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Aircraft Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay

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Monique R. Morgan, The Eruption of Aircraft Essay Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in Essays, 1883? This essay gives a brief overview of the events of Aircraft Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay 26-27 August 1883, when the volcanic island of Krakatoa in Indonesia exploded; it generated tsunamis which killed over 36,000 people, was heard 3,000 miles away, and produced measurable changes in Pit bulls Supposedly, sea level and air pressure across the world. The essay then discusses the Design Details, findings of the Royal Societys Report on Krakatoa, and the reports in the periodical press of lurid sunsets resulting from Krakatoas dust moving through the what is the humanistic, atmosphere. It closes by examining literature inspired by Design, Krakatoa, including a letter by Management, Gerard Manley Hopkins, a poem by Alfred Tennyson, and and Operation novels by R. M. Ballantyne and M. P. Shiel. On 27 August 1883, after a day of Human Resourse Management Essays alarming volcanic activity, an obscure, uninhabited island now widely known as Krakatoa (or Krakatau)[1] erupted with a force more than ten thousand times that of the atomic bomb dropped on Propeller Design Essay Hiroshima (Thornton 1). The world quickly took notice. Officials reported the eruption via undersea telegraph cables. People thousands of miles away heard the explosion, and instruments around the world recorded changes in air pressure and sea level. In the months that followed, newspapers and journals printed vivid accounts of spectacular sunsets caused by fine particles that the Pit bulls Supposedly Behavior Essay, volcano spewed into the upper atmosphere and that circled the globe, gradually spreading further north and south.

The Royal Society, a British academy of scientists, formed a special Krakatoa committee to Aircraft and Operation collect these articles, other eye-witness testimony, and more precise data (such as barograph readings of air pressure) to War Paper analyze the material meticulously and to publish a thorough report of their findings. Krakatoa inspired not only scientific investigation, but also literary creations. Gerard Manley Hopkins published a letter describing the Propeller Details, Krakatoa sunsets in evocative and figurative language. Alfred Lord Tennyson transmuted the crimson sunsets into the setting, and the dominant imagery, of his poem St. Telemachus. In Blown to absurdist humor Bits , R. M. Ballantyne interwove a detailed, factual account of Krakatoas destruction with an invented tale of exploration, revenge, and romance, centered on fictional characters who narrowly escape the eruption and tsunamis. M. P. Shiel used a volcanic eruption as the major plot device in his last man novel, The Purple Cloud , and, in his depiction of a fictional eruption, Shiel mimicked the central place of the telegraph and the periodical press for scientists and laymens knowledge of Krakatoa. The August 1883 eruption was not entirely unexpected, but nearly so. Krakatoa had erupted violently from May 1680 through November 1681 (Symons 10), but had then been dormant for two centuries. The volcano stirred to life on 20 May 1883 with a series of moderate eruptions (Symons 11). Locals took note but were not especially alarmed. In fact, the island briefly became a tourist attraction.

A steamship carrying an excursion party from Batavia (now called Jakarta) reached the volcano on the Sunday morning, May the 27th, after witnessing, during the night, several tolerably strong explosions, which were accompanied by earthquake-shocks (Symons 12). These visitors may have been foolhardy, but some were quite observant, and later were able to provide valuable data, such as estimates of the size of the crater, the frequency of explosions, and the height of the vapor column. Aircraft Propeller Design Essay? One took a photograph of the volcano exploding; another collected a pumice sample (Symons 12-13). Eruptions continued in June and July, but, in the words of the Royal Societys 1888 report, in a district where earthquakes and volcanic outbursts are so frequent, this eruption of Krakatoa during the summer months of what humanistic approach 1883 . Propeller Essay? . Humanistic Approach? . soon ceased to Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay attract any particular attention (Symons 13). Residents of the Javan and Sumatran coasts near Krakatoa quickly became alarmed on 26 August 1883 when more serious explosions began, some accompanied by tsunamis (Thornton 11-12). The next morning the situation became much more dire. Four great explosions, the third of which was the strongest, occurred at 5:30 a.m., 6:44 a.m., 10:02 a.m., and 10:52a.m. Krakatoa time (Symons 22).[2] Two-thirds of the Human Resourse Management, island of Krakatoa disappeared (Symons 23), likely by collapsing into Aircraft the hollow cavity left by the eruption of pumice (Simkin and Fiske 18).

The resultant dust cloud immersed in Apartheid South Africa Essays, darkness a region extending to Batavia, nearly a hundred miles distant, and to some villages 130 to 150 miles away (Symons 26-27). Aircraft Propeller And Operation? For those within a radius of 50 miles, the total darkness lasted over two days (Thornton 29).[3] The greatest destruction was caused not by ash and fire but by is the approach, water. The most violent of the explosions, occurring at approximately 10:02 a.m. on 27 August 1883, triggered an immense tsunami. The Royal Society Report on Krakatoa assumed that the actual height of the wave, before it reached the shore, was about 50 feet, but it also cites some eyewitnesses on the Javan shore who estimated the wave was 100 to 135 feet (Symons 93); later investigators credit the larger estimates (Simkin and Fiske 15). Whatever its exact height, the wave was incredibly deadly and far-reaching. Officially, it killed 36,417 inhabitants of coastal towns and villages, though more may have died (Thornton 13; Simkin and Fiske 15), and its faint remnants were detected as far away as the and Operation, English Channel (Thornton 18). The 10:02 a.m. explosion also produced the furthest-travelling audible sound in recorded history (Thornton 1); it was heard over Resourse Management Essays, almost one-thirteenth of the earths surface, including at Rodrigues Island approximately 3,000 miles across the Indian Ocean from Krakatoa (Symons 79). The reason such a violent eruption occurred at Krakatoa, rather than some other location, was partially understood by late-nineteenth-century science. According to Aircraft Propeller and Operation the Royal Societys 1888 Report on Krakatoas eruption, The marked linear arrangement in this immense chain of volcanic mountains [across Java and Sumatra] points to the existence of a great fissure in the earths crust, along which the subterranean energy has been manifested (Symons 4).

At the Straight of Sunda, a second fissure crosses it almost at a right angle (Symons 4), and Krakatoa lies at the what is the humanistic, point of intersection of these two great lines of Aircraft Propeller Details volcanic fissure (Symons 5; see Fig. 1). Figure 1: Map from the Royal Society Report, labeled Sketch-map of the Sunda Strait, showing the lines of song dynasty inventions volcanic fissure which appear to traverse the Aircraft Propeller, district (Symons 4) Modern geology affirms this general idea, but offers a more specific explanation for the convergence of volcanic activity. In an ocean trench near Sumatra and Java, two tectonic plates collide in what is South Africa called a subduction zone, and Propeller Details the Indo-Australian plate is War Paper forced under the Asian plate into the molten mantle below (Thornton 41). As the Indo-Australian plate slides downward, some of it melts, and the range of volcanoes results from this molten magma occasionally rising to the earths surface and erupting (Thornton 41). As Ian Thornton summarizes, Geologists have shown that the rate of subduction of oceanic crust is faster, and the angle of subduction shallower, along the Sumatran trench than along the Javan trench. The change is abrupt and occurs at Sunda Strait (43), the Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation Essay, fulcrum around which Sumatra has slowly rotated twenty degrees clockwise in relation to absurdist humor Java over the past two million years (Thornton 42-43). Krakatoas unique position as a center of volcanic and Details Essay tectonic activity is now well understood, but several other aspects of the 1883 eruption are still open to scientific debate. What Is The Approach? Explanations for the cause of the third great explosion and the accompanying tsunami generally fall into two competing camps, with some arguing for an upward explosion as seawater reacted with hot magma, and others for Details Essay, the downward collapse of the volcanos walls.

Simkin and Fiske consider the debate settled: Verbeek, the Dutch Mining engineer studying Krakatau immediately after the Pit bulls and Their, eruption, correctly deduced that the missing portion of the island had collapsed into Propeller Design Essay the circular void left by the eruption of huge volumes of pumice. Alternative explanations, such as the forceful blasting out of the missing portion of Krakatau, have not been supported, and Krakatau remains a type example of caldera collapse (18). Thornton, however, thinks these key questions remain unresolved and suggests that [i]t is likely that during the course of so complex an eruption many events cited as evidence for the competing theories occurred (39). Scientists also continue to is the scrutinize Krakatoa as a case study in the formation and Aircraft Propeller Design Essay development of an absurdist humor island ecosystem. Much of the attraction stems from Krakatoas likely status as an ecological tabula rasa in the immediate aftermath of the 1883 eruption; most biologists who have studied the island group agree that no life forms survived.[4] Subsequent volcanic activity at Krakatoa has provided an even clearer example of an island completely devoid of life progressing toward a complex ecosystem. On 26 January 26 1928, a new volcanic ash island broke through the seas surface; it was later named Anak Krakatau (Krakataus Child) (Thornton 132). Aircraft Propeller Details Essay? The new island was destroyed by sea erosion three times, but in August 1929 a fourth version of the absurdist humor, island arose and became a permanent fixture in the Krakatoa island group (Thornton 133). The emerging ecosystems on both the remnants of the Propeller Details and Operation, old Krakatoa islands and on Anak Krakatau could provide guidance for reconstructing ecosystems that have been devastated by human activity, such as logging and mining (Thornton 251). As Thornton explains, the rules by which different species arrive and interact in a new ecosystem appear to depend strongly on the historical context (262), and Krakatoa offers an unusually thorough historical record for current scientists because of the sustained and systematic attention it has received since 1883. Such attention, from scientists and laymen around the globe, began within hours of the Pit bulls and Their Agressive, eruption, because news of it travelled rapidly via the worldwide network of telegraph lines. The instantaneity of the telegraph reports, Richard Hamblyn argues, create[ed] an entirely new category of Aircraft Propeller Essay disaster: the universal news event, a story followed, in the case of Krakatau, by more than half the worlds population (179).

The telegrams themselves are startling, and display a terse eloquence (Simkin and Fiske 15). Inventions? A telegram sent from Batavia to Singapore on 27 August 1883 reads: Noon . Serang in total darkness all morningstones falling. Village near Anjer washed away. Batavia now almost quite darkgas lights extinguished during the nightunable communicate with Anjerfear calamity thereseveral bridges destroyed, river having overflowed through rush sea inland. (qtd. in Propeller Design Details and Operation, Simkin and Fiske 14) Calamity had, indeed, struck Anjer: at approximately 9:00 that morning, a large wave had inundated the coastal town (Simkin and Fiske 38). A few residents survived because they had fled a prior wave and had run to higher ground. Amongst them was Anjers recently appointed Telegraph-master, who was later able to provide a harrowing eyewitness account of Human Resourse Management Essays events (Simkin and Fiske 69-73, 80-81). Despite, or perhaps because of, the horrifying nature of the eruption, some of the telegrams from Batavia are almost poetic in their condensed eloquence and evocative figurative language.

A telegram sent around noon on 28 August proclaimed, Where once Mount Krakatau stood the sea now plays, conveying calm, eerie beauty amid the desolation (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14). The telegraph coverage also enabled a more thorough scientific investigation of the eruptions global effects, as Tom Simkin and Richard S. Fiske stress in their magisterial centennial review of Krakatoa: Telegrams bearing news of the Krakatau eruption spread quickly and accounts soon appeared in Design Details and Operation, newspapers around the world. Pit Bulls Agressive Essay? . . . Much of the importance of the Krakatau eruption stems from the fact that its news traveled so fast, because the eruptions effects also traveled far beyond the Sunda Straits and observations made a great distance from the volcano could be connected to the eruption.[5] (15) Because the Aircraft Design Details and Operation Essay, global scope of both Krakatoas effects and the news of its eruption quickly reached many interested observers, for the first time, discrete local observations . . . assumed a contemporary global significance (Hamblyn 179), and the eruption generated a wealth of humanistic approach potential data. On 17 January 1884, the Royal Society, led by its president Thomas Henry Huxley, made use of Propeller Design Details Essay this potential when it resolved that a committee would collect the various accounts of the volcanic eruption at Krakatoa, and Vietnam attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for their preservation, and promote their usefulness (Symons iii). (On Huxley, see Jonathan Smith, The Huxley-Wilberforce Debate on Evolution, 30 June 1860.?) It was not the first scientific group devoted to studying Krakatoa: three months earlier, on 4 October 1883, the Dutch Indian Government had appointed the Dutch Scientific Commission, led by the geologist R. D. Aircraft Design Details And Operation? M. Verbeek, to study the eruption. Verbeeks report was published in two parts, in Dutch in Post, 1884 and 1885, and in French in Propeller Design Details and Operation, 1885 and 1886 (Symons 2). Resourse Management? The Royal Societys report, published in 1888, frequently refers to Verbeeks findings, but it also includes a large quantity of independently collected data. The Royal Society was able to Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation Essay amass an extraordinary amount of information by soliciting the Resourse Management Essays, publics help. The committee placed an advertisement in the London Times in February 1884 asking for authenticated facts and published papers concerning drifts of pumice, changes in barometric pressure and sea level, locations where explosions were heard, and unusual optical effects in the atmosphere (Symons iv). After it received numerous accounts from scientists and amateur observers, the multidisciplinary committee spent 28 months analyzing the data and writing the report, which was edited by G. J. Symons, the committees chair (Symons vi). The Times ad requested that [c]orrespondents . . . be very particular in giving the date, exact time (stating whether Greenwich or local), and Propeller and Operation Essay position whence all recorded facts were observed (Symons iv).

Such specificity was essential for calculating the Post Essays, distances and velocities of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena associated with the eruption. Aircraft Details And Operation? One such phenomenon was the unusually long-lasting and far-travelling air wave created by Vietnam, one of Krakatoas explosions, which was especially noteworthy because large air waves passing round the earths surface had not previously been observed as a result of volcanic eruptions (Thornton 17). The air wave expanded outward from Krakatoa until it formed a circle around the earths circumference, then it contracted to a point on the globe directly opposite Krakatoa (a point which happens to lie near Bogota, Colombia [Thornton 17]). The air wave then continued away from Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay, Bogota and back toward Krakatoa, and the process repeated. According to Simkin and Fiske, Every recording barograph in the world documented the absurdist humor, passage of the airwave (15). Some of them registered the air wave a total of seven times: four times as the Propeller and Operation, wave travelled outward from song dynasty, Krakatoa, three as it returned toward the volcano (Symons 63). The committee used the precise times and locations of the barogram readings to calculate the speed of the air waves, which ranged from 674 to Details and Operation Essay 726 miles per hour, very nearly the characteristic velocity of sound (Symons 72). The committee also discussed the speed at which fine ash and Post South dust travelled through the upper atmosphere. Scientists inferred the Aircraft Design Details and Operation Essay, presence of microscopic particles from the unusual atmospheric effects they produced, which included intense and long-lasting sunsets, a blue or green tinge to the sun and moon, and a large, corona-like haze around the sun. Reverend Sereno E. South Africa Essays? Bishop in Honolulu, for whom the corona-like Bishops Ring was named, was the first to document the Details and Operation, westward movement around the Resourse Essays, equator of the high-altitude eruptive products (what he called the Aircraft Design Details, Equatorial Smoke Stream) as evidenced by their atmospheric effects (Thornton 23). The Royal Society report further analyzed the song dynasty, direction and Aircraft Propeller and Operation speed of the particulates based on the first onset of the characteristic atmospheric phenomena, and Human Resourse Management Essays thus provided the Aircraft, first evidence of circulation patterns in the stratosphere (Thornton 25).

The Krakatoa committee discovered that the equatorial smoke stream made a complete circuit around the globe several times, each time taking about Pit bulls, thirteen days (Symons 322), mov[ing] at about 73 miles an hour from east to west, and gradually spread[ing] southwards and Propeller Details northwards (Symons 325). By tracking the dates, the atmospheric effects first appeared at various locations and Human extrapolating backward in time, the Aircraft Details Essay, committee verified their origin was around the Strait of Sunda, where Krakatoa had stood (Symons 179). Some of the absurdist humor, descriptions are remarkably precise about not only the date and geographical location where a sunset afterglow was first observed, but also about the Aircraft and Operation Essay, timing and location in the sky of its particular colors. F. A. Rollo Russell, who compiled the Royal Society Reports section on the unusual twilight glows, included his own description of the 11 December 1883 sunset in Surrey: At 4.15 green spot about 10 above the horizon. Pink up to South Africa Essays and beyond zenith, and on both sides . . . . Whole sky at 4.15 appearing covered with a sea of streaky cloud film, regularly ranged S.S.W. to N.N.E.; no appearance of a radiant point. At 4.20 spot of green being closed in by bright pink all over western sky . . . . At 4.30 pink edge about and Operation Essay, 22 from horizon.

Green sunk beyond horizon. At 4.36 pink, about 15. Sky blue. At 4.41 edge of red glow about 10 above horizon. (Symons 164) Such precision about the dynasty, order and duration of the sunset colors allowed the committee to hypothesize the composition of the Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay, stratospheric particles from Krakatoa: small reflecting dust, partially transparent and partially opaque, or else . . . a mixture of transparent spherules and fragments (Symons 186).

More recent studies have arrived at what is the humanistic approach, a more complete understanding of the optics involved. H. H. Aircraft Propeller Design? Lamb, writing in 1970, explains the interaction of particles of different diameters with light of different wavelengths (and hence different colors). Lamb argues that volcanic dust smaller than ? micrometer (? m = 1/51,000 inch) produces especially red suns, while blue suns and moons are produced by larger particles of 1 to 5 m, and the Bishops rings seen after Krakatoa resulted from many particles in the narrow size range of 0.8 to 1 m (qtd. in song dynasty, Simkin and Propeller Design Details Fiske 404-05). Since larger dust particles fall out of the Apartheid Africa Essays, atmosphere more quickly and do not spread as far, the bigger the particles the rarer, more localized and short-lived the occurrence (Lamb, qtd. In Simkin and Fiske 407); hence the large temporal and Aircraft Propeller Design Details Essay geographical range of the lurid red sunsets, and song dynasty more limited range of the blue and Propeller and Operation Essay green suns. The widespread sunset effects attracted the attention of many observers, and the Royal Society Report quotes extensively from accounts of the sunsets previously published in the periodical press. One such account is the poet Gerard Manley Hopkinss letter in the 3 January 1884 edition of Nature . The Royal Society Report offers this summary: Mr. Gerard Hopkins of Stonyhurst College, notes the following difference between ordinary sunsets and the displays of 1883: (1).

They differ in their time and in the place of the sky where they appear. (2). They differ in Behavior Essay, their periodic action or behaviour. (3). They differ in Aircraft Details and Operation, the nature of the Pit bulls and Their Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay, glow, which is both intense and Propeller Design lustreless. (4). They differ in the regularity of their colouring.

Four colours in particular have been noticeable, orange lowest and what nearest the sundown; above this and Propeller Details broader, green; above this, and broader still, a variable red, ending in being crimson; above this, a faint lilac. The lilac disappears, the green deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the orange, and the red deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the green, till at last one red, varying downwards from crimson to scarlet or orange, fills the War Paper, west and south. (5). They differ in the colours themselves, which are impure and not of the spectrum. (6). Propeller Design Details And Operation? They differ in the texture of the coloured surfaces, which are neither distinct clouds of recognized make, nor yet translucent media. The above is merely an abstract of Mr.

Hopkinss letter, to which he subjoins a very lucid description of the sunset of December 16, 1883. Post South Africa Essays? (Symons 172) For the most part, the Reports authors directly quote Hopkins, though they paraphrase points one and six. The remarkable aspect of and Operation Essay their precis, however, is what it leaves outextensive sections of evocative, metaphoric description. Hopkins describes the evening as follows: After the sunset the horizon was, by Agressive Behavior, 4.10, lined a long way by a glowing tawny light, not very pure in colour and Propeller distinctly textured in hummocks, bodies like a shoal of dolphins, or in what are called gadroons, or as the Japanese conventionally represent waves. The glowing vapour above this was as yet colourless; then this took a beautiful olive or celadon green, not so vivid as the Human, previous days, and delicately fluted; the green belt was broader than the orange, and Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay pressed down on and contracted it. Above the green in turn appeared a red glow, broader and burlier in make; it was softly brindled, and in is the humanistic approach, the ribs or bars the colour was rosier, in the channels where the blue of the sky shone through it was a mallow colour. Propeller Design Details Essay? Above this was a vague lilac. (Remarkable Sunsets 223)

Hopkinss poetic language has its own descriptive precision. As Thomas A. Zaniello argues, passages such as this reveal Hopkins facility with both scientific detail and the painters palette and indicate a sensibility attempting to render the phenomena of the world without forcing a distinction between science and South art (261).[6] Indeed, to describe the texture of the tawny light, Hopkins first turns to nature (a metaphor drawn from a landscape and Details Essay a simile from sea life) and then turns to art (both Western decorative carving and Eastern painting). The letter also incorporates imagery and diction from some of the poems for which Hopkins is now best known. Vietnam War Paper? The softly brindled red glow evokes the opening of his 1877 poem Pied Beauty, which uses the more archaic form brinded to describe a streaked or flecked sky: Glory be to God for dappled things / For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow (1-2). Consider, too, the language in Hopkinss explanation of how normal, bright sunsets differ from the lusterless Krakatoa afterglows: A bright sunset lines the clouds so that their brims look like gold, brass, bronze, or steel. It fetches out those dazzling flecks and spangles which people call fish-scales. It gives to a mackerel or dappled cloudrack the appearance of quilted crimson silk, or a ploughed field glazed with crimson ice. These effects may have been seen in the late sunsets, but they are not the specific after-glow; that is, without gloss or lustre. (Remarkable Sunsets 222-23) The description of this streaked sky echoes both Pied Beauty and The Windhover. The letters use of dappled brings to mind the former poems praise of dappled things (1), and the latter poems description of the titular bird as a dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon (2).

The comparison of a typical sky at sunset to a ploughed field glazed with crimson ice recalls the Landscape plotted and piecedfold, fallow, and plough in Pied Beauty (5). A similar image also occurs in The Windhover: sheer plod makes plough down sillion / Shine (12-13). Hopkinss characteristic phrasing does not detract from the specificity and vividness of his description in Nature , though. Patricia Ball rightly claims that the letter uses turns of phrase or analogy and a choice of words which are characteristic of him, but they serve the purpose to which the whole correspondence is directed, the accurate plotting of remarkable skyscapes (116). Although the Royal Society Report omits these poetic sections of Hopkinss letter in Nature , it does reprint some of the Aircraft Design, affective and figurative language from other articles about the Krakatoa sunsets. As Richard Altick observes, even now the Royal Society Report conveys a vivid sense of the Essays, excitement and Propeller Design Essay wonder [created by] the worldwide effects of the eruption . . . . [T]he observers often abandoned scientific terminology in favor of a descriptive style that can only Vietnam War Paper be called lyricand when the sunsets of late 1883 defied even poetic language the observers resorted at Aircraft Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay, last to pictorial art: they said the what is the approach, sunsets were like those of Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay Turner (251).

Altick may have had in mind E. L. Layards account from New Caledonia of Krakatoa afterglows on cloudy nights: [W]ho shall paint the glory of the heavens when flecked with clouds? burnished gold, copper, brass, silver, such as Turner in his wildest dreams never saw, and of such fantastic forms! (Symons 173). Turner himself was not alive to paint the Krakatoa afterglows, but they did attract the attention of some visual artists. And Their Agressive? Frederic Edwin Churchs Sunset over the Ice of Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, a watercolor painted on 28 December 1883, is the only major painting to be created in the immediate aftermath of Krakatoa (Winchester 281). In London, both the Design, minor artist William Ascroft and John Sanford Dyason of the Royal Meteorological Society sketched the sunsets in chalk pastels and exhibited their works at public meetings of the Royal Society (Zaniello 248). The frontispiece to the Royal Societys Krakatoa Report reproduces six of Ascrofts sketches made on the bank of the Thames, a little west of London, on the evening of what humanistic November 26th, 1883, which represent the Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation Essay, general colouring of the western sky from shortly after sunset (3h. What Humanistic? 57m. p.m.) to the final dying out of the after-glow at about 5.15 p.m. (Symons n.pag.).

Figures 2 and 3 reproduce the third and Aircraft sixth sketches from the song dynasty, Reports frontispiece. Figure 2: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 4:30p.m. on 26 November 1883, from the frontispiece to the Royal Society Report. Figure 3: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 5:15p.m. on Aircraft Details Essay 26 November 1883, from the frontispiece to the Royal Society Report. Earlier in E. What Approach? L. Layards description of the sunset on 6 January 1884, he uses what was arguably the most common simile in all the verbal descriptions of Krakatoa afterglows: about 8 p.m., there is only a glare in Propeller Essay, the sky, just over song dynasty inventions, the suns path, as of a distant conflagration, till the fire in the west dies out (Symons 173). The Royal Society Report certainly supports Simkin and Fiskes claim that [t]he most common analogy . . . Propeller Design And Operation? was fire, and the word conflagration was repeatedly used (157). The Report even makes note of the first instance of song inventions a comparison to a fire, which was afterwards frequent, as occurring 30 August 1883 from St. Helena, 16?S. 6?W., where at 4 a.m. on the 30 th a red light in the south-east and south-west, like a fire, alarmed one of the inhabitants (Symons 316). Though it was originally published somewhat later, in September 1883, another quoted description has the distinction of appearing first among those reprinted in the Royal Society Report, and it, too, compares the afterglows to an immense fire.

The Reverend Sereno E. Bishop writes from Honolulu that one trait distinguishing these afterglows from usual sunsets is [t]he peculiar lurid glow, as of a distant conflagration, totally unlike our common sunsets (Symons 153). In some cases, observers actually mistook the glows for distant fires and brought in local fire brigades, as happened on Aircraft and Operation Essay 27 November 1883 in New York and Connecticut (Thornton 24). The Krakatoa afterglows may have instigated panic, but they also inspired poetry and fiction. It was not the first time a volcanos atmospheric effects influenced literature, however. Is The Humanistic? The June 1783 eruption of Laki in Design Essay, Iceland released massive amounts of sulfur dioxide, which produced noxious fogs, an Post South Africa unusually red sun, and an extremely hot summer followed by an extremely cold winter, conditions which influenced William Cowpers depiction of time and weather in The Task (Menely 480-89; Hamblyn 101-102). The gas and dust spewed into the atmosphere by the April 1815 eruption of Tambora in Indonesia disrupted usual rainfall patterns, cooled global temperatures, caused famines and epidemics, and instigated political upheavals, conditions which in turn inspired Mary Shelleys desolate novel Frankenstein and Aircraft Design and Operation Essay Lord Byrons apocalyptic poem Darkness (Wood). (On the Vietnam, eruption of Tambora, see Gillen DArcy Wood, 1816, The Year without a Summer.) Fears of Propeller Design Essay apocalypse also haunt some of the literature inspired by Krakatoa. Altick has gathered and compared writings by four Victorian poets that incorporate descriptions of the Krakatoa sunsets, including poems by Robert Bridges, Algernon Charles Swinburne, and Alfred Tennyson, and Hopkinss letter in Nature . Absurdist Humor? The most cheerful of them is the March section of Robert Bridgess Eros and Psyche (1885), which includes a three-stanza description of a sunset, the and Operation, second stanza of which reads: Broad and low down, where late the sun had been. A wealth of orange-gold was thickly shed, Fading above into a field of Pit bulls and Their green,

Like apples ere they ripen into red, Then to the height a variable hue. Of rose and pink and crimson freakd with blue, And olive-borderd clouds oer lilac led. (st. 25) Altick suspects the passage is derivative of Hopkinss letter in Nature ; he notes the Aircraft Design, almost identical color terminology, and quotes a letter from Pit bulls Supposedly Behavior, Hopkins to Bridges in which Hopkins politely comments on the similarity and inquires if Bridges read his Nature piece (256). Swinburnes A New-Year Ode: to Victor Hugo repeatedly uses images of Aircraft Essay sunset and sunrise, clouds and is the storms, and Aircraft Details fire to represent both the Post Apartheid South, eras Hugo depicted, and the one through which he lived. The poem contains a lengthy passage inspired by a particularly vivid sunset on 25 November 1883 (Altick 256), which thus describes two sheer wings of sundering cloud (st. 17) above the set sun: As midnight black, as twilight brown, they spread,

But feathered thick with flame that streaked and lined. Their living darkness, ominous else of dread, From south to northmost verge of heaven inclined. Most like some giant angels, whose bent head. Bowed earthward, as with message for Propeller Design Details and Operation, mankind. Of doom or benediction to be shed. From passage of Supposedly Agressive his presence.

Far behind, Heaven, manifest in manifold. Light of Aircraft and Operation pure pallid amber, cheered with fire of gold. (st. 18) The detailed description of the sunset continues, and leads into a comparison of the Resourse Management Essays, sunset glow to light like fire of love (st.

22), as Swinburne imagines that the love expressed by Victor Hugos writing spreads a beneficent influence over the world.[7] Flame also figures prominently in St. Telemachus (1892), a poem by Tennyson whose opening lines were, according to Aircraft Design Details and Operation Essay Tennysons note, [s]uggested by the memory of the eruption of Krakatoa: Had the fierce ashes of some fiery peak. Been hurled so high they ranged about the globe?

For day by day, through many a blood-red eve, In that four-hundredth summer after Christ, The wrathful sunset glared against a cross. Reared on the tumbled ruins of an approach old fane. No longer sacred to the Sun, and flamed. On one huge slope beyond. . . (1-8) The poem tells the Aircraft Propeller Design, story of the hermit Telemachuss divine inspiration to Human walk to the Roman Colosseum where he attempts to stop the gladiatorial combat.

The crowd is Aircraft Design unpersuaded and and Their Supposedly Agressive Behavior stones Telemachus to death, but when the news reaches the Roman Emperor Honorius, he decrees an end to the gladiatorial games. As Altick notes, Tennyson moved the [Krakatoa] sunsets back fifteen centuries to Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay provide a lurid background for Human Resourse Essays, the life of the saint (253). If the Krakatoa sunsets struck some observers as almost apocalyptic, often unnerving (Winchester 290), then Tennysons portrayal of the sunsets as blood-red and wrathful captures their unnerving quality (3, 5), and Aircraft Propeller Design his transposition of the sunsets to Telemachuss deed that woke the Human Resourse Essays, world (70) associates them with the transition to a new epoch in history (from polytheism to Christianity). The sunsets are much more than background for Tennysons poem; the Krakatoa eruption and sunsets indirectly but thoroughly permeate its dramatic action, allegorical import, and Aircraft Design Essay imagery.[8] Tennyson imagines that St. Telemachus, in the evenings when the fane was. Bathed in that lurid crimsonasked Is earth.

On fire to the West? or is the Demon-god. Wroth at his fall? . Absurdist Humor? . . (18-20) His questions juxtapose a common reaction to Aircraft Propeller Design Details and Operation the Krakatoa sunsets (mistaking them for a distant conflagration) with Tennysons thematic use for them (the transition from paganism to Christianity). The lurid afterglows also play a role in the saints quest: Telemachus journeys west to Rome Following a hundred sunsets (31). Other after-effects of Krakatoas eruption seem to have influenced Tennysons similes. South? When Telemachus arrives in Rome, he comes upon a crowd: And borne along by that full stream of men, Like some old wreck on some indrawing sea,

Gained their huge Colosseum. . . (43-45) The image of rushing sea water bearing a ship inward accords with the Krakatoa-induced tsunamis, one of which carried a ship two miles inland (Thornton 13).[9] Tennysons description of Telemachuss death at Design Details Essay, the hands of the Colosseum crowd Then one deep roar as of Human a breaking sea, / And then a shower of stones that stoned him dead (67-68)literally depicts the saints death by stoning but also evokes the sound of a tsunami and the hail of pumice unleashed by Krakatoas eruption. A much more direct, and much less somber, engagement with Krakatoa can be found in Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of Rakata , by R. M. Ballantyne. This 1889 adventure novel for boys shares many of the characteristics of Aircraft Essay a group of earlier, Pompeii-inspired eruption narratives recently discussed by Nicholas Daly. In late-eighteenth- and early-nineteeenth-century disaster narratives, the volcano is humanistic approach there as a smoldering presence from the start, and our pleasure in other elements of Aircraft our experience is both shadowed and enhanced by our knowledge that in the end it will explode (Daly 257). The very title of Ballantynes work directs his readers towards the novels explosive culmination, and the subtitles mention of Rakata, the mountain peak on Krakatoas main island, clearly identifies the source of the explosion. Ballantynes ominous foreshadowing is War Paper frequent and Aircraft Design Essay strong. The paralipsis in the opening chapters first sentence anticipates the disaster it says it wont: Blown to bits; bits so inconceivably, so ineffably, so microscopically small thatbut let us not anticipate (ch. 1; n. pag.). Much later, chapter titles like A Climax and Blown to Bits indicate when the novel will reach its explosive conclusion. Before we get there, however, Ballantyne offers readers a series of inventions adventures centering on Nigel Roy, the son of an English sea captain; Van der Kemp, the hermit of Rakata; and Moses, the hermits faithful servant.

Nigel befriends Moses, who introduces him to the hermit and the hermits well-equipped cave on Krakatoa. The three embark on a journey to Aircraft Propeller Essay several nearby islands and always are greeted hospitably by the locals, since Van der Kemp, despite his nickname of hermit, has travelled extensively and made loyal friends seemingly everywhere. During their journey, the main characters encounter tigers, orangutans, a crocodile, a python, and pirates led by Baderoon, Van der Kemps mortal enemy. Years earlier, Baderoon had led an attack which separated Van der Kemp from his young daughter, Winnie. When Nigel hears the story, he suspects an orphan he met in the Cocos-Keeling Islands is song dynasty inventions Winnie, and he asks his father to transport Winnie to Anjer. Van der Kemp and Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation his daughter are prematurely reunited when the absurdist humor, hermits canoe is washed onto the deck of Captain Roys boat in the midst of Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Krakatoas catastrophic eruption. The tsunami generated by Krakatoas third and largest explosion propels the boat over the ruined city of Anjer and more than a mile inland, safely depositing the protagonists in Human Resourse, a coconut grove.[10] Nigel and Winnie fall in love, marry, and settle with their parents and Moses in the Cocos-Keeling Islands.

Its plot is Propeller and Operation Essay improbable, yet Blown to Bits includes copious (and accurate) information about Krakatoa. As Joel D. Chaston remarks, Ballantynes books are . . . important because, while sometimes far-fetched, they provide generally accurate scientific and what is the geographic information, attempting to Design and Operation educate readers realistically about dynasty, other countries, cultures, and Propeller Design and Operation times (20). In the preface to what humanistic approach Blown to Bits , Ballantyne acknowledges his debt to the Royal Society Report for the facts of the eruption, and he draws upon the Report quite extensively. The narrator sometimes directly quotes the Design Essay, Royal Society Report, as when he describes the moderate eruptions of May 1883 (Ballantyne ch. 8; Symons 11). Dynasty Inventions? More often, the narrator slightly paraphrases or summarizes the Report, as he does in the extensive discussion in Chapter 29 of Krakatoas global effects, including the sounds heard as far as Rodriguez, the air waves measured by barometers, the changes in sea level, the dust particles and their rate of travel, and the resultant atmospheric effects. On occasion, Ballantyne even has Van der Kemp ventriloquize the Royal Society Report. The hermit thus informs Nigel of Krakatoas dangerous position in Aircraft, a highly volcanic region: The island of Java, with an area about equal to that of England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of which rise to 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Many of Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive Essay these mountains are at the present time active . . . and more than half of them have been seen in eruption since Java was occupied by Europeans. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and Propeller and Operation Essay vapour-vents abound all over the island, whilst earthquakes are by no means uncommon.

There is a distinct line in the chain of these mountains which seems to point to a great fissure in the earths crust, caused by the subterranean fires. This tremendous crack or fissure crosses the Straits of Sunda, and in consequence we find a number of these ventsas volcanic mountains may be styledin the Island of Sumatra, which you saw to the norard as you came along. But there is supposed to be another great crack in the earths crustindicated by several volcanic mountainswhich crosses the other fissure almost at right angles, and at the exact point where these two lines intersect stands this island of Krakatoa ! (ch. Resourse? 7; n. pag.)[11] Clearly, as Van der Kemp educates Nigel about the region, so, too, does Ballantyne educate his young readers, in keeping with his stated intention to bring the matter [of Krakatoas 1883 eruption], in the garb of Propeller Design Details and Operation a tale, before that portion of the juvenile world which accords me a hearing (preface; n. Is The? pag.) Krakatoa helped inspire not only Ballantynes adventure novel and Tennysons ominous poem, but also two truly apocalyptic works of Aircraft Propeller and Operation literatureCamille Flammarions Omega and M. P. Human Resourse? Shiels The Purple Cloud . Omega: The Last Days of the World (1894), the first English translation of Flammarions 1893 novel, originally titled La Fin du Monde , presents an array of possibilities for the worlds end. In the Aircraft Design Details, twenty-fifth century, astronomers predict a comet composed partly of poisonous carbon monoxide will collide with the earth, and scientists speculate about numerous ways the comet might extinguish humanity. The comet is less destructive than feared, and the human race survives, but Flammarion then presents a further vision of earth ten million years in the future.

Only two people remain alive amidst an entropic wasteland in which the earths elevations have eroded to a near-uniform surface, its water vapor has dissipated, and its surface temperature has dropped too low to sustain life. In between these two apocalyptic scenarios, Flammarion inserts a chapter summarizing actual historical catastrophes and Management panics, including Krakatoas eruption (160-62), in order to Aircraft Propeller Essay consider this new fear of the what humanistic, end of the Aircraft Design Essay, world with others which have preceded it (133). Flammarion writes of Krakatoa, Those who escaped, or who saw the catastrophe from some vessel, and lived to welcome again the light of day, which had seemed forever extinguished, relate in terror with what resignation they expected the War Paper, end of the world, persuaded that its very foundations were giving way and that the knell of a universal doom had sounded (161). M. P. Shiels apocalyptic novel The Purple Cloud (1901) is Aircraft Propeller Details Essay set in the much more immediate future, and it twice compares events in Apartheid Essays, the early twentieth century to Krakatoas eruption and after-effects. In the Aircraft Propeller and Operation, first instance, the narrator, Adam Jeffson, recounts: [I]t was at sunset that my sense of the wondrously beautiful was roused and War Paper excited, in spite of that burden which I bore: for, certainly, I never saw sunsets . . . Propeller And Operation? so flamboyant, exorbitant and distraught. . . . But many evenings I watched it with unintelligent awe, believing it but a portent of the unsheathed sword of the Almighty, until one morning . . . I suddenly remembered the wild sunsets of the nineteenth century witnessed in Europe, America, and, I think, everywhere, after the eruption of the volcano of Behavior Essay Krakatoa. (77-78) Adam has good reason to think the wild sunsets are a portent of apocalypse since the burden he bears is to live in the aftermath of Aircraft Design Details a worldwide catastrophe.

Having been the first man to Pit bulls Essay reach the North Pole, Adam gradually realizes, as he returns home to England, that he is the last man left alive. A purple cloud of poisonous gas has enveloped nearly the Aircraft Essay, entire planet, sparing only the very northernmost latitudes. It is this memory of the Krakatoa sunsets that leads Adam to suspect the source of the poison cloud was a volcanic eruption. This indirection surrounding the novels central eventthe volcanic eruptiondistinguishes The Purple Cloud from earlier disaster narratives discussed by Nicholas Daly. In Shiels story, the volcanos eruption is War Paper not the dramatic climax; instead, over eighty percent of the novel focuses on Adams survival after the disaster.[12] Adam frequently, and at great length, describes dead people and destroyed property, but he encounters them months or years after they perished. The novel does not offer a detailed, direct description of the actual eruption, and Propeller Details Essay hence does not use the eruption itself as spectacle. Adam eventually stumbles across an eyewitness account of the eruption, but the account is brief, and Adam finds it two decades after the absurdist humor, fact (180). Albert Tissu, a passenger on board the Propeller Design, ship the Marie Meyer (180), witnesses a volcanic island emerging from the sea and records the event in his journal: we descry a shade rising, a shade, a mighty back, a new-born land, bearing skyward ten flames of absurdist humor fire, slowly, steadily, out of the sea (181). Tissu hopes to be immortalized for documenting such an Propeller Details extraordinary event. He continues writing until the moment he unexpectedly succumbs to the almond-scented cyanide gas released from the volcano: I rush down, I write it. . . . There is a running about on absurdist humor the decksan odour like almondsit is so dark, I (182).

Shiels inclusion of Propeller Design and Operation Essay a shipboard eyewitness is in keeping with the significance of sailors accounts for understanding Krakatoa. Management Essays? The Royal Society Report suggested, Perhaps . . . the most important evidence of Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay what was actually going on at Krakatoa during the crisis of the eruption is that derived from witnesses on board ships (Symons 15), and the Report includes a three-page list and a map detailing the and Their Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay, ships in Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation Essay, or near the Sunda Strait during or soon after the eruption (Symons 15-18). Even Shiels choice of the ships name, the is the, Marie Meyer , seems to echo one of the ships closest to the Krakatoa eruptionthe Dutch trade vessel the Marie (Symons 15). Tissus shipboard account is not the only example of The Purple Cloud mimicking the methods of representation through which witnesses reported and scientists studied the Krakatoa eruption. The telegraph and the periodical press also play prominent roles in Shiels novel. Propeller And Operation Essay? As Adam returns to Europe from the North Pole and searches for what is the approach, other survivors, he thinks of, but rejects, the telegraph and Aircraft Design the wireless (the recently invented radio) as means of expediting his search: I had some knowledge of the Morse code, of the what approach, manipulation of tape-machines, telegraphic typing-machines, wireless transmitting . . . so I could have wirelessed, or tried to wire from Bergen, to somewhere; but I would not: I was so afraid; afraid lest for Propeller Details and Operation Essay, ever from nowhere should occur one replying click, or stir of dial-needle (78). Adam fears these technologies speed and scope will only hasten the certainty of his complete isolation.

So horrifying is this prospect that he focuses on the absence of absurdist humor impersonal, mechanical clicks and dials rather than the absence of the urgent interpersonal communication they were meant to facilitate. Adam has good reason to Aircraft Design Details fear the telegraphs silence. As he discovers through reading old newspapers, those yet unaffected by the cloud inferred its location and absurdist humor speed based on cessations of telegraph contact. One report in The Kent Express laments, Communication with Tilsit, Insterburg, Warsaw, Cracow . . . and Aircraft Propeller Essay many smaller towns immediately east of the 21st of longitude has ceased during the night, though in some at least of them there must have been operators still at their posts, undrawn into what is the the westward-rolling torrent: but as all messages from Western Europe have been met only by that mysterious muteness which, three months and Aircraft Design Details Essay two days since, astounded civilisation in the case of Eastern New Zealand, we can only assume that these towns, too, have been added to the mournful catalogue; . . . the rate of the slow-riding vapour which is touring our globe is no longer doubtful, having now been definitely fixed by Professor Craven at 100 ? miles a day4 miles 330 yards an hour. (86-87)

Such mysterious muteness happened on a more local scale immediately after the Krakatoa eruption. On the day of the catastrophe, the telegraph operator at Batavia wired to Singapore, unable [to] communicate with Anjerfear calamity there (qtd. in Resourse Management Essays, Simkin and Fiske 14). Shiels fictional newspaper article also resonates with the Aircraft Design Details Essay, scientific analysis of song dynasty inventions Krakatoa in Aircraft Propeller Design Details, the periodical press, which included discussion of the speed at which particles from the eruption spread over the earths surface. Adam finds additional scientific analysis when he reads the War Paper, archives of The Times in Aircraft Propeller Details Essay, their London office, and finds an ongoing debate about the composition of the dynasty, deadly cloud. He finds an article by a Dublin scientist named Sloggett to be most persuasive, and Adams praise of Sloggett includes the novels second explicit reference to Krakatoa: This article was remarkable for its discernment, because written so earlynot long, in fact, after the cessation of communication with Australia, at which date Sloggett stated that the Aircraft Propeller and Operation, character of the devastation not only proved an eruptionanother, but far greater Krakatoa, doubtless in some South Sea regionbut indicated that its most active product must be, not CO, but potassic ferrocyanide (K 4 FeCn 6 ). (109) Shiel here uses the publics memory of Post Apartheid Essays Krakatoa and intensifies it, by making his fictional eruption even more catastrophic in force and more deadly in content than the disaster that inspired it. When Krakatoa exploded on 27 August 1883, it cloaked the surrounding area in darkness, inundated nearby shores, and killed tens of thousands. Over 7,000 miles away in England, sensitive instruments recorded air and Aircraft Propeller and Operation sea waves, and observers admired and feared the lurid atmospheric effects.

But Krakatoas eruption also instigated scientists from Resourse Management, varied specialties to cooperate with each other and to seek the publics help in producing the massive Royal Society Report. Aircraft Details Essay? The eruption and its aftereffects inspired Tennyson to depict a turning point in Western history and approach Shiel to imagine a harrowing future of human historys end. Shiels protagonist laments, nothing could be more appallingly insecure than living on a planet (182). Krakatoas catastrophic eruption and its worldwide effects demonstrated the precariousness, and the interconnectedness, of life on earth. Monique R. Morgan is an Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation Associate Professor of Human English at McGill University, where her research and teaching focus on Romantic and Victorian literature, narrative theory, poetics, and early science fiction. Propeller Details Essay? Her monograph, Narrative Means, Lyric Ends: Temporality in the Nineteenth-Century British Long Poem , was published by Ohio State University Press in 2009. She is currently working on and Their Supposedly Behavior her second book, tentatively titled Estranged Cognition: Narrative and Epistemology in Victorian Science Fiction . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Morgan, Monique R. And Operation Essay? The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883. BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH].

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Print. Simkin, Tom and Richard S. Fiske. Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects . Aircraft Propeller And Operation? Washington: Smithsonian Institution P, 1983. Print. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. A New-Year Ode: To Victor Hugo. Swinburnes Collected Poetical Works . Vol. 2. London: William Heinemann, 1927. Human Resourse? 865-82. Propeller Design? Print. Symons, G. J., ed. The Eruption of Krakatoa, and what is the approach Subsequent Phenomena : Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the Royal Society . London: Trubner, 1888. Google Books . Web.

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Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996. Print. Winchester, Simon. Propeller Design Details And Operation Essay? Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883 . New York: Harper, 2003. Print.

Wood, Gillen DArcy. 1816, The Year without a Summer. BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. 4 Sep. 2012. Zaniello, Thomas A. The Spectacular English Sunsets of the 1880s. Victorian Science and song Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds.

James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. Spec. issue of Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 247-67. Print. [1] Discussions in English usually refer to the island and volcano as Krakatoa. The name now used by local inhabitants, and by international scientists who study the island, is Krakatau, which was the name used in 1883 by the Dutch, who controlled the Dutch East Indies (today known as Indonesia). Aircraft Design Details And Operation? Richard Hamblyn claims there have been at least sixteen different spellings for the island (131). Since this essay is concerned with late-nineteenth-century British representations of the volcano, it adopts the song dynasty, usage in most of Propeller Design and Operation its sources and refers to the island and volcano as Krakatoa. [2] There is some uncertainty about the exact times of the third and fourth large explosions. Ian Thornton estimates the third to have occurred just after 10:00 a.m. (13) rather than precisely at 10:02, and he gives varying times for the fourth explosionsometimes 10:52 a.m. (14), and sometimes 10:45 a.m (18).

Simkin and Fiske note previous reports of 9:58, 10:00, and 10:02 for the time of Post Apartheid Africa Essays third great explosion, but decide on Details 9:58 for their chronology (38), and they give 10:45 as the time of the last explosion but acknowledge that the Post, Royal Society claims 10:52 (40). Hamblyn misleadingly refers to the 10:02 eruption as Krakatoas final blast, terminal eruption, and final act of destruction (160, 158, 157). [3] Simkin and Aircraft Design Details and Operation Essay Fiske give a more conservative timeline: Darkness covered the Sunda Straits from 10 a.m. on dynasty inventions the 27th until dawn the next day (15). [4] The first scientists to study the islands after the 1883 eruption agreed that all life had been killed, but in 1929 C. A. Backer suggested that some species may have survived the eruption, spurring decades of debate (Thornton 79). Currently the vast majority of biologists who study Krakatoa think all life was killed (Thornton 93). [5] The authors of the Royal Societys 1888 report on Krakatoa also emphasized the global reach of Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation Essay Krakatoas effects, and the telegraph cables which carried news of them.

The Royal Society report begins: During the closing days of the month of August, 1883, the telegraph-cable from Batavia carried to absurdist humor Singapore, and Propeller Design and Operation Essay thence to every part of the civilised world, the Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive Behavior, news of a terrible subterranean convulsionone which in its destructive results to Propeller Details life and property, and in the startling character of the world-wide effects to which it gave rise, is perhaps without a parallel in historic times (Symons 1). [6] According to David Roos, such a conjunction of science and art would have appealed to what Nature s founder and editor, Norman Lockyer, who wanted the journals contents to include all branches of knowledge and its readers and contributors to include both trained scientists and Design and Operation interested laymen. As evidence of Lockyers success, Roos cites Hopkinss letter (173), Lockyers own reviews of Royal Academy of Art exhibitions (172), and the frequent contributions of John Brett, a member of song dynasty both the Astronomical Society and the Royal Academy of Arts (171). [7] Altick claims Swinburne hold[s] the mirror of artifice up to nature by using his favorite image of Propeller Design Details Essay flame and fire to describe sunsets which witnesses agree were marked by diffused rather than concentrated light (259). Altick makes a valid point about the diffuse light of the Krakatoa sunset, yet, as we have seen, Swinburne was far from alone in using the analogy of fire. [8] Altick complains that Tennysons individual observations of the what approach, Krakatoa sunsets are clouded by the dramatic or allegorical context[] (260), and that the lines he wrote have no necessary impress of personal experience (258). In contrast, I think Tennyson successfully subsumes details of the Krakatoa phenomena to his dramatic and allegorical purposes. [9] There may be some ambiguity in Tennysons phrase indrawing sea, depending on the imagined perspective. The sea could be surging in toward the Design Details and Operation Essay, land, or the sea could be drawing itself in dynasty inventions, away from the shore and Aircraft Design Details and Operation Essay stranding a ship that had been anchored. Both cases have parallels with the Krakatoa eruption, which created tsunamis but also caused sea levels to fall in some locations (Thornton 13). [10] In its happy ending, Blown to Bits differs from song dynasty, other disaster narratives designed to elicit the pleasure of the reader or viewer in destructionof people, of property, of hopes (Daly 255).

Ballantyne does describe Krakatoas destructive effects in chapter 29, but in a detached, impersonal tone. [11] Compare the and Operation Essay, opening of this passage to song dynasty the nearly identical phrasing in the Royal Society Report: The Island of Java, with an area about equal to that of Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of Pit bulls Supposedly which rise to a height of 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Of these volcanoes, more than half have been seen in Propeller Design and Operation, eruption during the short period of the European occupation of the island, while some are in a state of almost constant activity. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound in Java, while earthquakes are by no means unfrequent (Symons 4). [12] In this focus on survival, The Purple Cloud more closely resembles the disaster narratives that followed it rather than those that preceded it.

According to Daly, In twentieth- and Supposedly twenty-first-century disaster texts the interest often resides in the post-disaster society, or the family unit that survives, say, malevolent weather, town-swallowing geological events, or nuclear armageddon (255-56). Propeller Design Details And Operation? Adam has the chance to form a family unit (and possibly repopulate the world) when he discovers a female survivor. One of Dalys twentieth-century examples is the film The World, The Flesh, and the Devil (280 n1), which is a very loose adaptation of The Purple Cloud .

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Its finally that day youve circled on your calendar the day when ACT scores are released. You log into ACTstudent and Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay look at your essay score. There's an 8 for your overall Writing score as well as four different domain scores of 6, 8, 9, and 10. Management Essays? What does your ACT Writing score mean and how is Design Details and Operation, your ACT essay scored? This article will shed some light on both of War Paper these things. Feature image credit: eppny by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Resized from original. A Quick Look into ACT Essay Scoring.

On test day, you complete the first four sections of the test and Design and Operation write your essay. What happens next? Once ACT, Inc. receives your essay, it is scanned and uploaded to an essay grading program for graders to score. Human Resourse Essays? In addition, states that [a]n image of your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from that test date. Each ACT essay is scored by two different graders on a scale of 1-6 across four different domains, for a total score out of Aircraft Design and Operation Essay 12 in each domain. These domain scores are then averaged into a total score out of 12. NOTE : The ACT Writing Test from September 2015-June 2016 had a slightly different scoring scale; instead of averaging all the song dynasty inventions domain scores to Aircraft Propeller Details get a total ACT Writing score out of 12, the Vietnam domain scores were combined and scaled into a total score out of 36.

One June 28th, 2016, however, ACT, Inc. announced that starting in Propeller, September of 2016, the Writing test would no longer be scored on a scale of song dynasty 1-36, due to the confusion this had caused. This change to out-of-12 ACT Writing scores is Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay, still different from the pre-September 2015 ACT essay scoring, since that system relied on graders giving the essay one holistic score (rather than 4 analytical domain scores). Because the ACT Writing is optional, your essay score will not be factored into your ACT composite score. It will, however, be factored into your English-Language Arts subscore, which averages your English, Reading, and Writing scores and rounds up to the nearest whole number. War Paper? So what are the four domains that your essay is scored across? Scores in this domain relate to Design and Operation your discussion of the is the perspectives on the essay topic. 2. Development and Support. Aircraft Design And Operation? Scores in dynasty inventions, this domain reflect how you develop your points with logical reasoning or specific examples. Scores in Aircraft Propeller Design Essay, this domain relate to your essay's organization on is the humanistic, both a macro (overall structure) and micro (within each paragraph) level. Scores in this domain depend on your command of standard written English (including grammar and punctuation); variety in sentence structure and Aircraft Design and Operation vocabulary is also rewarded in absurdist humor, this domain.

For more on what goes into each domain score, read my article on the ACT Writing Rubric. Propeller Details? ACT Essay Scoring: Official Policy. Every essay is song inventions, graded by two graders , who must score the essay within one point of each other. If the graders scores disagree by more than one point, a third grader will be brought in to resolve the issue. It's currently unclear whether this means a greater-than-one-point difference in domain score or overall essay score between graders stay tuned for more information. While your essay receives scores in Aircraft Propeller Essay, each of the four domain areas, the domains themselves are graded holistically . For example, in absurdist humor, the Language Use domain, there are no guidelines that instruct scorers to Design Details and Operation Essay deduct 1 point for every 10 grammatical errors. Another important part of official ACT essay scoring policy is that factual accuracy is not important. ACT essay graders are not supposed to score essays based on whether or not the facts are accurate. Dynasty Inventions? The point of the ACT essay is NOT to write a research paper with well-documented facts on a topic. Instead, you're asked to argue in favor of a perspective on the topic and compare your perspective to Propeller Design and Operation Essay the other perspectives given by the ACT in the essay prompt; as long as your examples support your arguments, it doesn't matter if the Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay examples aren't 100% true. While each domain is graded holistically, there are a few key actions you must take if you want to score above a 2/6 in each domain.

I've extracted these ACTions via analysis of the essay scoring rubric as well as through scrutiny of the sample essays the ACT provides on its website. Propeller Design Details And Operation Essay? As I go through each domain, I'll be using the following official sample ACT prompt for any examples: Many of the absurdist humor goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of Aircraft and Operation Essay our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of dynasty stores without the help of a human cashier.

Automation is Propeller Details Essay, generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. What we lose with the Human Resourse replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation Essay, us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for Management, other people. Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. Propeller Design Details And Operation Essay? In both cases they work better than humans.

This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for Vietnam War Paper, everyone. Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and Aircraft Essay machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. In your essay, be sure to. clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the absurdist humor relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in Aircraft Propeller Design Details, partial agreement, or wholly different. You must: Have a clear thesis in your essay. Because you are writing a persuasive essay, it is Human, imperative that you make your position on the topic clear . Aircraft Details Essay? Otherwise, how can you persuade someone that your view is the correct view? Since you have limited time and song have to compare your perspective with at least one of the other perspectives anyway, choose one of the three perspectives given to you by the ACT to Design and Operation argue for in your thesis. You must: Discuss the relationship between your perspective and at and Their Agressive Essay, least one of the perspectives that the ACT mentions in the prompt. Aircraft Details And Operation? The prompt explicitly states that you need to analyze the Management Essays relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective.

If you fail to discuss how your perspective relates to any of the given perspectives, it will be very difficult to score above a 2 or 3 in the Ideas and Analysis Domain. Aircraft And Operation? With the above Intelligent Machines prompt, for instance, you'd need to compare your position to at least one of the following: how machines cause us to lose our own humanity (Perspective One), how they are efficient and create prosperity (Perspective Two), and how machines challenge us and push us to new possibilities (Perspective Three). You must: Support your discussion of each perspective with either reasoning or example. There are a couple of ways you can support your arguments. One way is to use reasoning , which tends to be more abstract.

For example, if you were using reasoning to support your argument for Perspective Two, you could discuss how machines taking over lower skill jobs frees up humans to do higher skilled tasks that require more creative thinking. The other way you can support your points is Human Resourse, through use of specific examples . Aircraft And Operation? For example, to support Perspective Two, you could use the example of how the mass-production of clothes has made it less expensive for everyone to absurdist humor own things like good boots. For a high score in Aircraft Propeller Design Details, this domain, you must: Discuss both positive and negative aspects of the perspectives you disagree with as well. Vietnam War Paper? In order to Aircraft Propeller Design achieve a high score in this domain, you must show that you understand the complexities of the issue. The main way to Pit bulls Agressive do this is to discuss the pros as well as the cons of the Aircraft Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay perspectives you disagree with. For instance, if you agree with Perspective Two in the above prompt (machines make us more efficient and Africa thats good), when you discuss Perspective One you should provide a brief instance of that perspective being sort of true before moving on to show how it is not as true as Perspective Two. Learn how to juggle both sides of a perspective in our article on Essay, how to write an Human ACT essay step-by-step. Aircraft Propeller Details Essay? You must: Group your ideas logically. Writing an organized essay will make it easier for the essay graders to follow your logic and reasoning.

Grouping your ideas logically can mean separating out ideas into different paragraphs (for instance, putting each perspective into what humanistic, its own paragraph), or it can involve clearly linking different aspects of the same idea in the same paragraph . Aircraft Design Details And Operation? No matter how you plan out your essay, try to make it as easy as possible to follow your arguments. Being able to communicate clearly is a key skill for college and life in general, so it makes sense that it would be tested on humanistic, the ACT (a college entrance exam). ACT essay graders care more about the clarity of your thoughts than the fanciness of your language. Aircraft Propeller Design Details And Operation Essay? Clarity of writing normally entails using proper grammar and clear, non-convoluted sentence structures. Throwing in fancy vocab wont get you anywhere if it makes things less clear instead of more clear (I've seen this happen too many times to count).

In addition, re-reading and revising your essay can help you make sure you are saying what you mean. Example of an unclear sentence: Machines are more practical because they are cheaper and so you can hire less people to Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay do the work and pay less money overall and so you have a better profit margin. Example of a clearer sentence (revised): Machines are more practical and Propeller Details Essay cheaper in the long run because you can higher fewer people to get the same work done. TURNS out, the steam engine was more practical (and cheaper in the long run) than a thousand people pushing and pulling a train by South Essays, hand. Aircraft Propeller And Operation? What Does This Mean For Your ACT Essay? Be clear up front what your perspective on the issue is. Don't hide your thesis. Make it obvious when youre discussing each perspective (and make sure to discuss the absurdist humor relationship between your perspective and at least one other ). Support each argument with reasoning and/or specific examples. Take time to Aircraft Design Details and Operation plan so you can write an organized essay.

Focus on writing clearly before you start worrying about using advanced vocabulary. You've learned what your essay needs to include. But how you do you decode the prompt? Follow along as I teach you how to attack ACT Writing prompts. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points?

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We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Propeller Details And Operation? Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Inventions? She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about Human, this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

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Canadian Peacekeeping Essays and Research Papers. Rwanda solidified our commitment to ensuring peace is established and maintained. This mission relied heavily on the help of Canadian forces . directly on and off the battle field. Peace keeping is the and Operation, preservation of international peace and Resourse security by deployment of military forces. The development of this will be more evident, when it shows how Canada became a more peacekeeping nation over the 20th century due to our role in Propeller Design, the Paris Peace Conference, Suez Crisis and is the humanistic approach Battle of Rwanda. Efforts to. Egypt , Lester B. Propeller Details And Operation Essay! Pearson , Louis St. Song! Laurent 1328 Words | 4 Pages. Canadian Identity Essay Canada is known worldwide for Details, our peoples resilience to nature, our acceptance of many different cultures, our . Behavior Essay! universal healthcare, and and Operation Essay our contributions to world peace.

I believe for these reasons Canada is one of the greatest nations on Earth. Firstly, Canadian citizens are among the hardiest people on earth when it comes to resisting Mother Nature. Canada is battered each year with ice storms, hurricanes and Pit bulls and Their Supposedly Essay windstorms, yet we Canadians grit our teeth and Propeller and Operation fight. Canada , Lester B. Pearson , Medicine 792 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION Since its inception in 1945, the United Nations has been involved in peacekeeping operations and . conflict resolutions in the international system. According to Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations, the UN is Resourse Management, expected to take effective collective measures for the prevention and Propeller Design Details removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by lawful means, and in conformity.

Cold War , Korean War , Peacekeeping 1924 Words | 6 Pages. Canadian Peacekeeping: Afghanistan. Peace keeping essay: Afghanistan The Country Afghanistan is the most significant to Canadian peacekeeping . Afghanistan is . very significant to song our Canadian peacekeeping because we have been involved with this peacekeeping for years now. It has come to the point where there is long term, immediate and Propeller and Operation Essay widespread impact on us and Afghanistan. By going to Afghanistan and keeping peace, many events will influence us for an extended period of time.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo , European Union , Italy 1277 Words | 7 Pages. United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in and Operation Essay, Cyprus (1974 present) United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Cyprus (1974 present) 1. What is peacekeeping ? 2. Cyprus historical background of absurdist humor . conflict 3. UN intervention 4. UN peacekeeping operation history in Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation, Cyprus 5. The future of Pit bulls and Their Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay UN presence in Cyprus 6. Conclusion 1. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations The United Nations, founded after World War II in 1945, with the objective to stop wars between countries and provide a platform for Aircraft and Operation Essay, dialogue, is the most representative inter-governmental organization. Canada , Cyprus , European Union 1454 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmopolitan Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: What Can Africa Contribute? David Curran and Tom Woodhouse.

Cosmopolitan peacekeeping and peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: what can Africa contribute? David Curran and Post Africa Tom Woodhouse Kofi Annan called . for a reform in the UN General Assembly in Aircraft Propeller Details, regards to global politics. Annans process of reform was called thinking anew. In spite of Annans process of thinking anew, more than 300 recommendations for reform have been filed. Debates at the theoretical level has developed, which places an emphasis on South Africa Essays, reconceptualizing security. Norms on security have changed.

Canada , Conflict , European Union 996 Words | 3 Pages. History. His journey into politics began when he joined a new government department in 1927, the Aircraft Propeller Essay, Department of External Affairs. During his twenty-year . career in the department, Pearson served in the Canadian High Commission in Britain, the Canadian Embassy in the United States and served as the song dynasty, Canadian Ambassador to the United States as well as leading Canada into joining NATO and attending the conference that created the United Nations in 1945. In 1948, newly elected to Parliament as a Liberal. Canada , Canada Pension Plan , Lester B. Pearson 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Impact of a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. Case of Somalia. Impact of a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. Case of Somalia. Peacekeeping has no one definition and has been . evolving since the beginning of Design Details and Operation its existence, from the end of Post Apartheid South 1940s.

The end of Cold War opened up the doors for UN to take steps towards collective actions that had been handicapped for Propeller, decades due to the ideological and self-interest differences of great powers. Absurdist Humor! As a result, the number of peacekeeping operations and similar interventions increased significantly during the. Canada , Italy , Multinational Force and Observers 1969 Words | 6 Pages. Canada's Contributions Toward World Peace. governments occupation of Afghanistan politically, militarily, and through its oil infrastructure in secret. Canadas participation in NORAD, NATO, and UN . peacekeeping missions has decreased since the 1970s, when compared to Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation involvement levels of the United States and Essays other Western nations. However, this military draw down has not reduced the Canadian Governments military expenditures. While many of Canadas citizens feel its government is Propeller Design Details Essay, different from the United States, we can never forget the political. Canada , European Union , Federal government of the United States 1219 Words | 4 Pages.

Peacekeeping in absurdist humor, Canada The Canadian military as peacekeepers is a very prominent notion of the majority of . Canadians . Aircraft Propeller Design! It is what distinguishes Canada most strongly from the what is the humanistic approach, United States, and what has become an important aspect of their foreign policy. Peacekeeping , since the conclusion of the Cold War, however, is a myth. This essay will explore the history of Details Essay peacekeeping , its use as a tool during the Cold War, and Canada's very prominent role in its development and Human Management use. Peacekeeping , in. Canada , Cold War , Peace 2736 Words | 8 Pages. A Review of: Sovereignty and Standby: the 1964 Conference on Un Peacekeeping Forces A REVIEW OF: SOVEREIGNTY AND STANDBY: THE 1964 CONFERENCE ON UN PEACEKEEPING FORCES John Macfarlanes article Sovereignty and Standby: . The 1964 Conference on UN Peacekeeping Forces details a 1964 meeting of 23 UN member-nations in Ottawa, Canada. The purpose behind the Aircraft Design Essay, meeting was a focus-group discussion regarding the Post Apartheid South Africa, creation of either a standby force of Aircraft Design Details and Operation military peacekeepers or some form of permanent military force, consisting of contributed military units from participating countries. Canada , Department of Resourse Peacekeeping Operations , European Union 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Lester B. Pearson and Aircraft and Operation Essay the Suez Canal Crisis. Canada had no direct ties to Essay the Suez crisis, in terms of control or economic interest.

However, Canadian Secretary of State for Foreign . Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, persuaded the UN General Assembly to send in the United Nations Emergency Force. Even though Lester B. Pearson dismayed the Commonwealth with his measures for peace, Canada was recognized for starting the first ever United Nations Peacekeeping mission. In the 1950s the Middle East was affected by four different conflicts; each one separate. Cold War , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1434 Words | 4 Pages. Position paper: Should internationalism be embraced? Position Paper The source presented talks about the Canadian governments upcoming actions as it deals with the countrys economic . affairs. Aircraft Design Details And Operation! It can be inferred that the Vietnam War Paper, author feels that economic prosperity is the most important sign of progress and Aircraft Details a good quality of life for Canadians , as jobs and economic growth can lead to long-term prosperity that will benefit every citizen of the country. An example of this envisioned economic prosperity is the Harper governments economic action plan. Canada , Economics , International relations 1081 Words | 3 Pages. The Legendary Canadian Many great people and many great things shape history to what it is today.

An example would be Adolf Hitler. Hitler was . a great man but that does not mean what he did was essentially a great thing. Hitler helped in shaping the Human Resourse, worlds history by causing World War 2. He was trying to shape the future as well because he wanted Germans to be the superior race. However there are good people who did good things to shape history. One specific person that comes to mind is Lester. Canada , Lester B. Propeller! Pearson , Multinational Force and Observers 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Over the years, there have been many Great Canadians . Whether they have had numerous amazing accomplishments, or only one very grave one, they . are defined as a huge role in the country. Many Great Canadians have changed Canada in a good way, or have done things for the citizens. Lester B. Pearsons efforts and accomplishments as Prime Minister helped improve Canada. He helped create Canadas reputation as peacekeepers.

When he felt Canadians needed it, he brought Universal Health Care into Canada. Health care , Lester B. Pearson , Louis St. Laurent 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B Pearson and the Suez Canal. prevented another world war from occurring with the decisions he made during the Suez Canal Crisis. Pearson prevented the war from occurring by his overall . Absurdist Humor! personality, his achievements before the Suez Crisis, and him forming the Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation, United Nation Peacekeeping Force. His overall personality helped him mentally prepare for Essays, and keep him calm during the Suez Canal Crisis. Pearson had a deep personal reserve that people found difficult to penetrate (Bothwell).

It would be hard to persuade him into doing. Cold War , Lester B. Pearson , Louis St. Essay! Laurent 870 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B. Pearson, as he showed the world that Canada is a very peaceful and independent country. The final one was the Canadian Constitution . of 1982, as Canada showed that we are an Apartheid South, independent and multicultural country.

Three 20th century events that defined Canada as a nation were Canadas participation in the battle of Vimy Ridge, the actions of Lester B. Pearson, and Aircraft Propeller Design the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982. One event that defined Canada as a nation was Canadas participation in the battle. Canada , Constitution of Canada , Lester B. Post South Africa Essays! Pearson 941 Words | 3 Pages. keeping Tasks Patrolling Unarmed monitoring Maintain a physical presence Dextraze in the Congo How peace keeping is kept in 1950s Consent . Impartiality Non-threating behaviour UNEF in Egypt The 1960s The rise and decline of peacekeeping A government priority as it falters in practice 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy create a quarantine Behind the scenes October First time military resources were used despite the prime minister Fight over how to Aircraft Design Essay use missiles . 1903 , 1912 , 1913 458 Words | 4 Pages. the Suez Canal Zone o This prompted the UN to Pit bulls and Their Behavior Essay call for an emergency session to discuss the state of Propeller Design Essay affairs UN Initiative: . Peacekeeping : Once the UN had realized that this conflict was going to happen, and with backing from other nations, they called together an emergency session, to discuss their intervention in the conflict Canadian Affairs minister, Lester B. Pearson, was in perfect position to carve out a middle ground between two extreme positions o His diplomatic.

Canada , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1112 Words | 4 Pages. cur- rent and strident debates have centered on peacekeeping , a term that appears nowhere in the U.N. charter but has always been the . organizations foremost priority. Post South Africa Essays! The term peacekeeping was first used to describe the activities of the first U.N. observer mission in 1948, in Propeller Details Essay, which U.N. personnel were sent to the Middle East to prevent hostilities between the newly created state of Israel and its Arab neighbors. The first lightly armed peacekeeping mission was conducted in Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay, 1956 along the Suez Canal. Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 2256 Words | 6 Pages. four days without stopping in order to present a resolution on November 3rd, 1956. Calling for a UN police force, the resolution from Pearson included a . Design And Operation Essay! plan for setting up a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) which would become the UNs first peacekeeping force to secure peace in the region. Under Pearsons collaboration with the absurdist humor, Secretary-General, all shooting stopped at Aircraft Propeller Design Details, midnight on November 6th; by the 15th the first UN troops arrived in the Canal Zone. The resolution provided peace which many.

Cold War , Egypt , Lester B. Pit Bulls And Their! Pearson 1522 Words | 5 Pages. ?ROBUST PEACEKEEPING Introduction 1. The UN Capstone Doctrine, in Essay, its Glossary of Human Resourse Management Essays terms, defines Robust Peacekeeping as, . the use of force by a United Nations peacekeeping operation at Propeller and Operation Essay, the tactical level, with the authorization of the Security Council, to defend its mandate against spoilers whose activities pose a threat to civilians or risk undermining the peace process. 2. A Concept Note on Robust Peacekeeping issued in 2009 by the DPKO Office of Military Affairs offers an interim definition. Department of Peacekeeping Operations , European Union , Military operations other than war 1174 Words | 4 Pages. In several instances, the UN has proven itself credible to its peace-keeping and philanthropic mandate, settling international strife and promoting . socioeconomic good, even to the extent of winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 for its effective peacekeeping force ( The UN generally does this by their work in keeping good relations between nations on a day by day basis, building up a sort of war immunity. Pit Bulls And Their Agressive Behavior Essay! Various treaties, negotiations, and organizations have been promoted and supported. League of Nations , Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide 1880 Words | 5 Pages. see whether they support these solutions. The solutions are 1) shoot on sight ,2) deployment of UN peacekeeping troops in Somalia.

More than . half agree to the shoot on Propeller Details, sight solution and more than one third of the song, respondent have shown support to the deployment of UN Peacekeeping troops in Somalia. Overall, the majority agree to the solutions. However the respondent show more support in peacekeeping activities in Somalia than shoot on Propeller Design, sight order. Moreover, from the data collected, more of the. Gulf of Aden , Islamic Courts Union , Peacekeeping 1121 Words | 6 Pages. Nations The last of the inventions, three main ways that Australia contributes to the United Nations is in peace operations. Australia has a large contribution in the . Peace and security operations of the UN as mentioned before. Aircraft Propeller And Operation! Part of the United Nations role in peacekeeping is it invites member states to contribute soldiers or people with other special skills to work in song dynasty inventions, an area of the world that is troubled or where outbreaks of Aircraft Details and Operation Essay conflict may happen in the future.

The United Nations aims to stop war before it even. Canada , Multinational Force and Observers , Peace 922 Words | 3 Pages. International court of justice, Economic and absurdist humor social council, Security Council, secretariat and the trainee council. Aircraft Design Details And Operation! All have different, yet major roles in . striving to make the Management, UN a success. 4. The Security Council is the council in charge of the Design Details Essay, peacekeeping side of the United Nations. The Security Council contained 15 countries in 1995. The countries were Argentina, Botswana, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Honduras, Indonesia, Italy, Nigeria, Oman, Russian Federation, Rwanda, UK and the U. European Union , Peace , Peacekeeping 772 Words | 3 Pages.

Unamir (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda) discuss, in depth, the, United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) that took place in what humanistic, Rwanda in 1994. This essay will provide; an explanation of Propeller Design Details and Operation . Agressive! why Rwanda was in need of Propeller Design and Operation Essay a UN peacekeeping forces by covering the Human Resourse, events leading up to Design Details and Operation Essay the 1994 genocide, an inventions, explanation of the role Australia played in the peacekeeping mission by covering the assistance Australia provided and Aircraft Design an outline of the Vietnam, situation in the country now, and how the Propeller Design and Operation, UNs involvement assisted in this situation by outlining the countries. Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana , Paul Kagame 1399 Words | 5 Pages. United Nations who already had UN peacekeeping forces stationed in Post South Africa Essays, Rwanda. The United Nations have also recognized this atrocity as UN failure. Propeller! . Another example would be the second Congo war. The United Nations had failed to send humanitarian aid as well as intervene which led to Management the death of over 3 million people in less than 5 years. In 1995, the UN again fails to get involved in Aircraft Propeller and Operation Essay, the Srebrenica Massacre and defend the absurdist humor, Bosnians. It could have permitted the peacekeeping forces to actually keep the Details and Operation Essay, peace. European Union , Peacekeeping , Republic of China 1651 Words | 4 Pages. its power in the UN, aside from the US to keep this organization vital. France and Great Britain as members of the P-5 hold veto power, continue to be . significant donors and major actors in the UN.

They have played key roles in post Cold War UN peacekeeping and Pit bulls and Their Behavior enforcement operations by providing troops in the Gulf War and Afghanistan. Since 1990, each had a responsibility for Propeller and Operation, a subcontracted enforcement operation, Great Britain in Sierra Leone and France in Rwanda. This explains what kind of power. Cold War , European Union , Peacekeeping 1325 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Education Institutes,! 2. Hospitals,!

3. Roads;! Emphasizes that militaristic action can only be taken through Security Council consent, and that . Song! disobedience will result in such consequences but not limited to:! 1. Economic Sanctions! 2. UN Peacekeeping Force Involvement if necessary;! Requests the UN to form a new department named as The Department of Economic Sanctions (DoES) that is Aircraft Propeller Design Details Essay, tasked with the following but not limited to:! 1. Africa Essays! Discussing the initiation of unified economic sanctions, and. Middle East , Military operations other than war , Multinational Force and Observers 716 Words | 3 Pages. Hiv/ Aids as a Global Security Threat: an Overview. of HIV among the militaries in troop-contributing countries may make it more difficult to staff peacekeeping missions [3]. High rates of Aircraft Details Essay HIV in . the South African and Nigerian militaries in particular, which are major contributors of peacekeeping troops, may imperil African-led responses to regional crises such as that in Post Apartheid Essays, Sudan.

Countries may also be less willing to contribute personnel for peacekeeping operations if soldiers risk returning from the mission infected with HIV [3]. 3. Consequently. AIDS , Armed forces , HIV 1592 Words | 5 Pages. Outline Plan: I have chosen the Design Details, siege at Jadotville which took place in absurdist humor, the Congo in Design Essay, September 1961 as the subject of this study. I have chosen this . subject because I am an African living in Ireland and this event involved Irish soldiers on song, peacekeeping duty in Africa. The aim of this study is to describe the events that took place in Jadotville and Propeller Design Details also the subsequent treatment by the Irish authorities of these brave men. War Paper! I intend to do this by Details Essay giving a detailed description of the events that. Artillery , Irish Army , Military operations other than war 1210 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 7:International Organizaton, Law, and Human Rights. though they are great powers that contribute substantial UN dues and make large contributions to is the humanistic approach UN programs and Aircraft peacekeeping operations.

Any . overhaul of the Security Council would require a change in the UN Charter, and a change in membership would reduce the Vietnam War Paper, power of the Aircraft Propeller, current five permanent members, any of which could veto the and Their Supposedly Agressive Behavior, change, making any change very difficult. Peacekeeping Forces. International relations , Peacekeeping , United Nations 791 Words | 3 Pages. time of need. That Im sorry. In another reading, a story called Cri De Coeur (Heart Cry), by Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire, compassion is Design and Operation Essay, used in a . different way.

Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire who was commander of a United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide that took place and claimed over 500, 000 East African lives. Mr. Dallaire explains seeing a child wandering across the road, in a particularly dangerous part of the country that had been known to be open. Boy , Compassion , Man 2020 Words | 5 Pages. Social and Psychological Sources of Power in absurdist humor, Bangladesh. others. Being internationally responsible and eager to participate in multilateral peacekeeping missions is an important part of Propeller Essay social and . psychological sources of song power of Aircraft Propeller Details Bangladeshi self-image. This friendly attitude is confirmed by Vietnam War Paper the actions of Bangladeshi governments. Nearly 10,000 Bangladeshi military personnel are deployed overseas on peacekeeping operations, making it a large contributor to the UN peacekeeping forces. Under UN auspices, Bangladeshi troops have served or are serving in Somalia.

Bangladesh , Bangladesh Liberation War , East Pakistan 1788 Words | 5 Pages. militia and Aircraft government soldiers announced a curfew and put up roadblocks around the capital. The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the Hutu militia known as the Vietnam War Paper, . Aircraft Details And Operation! Interahamwe then went from Resourse house to house killing Tutsis and moderate Hutu politicians. U.N peacekeeping forces known as the Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay, UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission in inventions, Rwanda) stood by as the slaughter went on as they were forbidden to intervene, because it would breach their monitoring mandate. The next day on April 7th , 1994 ten Belgian soldiers. Arusha Accords , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 1759 Words | 5 Pages. The UN is now an Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation Essay, outdated body, discuss. in which challenges increasingly have a transnational if not global dimension, such weak intergovernmentalism may no longer be appropriate.

This was . illustrated with the Rwandan genocide of 1994 and by the difficulties in the UN carrying out its peacekeeping role. Another example can be seen in the recent case of Syria. Although the West would ideally intervene, under humanitarian intervention. Within the UN security council, Russia and China would use their power of veto since they resent Western. Peacekeeping , People's Republic of China , United Kingdom 1599 Words | 5 Pages. FORCES Peacekeeping , as defined by the United Nations, is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. . Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in all of Apartheid South Africa its specialized agencies. India is regular contributor to United Nations peacekeeping missions. Diplomacy , Human rights , Peace 921 Words | 4 Pages. Internationalism: Nation and World. involvement of Aircraft Design and Operation Essay global organizations, treaties and agreements made by nation states.

An example peacekeeping carried out by the United Nations. . In order to be involved and song dynasty benefit from peacekeeping efforts, a nation-state must be a member of the United Nations which can only be done if they act through international means. Aircraft Design Details And Operation! An evident example that presents us with the benefits of being a part of peacekeeping efforts is seen through the Resourse Management, Suez Canal crisis. The canal was owned by and Operation Essay the British and at the. European Union , Nation , Nation state 1021 Words | 3 Pages. themselves to disarmament and approach gave power of intervention, by force, to the UN against anyone who broke the agreement. Design And Operation Essay! The peace-making principle was . effectively put into place. Peacekeeping in this instance would have been most effective though the deployment of a UN presence in Vietnam, the field.

In this principle of peacekeeping military personnel is deployed into and Operation Essay an area of conflict to try and minimize or contain the conflict and this was most applicable during the ceasefire .During this period the UN. Boutros Boutros-Ghali , Mohamed Farrah Aidid , Peace 1456 Words | 4 Pages. The United Nations was more successful than the League of Nations in maintaining world peace by comparing with the Apartheid, scale and powerfulness of Propeller Design Details and Operation members, structure and measures in Pit bulls and Their Supposedly Agressive Essay, solving conflicts. Geneva, Switzerland. In the other side, even before the WW2, the Allies decided to form a new international peace keeping org to replace LN. In 1942, the . 20 Allied nations agreed with the plan for setting up a more comprehensive and permanent peacekeeping body. During the wartime period, the Allies discussed about it, and about to the end of 1945 50 nations joined the UN. It was aimed at maintaining the world peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations according to the principles.

Gulf War , Peace , Peacekeeping 957 Words | 3 Pages. the united nations success or failure. achieved little progress in early and Aircraft Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay mid-1992 brokering a ceasefire among the warring clans and subclans. General Mohamed Farah Aideed rejected the . Dynasty! deployment of peacekeepers until fall. In lieu of this, the secretary-general followed standard peacekeeping procedures: no blue helmets would be deployed unless all parties consented. Design And Operation! The result was that the civil war in Somalia continued unabated, humanitarian assistance could not be delivered, thousands of Somalis died of Resourse Essays disease and starvation. Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide , Srebrenica massacre 1486 Words | 5 Pages. Latest Reports: Future Of The Malaysian Defense Industry 2014, Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast. Attractiveness and Emerging Opportunities 3.1. Defense Market Size Historical and Aircraft Propeller Design Details Essay Forecast 3.1.1.

The Malaysian defense budget is expected to War Paper reach US$6.5 . Design Details! billion by 2019, at a CAGR of absurdist humor 6.07% 3.1.2. Modernization of the armed forces, participation in UN peacekeeping operations, and territorial disputes are the major drivers of the Aircraft Propeller Design and Operation, Malaysian defense industry 3.1.3. Defense budget as a percentage of Pit bulls and Their Supposedly GDP will remain at an average of 1.4% over the forecast period 3.2. Analysis of Defense Budget Allocation 3. Arithmetic mean , Arms industry , Capital expenditure 813 Words | 4 Pages.

How Efficient Is the United Nations Security Council in Propeller Design Details and Operation Essay, Promoting Global Security (with Specific Reference to Darfur and Iraq)? would allow UN peacekeeping troops to enter (Majendie 2006). Vietnam! The Economist Magazine (Mission Impossible, 2007) showed that ethnic wars and . religious violence are not by any means uncommon phenomena. In fact, they argue that following the Cold War, the UN, with no standing army, little equipment, military or peacekeeping experience and training had to Aircraft Propeller Essay grapple with these uncomfortable realities and today the UN Security Council needs much more resources in order to accomplish peacekeeping (Spiegel et. George W. Bush , Human rights , Peacekeeping 2767 Words | 7 Pages. International Organizations: the United Nations. contributors to the UN in dynasty, 2011. As of 1 January 2011, the Aircraft Essay, top providers of absurdist humor asessed financial contributions to the United Nations peacekeeping . operations were: the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain and the Republic of Korea (, 2011).

A RAND Corp studied revealed that the UN successfully accomplishes two out of three peacekeeping efforts, and compared to the UN nation-building effort to the United States and found that seven out of ten UN cases are. Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 1465 Words | 5 Pages. weapons, and establishing a high level of consent and Aircraft Propeller Design Essay authority for Pit bulls and Their Supposedly, the follow-on mission. As a result, the INTERFET mission was conceptualised as a peace . support operation because the military forces had to be able to move between traditional peacekeeping tasks (in order to facilitate conflict resolution and lay the Aircraft, groundwork for Agressive Behavior Essay, the interim administration) and peace enforcement tasks (in response to specific breaches of the peace by the militias). INTERFETs task was complicated by the fact . East Timor , Humanitarian aid , Indonesia 1621 Words | 5 Pages. massacres of the kind which began in Rwanda after the plane crash which killed the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi.

However, the Inquiry has found that the . fundamental capacity problems of UNAMIR led to the terrible and humiliating situation of a UN peacekeeping force almost paralyzed in the face of a wave of some of the worst brutality humankind has seen in Aircraft Details Essay, this century. Despite the failures of UNAMIR, it should be said that United Nations personnel within UNAMIR and in the programs and agencies also. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1553 Words | 5 Pages. decision making; rational, bureaucratic, garbage can and political will be discussed. The review will also look into South Africa the geo-political relations. Dallaires . assessment was to make a decision whether the Aircraft Design, UN should commit in sending a full-fledged peacekeeping force to Rwanda. Dallaire required a long period of time to come out with his decision as it required him to do a fact finding mission. Cray, David ; Mallory, Geoffrey R. Apartheid South Africa Essays! ; Butler, Richard J. ; Hickson, David J. ; Wilson, David C. (1998) indicated.

Decision making , Flipism , Genocide 1768 Words | 7 Pages. The Un Us Mishandling of the Propeller and Operation, Rwandan Genocide. and United Nations pulled out. Their negligent attitude towards world conflicts restricts this organization from achieving its goals. Most people know all . too well of the genocide between the Hutus and Tutsis in song inventions, Rwanda and the U.N.s role in peacekeeping , but to understand the full picture one would need to visit the origins of this conflict. After World War I Belgium received Rwanda as a colony. Under the Belgians colonial rule over Rwanda, the and Operation Essay, minority Tutsi ethnic group was favored over. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1367 Words | 4 Pages. community with the power to prevent the genocide did not and the Rwandan government not only failed to protect its people but also aided in the killings. The . most moving part of the Resourse Essays, film for me unquestionably was when the commander of the U.N. peacekeeping force in Rwanda, Gen.

Romeo Dallaire says he remains haunted by Propeller Design his inability to stop the killing. Rwanda will never leave me: it's in the pores of my body. Absurdist Humor! We saw lots of them dying, and lots of those eyes still haunt me -- angry eyes, innocent. Democratic Party , European Union , Genocide 769 Words | 3 Pages. international territory.The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General. . COLD WAR ERA Though the UN's primary mandate was PEACEKEEPING , the Aircraft Details Essay, division between the US and USSR often paralysed the organization, generally allowing it to intervene only in conflicts distant from the Supposedly Agressive Behavior Essay, COLD WAR.(A notable exception was a Security Council resolution in 1950 authorizing a US-led coalition. European Union , Human rights , Peacekeeping 1797 Words | 7 Pages. Political Unrest in Bangladesh Its Impact on Economy. for their role in the 2005 murder of two judges. Aircraft Propeller Details Essay! Bangladesh is a world peace Keeper!

Bangladesh is generally a force for absurdist humor, moderation in international . forums, and it is also a long-time leader in international peacekeeping operations. It is the second-largest contributor to UN peacekeeping operations, with 10,481 troops and police active in November 2009. Its activities in international organizations, with other governments, and with its regional partners to Aircraft Propeller Design Essay promote human rights, democracy, and free. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Awami League , Dhaka 1164 Words | 4 Pages. debate and negotiation, as well as through UN-sponsored fact-finding missions, mediators, and truce observers. UN Peacekeeping forces, . Human Resourse Management Essays! comprised of Aircraft Propeller Essay troops and equipment supplied by member nations, have usually been able to limit or prevent conflict, although sometimes not. Some conflicts, however, have proven to be beyond the Vietnam War Paper, capacity of the UN to Propeller and Operation Essay influence. Key to the success of UN peacekeeping efforts is the willingness of the parties to a conflict to come to terms peacefully through a viable political. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty , Peacekeeping , United Kingdom 1273 Words | 4 Pages. developing countries, and Resourse more than 30 per Propeller Details and Operation Essay, cent volunteering within their own countries.

UN Volunteers help to absurdist humor organize and Propeller Essay run local and national elections . and support a large number of peacekeeping and humanitarian projects. UN Volunteers comprise one third of all international civilians working in UN peacekeeping operations. UNV also operates the Online Volunteering service, which connects development organizations directly with thousands of online volunteers who can provide services and advice. Peacekeeping , United Nations , United Nations Volunteers 1026 Words | 2 Pages. was done in order to guarantee that an extremity of conflict like WWII would never occur again.

51 countries with a commitment to Pit bulls Supposedly Agressive maintaining peace . world-wide founded the organization, replacing the League of Nations. The UN is well known for its peacekeeping , peace building, prevention of Aircraft Details and Operation Essay conflicts and involvement in humanitarian efforts. The four main purposes of the United Nations are; to keep peace across the Pit bulls and Their Agressive Behavior, world, to develop friendly relationships among nations while promoting social progress;. Haiti , Human rights , Peace 2421 Words | 7 Pages. problem for social justice (i.e. what ought to be done). In particular, protection of the global environment should . Aircraft Propeller Design And Operation! be an absurdist humor, issue with less political controversy (as compared to, for example, Japans participation in the UN Peacekeeping Operations). But in reality, each countrys effort on environmental affairs is Aircraft Propeller Details and Operation, dependent on the interplay of various international / domestic factors and economic gains. As a result, it would continue to be a difficult . Economics , Economy of and Their Supposedly Japan , European Union 692 Words | 2 Pages. International Relations Case Study UN. from international security, in doing so 'when the Security Council was not able to act, the general assembly also played a key part in initiating or . providing guidance for peacekeeping operations.' (N. et al. 1996) Strengths and weaknesses The United Nations has had a lot of strengths in Propeller Details Essay, dealing with the issue of War Paper world peacekeeping and Design Details and Operation order.

One of its primary strengths, has been to Human Essays revel where the League of Nations failed; the attainment of Aircraft Propeller Details Near-Universal Membership. It has accomplished this due. Cold War , League of Post South Africa Essays Nations , Peacekeeping 2207 Words | 8 Pages. EMILIO AGUINALDO, Quezon City The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) marks another milestone in its commitment to international peace by Propeller Design Details and Operation deploying the . first all-Navy Fleet Marine contingent to conduct peacekeeping operations in Haiti. Absurdist Humor! It is also the first group to have undergone Peacekeeping Operations Training at the AFP Peace Keeping Operations Center (AFPPKOC) headquarters in Camp ODonnell, Tarlac the home of AFPs peacekeepers. The send-off ceremony for the 14th Philippine Contingent.

Armed forces , Army , Military 1507 Words | 4 Pages.