYC racket in Bullets or Ballots (1936) , and in Anatole Litvak's The Amazing Dr. Clitterhouse (1938) , Robinson portrayed a brainy crime specialist who joined Rocks Valentine's gang (led by Humphrey Bogart) and soon was masterminding heists. Robinson also starred as a college law professor - and culture and globalization special prosecutor who pursued justice in I Am the Law (1938) . Anthony Mann's T-Men (1947) explored the similarities between Treasury Department agents and the counterfeiting criminals they pursued, and emphasized how villains were caught by semi-documentary style crime detection procedures (lineups, fingerprinting analysis, lab work, etc.). Another developing 'Cain-and-Abel' sub-genre emphasized that crime didn't pay, in films such as Manhattan Melodrama (1934) with childhood friends William Powell and Clark Gable choosing two diametrically opposed lifestyles - prosecuting attorney and gambler/racketeer, and Angels With Dirty Faces (1938) with two young slum kids, James Cagney and Pat O'Brien, following two different paths - a criminal lifestyle (that was idolized by on Napoleon and the, the Dead End Kids on culture and globalization, New York's lower East Side) and and the Catholic Church the priesthood.

In the electrifying finale, Cagney was taken on culture, a long walk to his execution. William Wyler's gangster melodrama Dead End (1937) portrayed the efforts of atm security, New York slum dweller (Sylvia Sidney) to keep her gang member brother Tommy (Billy Halop, one of the Dead End Kids) from culture emulating gangster Humphrey Bogart. The adolescent gang actors (veterans of the Broadway version of Dead End ) were introduced in this film and later evolved into the East Side Kids and The Bowery Boys.