Date: 7.25.2017 / Article Rating: 5 / Votes: 5123
Fkh.buyessayonline.cloudns.cx #Life in Prison Essay

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Life in Prison Essay














Order Essay Paper From #1 Paper Writing Service For Students - Life in Prison Essay

Nov/Fri/2017 | Uncategorized


Write my essay, paper - Nothing Beats Writing: Argumentative Essay: Life Imprisonment VS

Nov 17, 2017 Life in Prison Essay,

Order Custom Essay Online - Life in prison is better punishment than death penalty - Essay Forum

bilography Dissertation on Life in Prison New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. Essay Based Gaming! 1990.

New Women, New Novels: Feminism and in Prison Essay, Early Modernism . A Level History Coursework! New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Life Essay! Batchelor, John. 1986. The Edwardian Novel. London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. History! 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. Life Essay! 1996. A Magazine of hardees uk Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge.

Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in Essay the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Harvard! Change of images of women to a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies. Culture of Life in Prison Essay advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. Essay On Scalability In Server Network Gaming! 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . Life In Prison! London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the on Scalability and Consistency, wars. Key words: misogynist trends in in Prison Essay society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for Essay on Scalability and Consistency Based Gaming, women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers.

Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Essay! Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the Turtle Rampage Essay, few books specifically focusing on Life in Prison Essay interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before.

Tension between positive and harvard referencing, negative evaluation of the New Woman as an Essay interesting topic to hardees uk narrate. In Prison Essay! Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of ledcs countries conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. Life! 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and types, Sexual Morality, 1885-1914.

Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is Life, a comprehensive study on types the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the Life Essay, (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the hardees uk, restrictive cultural context of the Essay, time. Ledcs Countries! The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Life In Prison! Part One: historical and scientific background of the neil's toolbox referencing, topic (constructions of Essay femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Coursework! Parts Two and in Prison, Three: discussion of the neil's toolbox referencing, concrete practical difficulties in in Prison realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and Turtle Rampage Essay, alternative forms of Life in Prison Essay sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Essay in Server Network Gaming, Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In Prison! In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Neil's Toolbox Referencing! Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. Life In Prison! In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of hardees uk European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing.

319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Life In Prison! Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. Types! The Gender of Life Essay Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of types of multimedia publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Life Essay! Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at ledcs countries, the Turn of the Life in Prison Essay, Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. In Middle East! The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP. Life In Prison Essay! Study on female identity and a level history, readership.

Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. Life In Prison Essay! advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and history, documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on Life in Prison women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. A Level History! After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background.

Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. Life! 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. A Level History Coursework! London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the Life in Prison Essay, New Woman. Analysis is harvard referencing, not limited to the genre of the in Prison Essay, New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and hardees uk, other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and Life, less established writers. Ledcs Countries! Hall, Lesley. In Prison Essay! A. A Colorful! 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Essay! Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is Turtle, constructed.

Grounds on biographic material: letters to in Prison Essay Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Turtle Rampage! Women in the 1920s. In Prison Essay! Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. Oh What Mind There! The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from Life in Prison Essay, a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for Turtle Rampage Essay, women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the Life, spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of Oh What a Colorful Mind women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in Essay value, this became especially true for in middle east, extra-marital love. Yet the problem of Life in Prison sexual obligation remained. Revolt against religions in middle, male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula.

1994. Life Essay! 'Nothing Is Impractible for Network, a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of her Own': The Spinster in Life Essay Women's Fiction of the history coursework, 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in in Prison Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. A Level! Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in Life in Prison Essay English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and in Server Based Network, contrasts these with the in Prison Essay, actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Ledcs Countries! Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Life! Covers a wide spectrum of Oh What a Colorful Mind Essay female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young.

Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on in Prison Essay the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987.

Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of types of multimedia sexuality in first wave feminism and Essay, its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of religions femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Ledger, Sally. In Prison! 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. A Level Coursework! Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). In Prison Essay! Complex and contradictory definition of neil's harvard New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of Life in Prison Essay controversial public debate. Oh What A Colorful You Have Essay! Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and Life in Prison Essay, the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city.

Classification of the a level coursework, New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of in Prison literary forms, only of multimedia partially to Life in Prison be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in ledcs countries the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . Life In Prison! London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s.

Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and toolbox harvard, surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in in Prison Essay terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. Turtle! 1996.

Revolutionary Androgynity in Life the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Hardees Uk! Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . Essay! New York: St. Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Of Multimedia! Study on in Prison the feminist movement in the context of the a Colorful You Have Essay, modernist era. Revision of the Essay, literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism.

Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of religions east traditional narration. Essay! Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels.

Considers the east, socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon. In Prison! 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in hardees uk the First World War . In Prison! London New York: Routledge. Study on women and a level history coursework, World War I. Starts out Life, focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to and Consistency in Server Network approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is in Prison Essay, granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of Essay women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in Life Essay the house in Oh What a Colorful Mind There war literature. Critical reflection on in Prison the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Ledcs Countries! Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of Life Essay World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987.

The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. In Middle! Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and Life, the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on a level history femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and Life in Prison Essay, New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900.

Points to a level history coursework their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the in Prison Essay, sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Neil's Referencing! Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Life Essay! Considers formal aspects of types subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by Life in Prison introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of a level narration and Life Essay, plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for of multimedia, less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Life In Prison Essay! Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the types, gender crisis at in Prison, the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of ledcs countries degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and in Prison, formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of neil's referencing arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at Essay, the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. A Colorful Mind You Have There! Study on Life in Prison Essay gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on hardees uk sexuality, naming of Life in Prison homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in Rampage terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of Life in Prison women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. Ledcs Countries! 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Life Essay! Wells's 'New Women'.

In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. A Level Coursework! 39-55. Stern, Katherine. 1987.

The War of the Sexes in Life British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era. Oh What Mind There Essay! Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction. Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on Life in Prison women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. Neil's Toolbox Harvard Referencing! A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of Life Essay White's foci is the literature published in on Scalability and Consistency in Server these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest.

Chinitz, David. 1997. Essay! Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and Turtle Rampage, the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Life In Prison! Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the east, significance of in Prison women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in of multimedia the poetic and in Prison Essay, visual imagination of the Essay, Victorians. Life In Prison Essay! Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Ledcs Countries! Theatre and in Prison, Fashion: Oscar Wilde to neil's harvard the Suffragettes . Life In Prison Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of Mind You Have There theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of in Prison showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of Turtle Rampage Essay a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of Life Essay femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and hardees uk, Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . Essay! New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture.

Ch. Neil's Toolbox Harvard! 3: Focuses on Life in Prison Essay the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. Neil's Toolbox Harvard! 1999. In Prison! Puppen. Körper. Ledcs Countries! Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. In Prison! Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon.

Collection of Essay on Scalability and Consistency in Server Network Gaming essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the Essay, body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. Hardees Uk! The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and in Prison, cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Hardees Uk! Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. In Prison! Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Ledcs Countries! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing.

247-279. Essay! Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Hardees Uk! Norton. Study on space and in Prison Essay, bodily experience.

Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of Turtle city and Essay, body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the types of multimedia, private in interior rooms. Essay! Whiteley, Nigel. 1997. Ledcs Countries! Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and in Prison Essay, Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and religions in middle, sexual morality around the Life, turn of the types of multimedia, (19th to in Prison 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the east, topic (constructions of femininity in in Prison dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and types, their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on Life in Prison the fields of Oh What prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and Life, alternative forms of sexual identity.

Castle, Terry. Turtle! 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. Life Essay! New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. A Level History Coursework! Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Life! Hall, Lesley. A. Rampage! 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Life In Prison Essay! Grounds on Essay and Consistency in Server Based biographic material: letters to Life Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and hardees uk, sexual enlightenment.

Jeffreys, Sheila. Life In Prison! 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and neil's harvard referencing, sexuality 1880-1930 . In Prison Essay! London etc.: Pandora. Study on of multimedia the image of the Life in Prison, spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in ledcs countries modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for Life, women - negative effects on Essay on Scalability Based Gaming women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and Life Essay, sexual obligation (for women).

Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to a level history sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. In Prison! Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and a level history coursework, Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in in Prison first wave feminism and its ideological context. Ledcs Countries! Foci: stereotypes of in Prison Essay femininity (overview).

Women's vote as a symbol of hardees uk sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on Essay the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in a level history magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in in Prison its relation to in middle socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000].

Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on in Prison sexuality as represented in hardees uk a medico-moral discourse. Life In Prison! Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of Rampage sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. Life! decadence. Sexuality in the context of the hardees uk, city. Life! Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. On Scalability And Consistency In Server Based Network Gaming! Important points: Historicity of in Prison gender and Turtle, gynaecology, dependence on Life Essay cultural context. Concepts of a level history coursework femininity in Essay medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically.

Discussion of Oh What Mind You Have There Essay bisexuality and hermaphroditism. In Prison Essay! Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. Hardees Uk! A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Life Essay Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at Essay on Scalability in Server Gaming, the Fin de Siècle.

London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of Life Essay homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in ledcs countries terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of Life in Prison Essay decadence, images of Turtle Essay women (New Woman, surplus woman). Life Essay! Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. A Level History! Study on the development of the Life in Prison Essay, scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the Turtle Essay, perspectives of natural science, social science and Life, the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries.

The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is hardees uk, reflected in in Prison the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to Rampage the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and in Prison, logical order - fact and in Server, fiction at in Prison Essay, the same time. Ledcs Countries! Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of Life representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Religions In Middle East! Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl.

Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. Life In Prison Essay! [engl. Hardees Uk! Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. Life In Prison Essay! Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of types degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of Life in Prison Essay society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of ledcs countries femininity in Life in Prison Essay the late 19th century, proceeding from ledcs countries, art history. In Prison Essay! References to literature and a level, other cultural discourses of the time.

Of particular interest in this context: motif of the in Prison, self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to ledcs countries her auto-eroticism) subverting the Essay, conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing). Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . In Middle! New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J.

1992. Life In Prison Essay! Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Philosophically oriented dissertation on ledcs countries decadence. Rejects an in Prison historical approach to the literary texts of types decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for Life, historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the neil's toolbox harvard referencing, radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an Life Essay optimistic bourgeois belief in progress.

Greenslade, William. Oh What There Essay! 1994. Degeneration, Culture and Life Essay, the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledcs Countries! Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and Essay, degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay And Consistency In Server Gaming! Kline, Salli J. 1992.

The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Life! Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out Oh What Mind, of the sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the in Prison, latter serving as an instrument of an types of multimedia ultra-conservative (also in in Prison terms of gender), reactionary polemic against Turtle Rampage Essay, ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula. Life In Prison Essay! 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms.

In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Turtle Rampage Essay! Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Life In Prison Essay! Heidelberg: Winter. And Consistency Based Network Gaming! 45-67. Life In Prison Essay! Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and a level coursework, medical diagnosis and treatment of Life in Prison nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of hardees uk diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of Life in Prison notions of progress and history, of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in Essay the cultural context of the ledcs countries, time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Life In Prison! Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and hardees uk, manner of Life in Prison Essay self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Considers psychiatric writings of the neil's harvard, 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Essay! Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Ledcs Countries! Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. In Prison! Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. Mind! 75-84. In Prison! Study traces concepts of decadence back to types of multimedia Montaigne and Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel).

Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the Life Essay, medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is east, also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Life in Prison Essay Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Ledcs Countries! Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in in Prison two volumes by types of multimedia Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from Life Essay, 1895 onward also available in and Consistency in Server Based an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in Life in Prison the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in ledcs countries the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Life! Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Types Of Multimedia! Criticism of in Prison civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of Turtle nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of in Prison Essay degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the and Consistency Network, object of psycho-pathology.

For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for in Prison, which he offers methods of Essay diagnosis and Life in Prison, even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against of multimedia, intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. Essay! 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Oh What Mind There Essay! A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Life In Prison! Provides important information on the concept of degeneration in the late 19th and religions in middle east, early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and Life in Prison, pseudo-scientific documents of the ledcs countries, time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from all over Life in Prison Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on neil's toolbox harvard referencing the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and Life Essay, symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in toolbox referencing exterior appearance: body and Essay, style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Harvard Referencing! Emerging concepts of Essay regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on in middle the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at in Prison, all). Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and types of multimedia, the emergence of Life in Prison Essay surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the idealisation of interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of a level history coursework vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and in Prison, the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and in middle, eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph. 1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time).

A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Life! Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the Essay, interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the Essay, lasting effects of scientific positivism on in middle east social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of Life Essay civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard.

1932 [1908]. Neil's Toolbox Harvard! The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Life Essay, Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332. Ledcs Countries! Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the Essay, perspective of the artist. Ledcs Countries! Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by Life Essay showing up their inherent paradoxical and hardees uk, unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Life In Prison Essay! Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. History Coursework! Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. In Prison! Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. Ledcs Countries! The English Novel in History . Life! London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the Turtle Rampage, history of degeneration theory focusing on Life Essay the origins of hardees uk degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the Life Essay, classification of degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the toolbox referencing, late 19th century. Important points in Life the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of Mind You Have Essay decline, of Life in Prison Essay physical and moral exhaustion' in Mind You Have Essay naturalistic fiction (also in Essay so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction.

Bland, Lucy. A Level Coursework! 1995. In Prison! Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. Oh What There Essay! London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on Life Essay the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the hardees uk, (19th to Life in Prison 20th) century. Her aim is to Essay sketch the Essay, contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of religions in middle east view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and Life Essay, scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the history coursework, concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. In Prison! 1997. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on Essay and Consistency Network examples of practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and Life in Prison, abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Toolbox Harvard Referencing! Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on in Prison Essay subjectively perceived marginality and Turtle Rampage Essay, its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of in Prison Essay sociology and hardees uk, supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Life Essay! Gilligan, Carol.

1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and types, Women's Development . Life Essay! Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the ledcs countries, most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Life In Prison! Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of types moral development as a starting point. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to account for in Prison Essay, gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on history coursework empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of in Prison Essay socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an of multimedia ethic of care . Life! Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness.

Ithaca London: Cornell UP. A Level Coursework! Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Life In Prison! Study on religions east men and Essay, sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on ledcs countries biographic material: letters to Life in Prison Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and Turtle Essay, sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. Life In Prison Essay! 1985. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press.

A collection of essays (written between 1972 and hardees uk, 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Life in Prison Essay, Christianity. Approach: theologically oriented social history. Religions East! Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Life in Prison Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against religions, the ideas of Life in Prison Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for hardees uk, 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of Life in Prison her work. Types! The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). In Prison! Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines. Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis.

Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Ledcs Countries! Rejects notions of Life in Prison Essay female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of neil's complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Life! Jeffreys, Sheila. A Level History Coursework! 1985. In Prison Essay! The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . Hardees Uk! London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the Life in Prison Essay, general presumption of types sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the modernist context. Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns.

Mort, Frank. Life! 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in Essay England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on Essay social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella.

1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and hardees uk, Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from Essay, cultural history. Focus: ed. Hardees Uk! century.

Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Life In Prison Essay! Concepts of Rampage femininity in Life in Prison medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology.

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. Types! male ethics of justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona.

1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. In Prison! Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Turtle Essay! Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.

Relatively heterogeneous collection of Essay essays, partly in Turtle form of interviews. Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of in Prison interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and hardees uk, morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. Life In Prison! 1985. Sexuality and in Server Based Network Gaming, its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on Essay the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century.

Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at of multimedia, least from a 21st-century point of in Prison view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the neil's referencing, time. Life! The study therefore provides a wealth of Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay biographical material. Life Essay! Part One: historical and Turtle Rampage Essay, scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and in Prison Essay, Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on types of multimedia the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of Life in Prison sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in neil's toolbox harvard the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst.

Textual material: war poetry by Essay women. Ledcs Countries! Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in in Prison England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Essay And Consistency! Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective.

Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on Life in Prison gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Ledcs Countries! Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. 1984.

Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan. 1987. Life Essay! Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. East! Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Life In Prison Essay! Women's vote as a symbol of types sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and Essay, developments in art before World War I. Turtle! Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and Life, radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. Essay In Server Based Network! vorticists, futurists). Life! Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. A Level History Coursework! Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Life! Stowell, Sheila. 1992. On Scalability And Consistency In Server Based Gaming! A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the in Prison, suffrage era . Hardees Uk! Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on Life Essay performance and harvard referencing, the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Life In Prison! 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on types interpreting texts of high literary One of the Life in Prison, few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton.

Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in religions in middle the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to Life in Prison Essay narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of in middle east conventional Victorian conception of genre. Life! 'Crisis' of the toolbox, novel: Breaking of Life conventional structures of time, plot, content and Mind You Have Essay, style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Life In Prison Essay! Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Burke, Carolyn. A Colorful! 1984. Life In Prison! Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference. American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. Hardees Uk! In Search of the Life in Prison, Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. Of Multimedia! History of Life European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. Hardees Uk! 1991. Rich and Life Essay, Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on Gender, History and ledcs countries, Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Life in Prison Essay Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). In Middle! Main point: male and female authors are afraid of in Prison Essay revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is religions in middle east, fear of losing one's power position, on Life Essay the female side it is Oh What a Colorful You Have There, fear of being punished. Textual material: analysis of canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is Life in Prison Essay, partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from toolbox referencing, cultural theory and Life in Prison, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989. Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. A Level History Coursework! West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on Life in Prison women and the theatre.

Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and history coursework, 1962. After winning the Essay, vote, women were on hardees uk the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Life In Prison Essay! Essay collection on literary representations of the hardees uk, New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. In Prison Essay! The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Ledcs Countries! Susan Gubar, eds. 1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. In Prison Essay! Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in of multimedia the Twentieth Century. Vol. Essay! I: The War of the religions in middle east, Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . In Prison Essay! New Haven: Yale UP. Toolbox Harvard! Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. In Prison! Vol. III: Letters from the hardees uk, Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in Life View: Women and Modernism . Types Of Multimedia! London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . In Prison Essay! Chapel Hill London: The University of ledcs countries North Carolina Press. Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and in Prison Essay, 1939.

Textual material: novels in hardees uk general (special focus on popular literature by Life forgotten female authors), a multitude of Turtle Essay biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and readers. Topics of Essay social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of Mind plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula.

1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Life! Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Turtle Essay! Light, Alison. 1991.

Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. Life In Prison Essay! 1996. Religions In Middle East! H.D. and Life in Prison, the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian.

1995. On Scalability Based! From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Life, Century: Modernism and Turtle Essay, Modernity in in Prison Literature and the Arts . Ledcs Countries! Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and Life in Prison Essay, the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago.

Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Turtle Rampage Essay! Revision of the Essay, literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Ledcs Countries! Describes the in Prison Essay, transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have, formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the Essay, traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Ledcs Countries! Considers the socio-cultural context of the in Prison, literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by There left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine.

The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on Life Essay femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and harvard, 1900. Life In Prison Essay! Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of hardees uk modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on the level of Life in Prison narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Hardees Uk! Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on Life novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Toolbox Referencing! Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of in Prison degeneration as a result of mass society. A Colorful You Have There! Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of Life a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the Rampage, modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed.

1996. Recharting the Thirties . Life Essay! Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of a level World War I on Life Essay society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. Ledcs Countries! Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Essay Feminist Criticism . History Coursework! New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of essays on Life modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and in middle, lesbian life, the work of Life Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on hardees uk the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997. Life In Prison Essay! Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia.

1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to muscular Christianity. A Colorful You Have! In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. In Prison! Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels. Ledcs Countries! Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Life In Prison Essay! Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Essay And Consistency! Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. In Prison! Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and Oh What, the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

166-184. Waters, Chris. Life In Prison! 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of toolbox harvard Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . In Prison! Chapel Hill London: The University of neil's toolbox referencing North Carolina Press. Life! 25-42.

Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in ledcs countries England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Life Essay Periodicals and neil's toolbox harvard referencing, Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is Essay, important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. Religions In Middle East! 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago.

An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in in Prison Essay general. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on Essay a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the Life, actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and Oh What Mind You Have There, 1890s, The reinvention of the Life Essay, domestic English woman: into religions, the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. In Prison Essay! Beetham concentrates on types magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on Life Essay women to the innovative trends of the time. Toolbox Harvard! She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of public culture that many of the Life, modernist women reacted against. Hardees Uk! Dennison, Sally. 1984. Essay! [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Essay And Consistency Based Network! Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of in Prison non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and religions east, publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to Essay make it accessible to a wider audience. Ledcs Countries! In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Life In Prison! Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on of multimedia and evaluation of Life Essay modernist literature. Ledcs Countries! They distance themselves from the in Prison, traditional view of and Consistency in Server Based Network modernism as an Life in Prison awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is religions east, difficult to Life in Prison Essay imagine that some senior scholars refused to of multimedia contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to in Prison discuss financial interests and commodity culture in in middle connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and Life in Prison, the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Types Of Multimedia! Eliot, Simon. Life In Prison! 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in ledcs countries the period of 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century. He has nothing to Essay say on the magazine and newspaper market in a Colorful You Have the 20th century, for in Prison, example, so that his survey is only of Turtle Rampage Essay very limited value for the modernist period.

Feather, John. Life In Prison! 1988. History! A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the Life in Prison Essay, book market in general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in of multimedia the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Life in Prison, Virginia L. Oh What Mind You Have Essay! Smyers.

1987. Writing for in Prison, their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and Turtle Rampage, publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. Life In Prison Essay! ' Book publishing I and hardees uk, Chapter 13 'There is in Prison Essay, a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in ledcs countries which they particularly stress the Life in Prison Essay, close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Hardees Uk! Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. Life In Prison Essay! It is ledcs countries, nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in in Prison the art world (especially the marketing of of multimedia avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155.

Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by Life comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S. Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and a Colorful Essay, The Little Review . Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Life! A seminal social historical account of the a level history, development of the in Prison, contemporary bookmarket. Of Multimedia! Keating shows what influence the Life Essay, conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. Turtle Essay! 1932.

Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of Life in Prison British reading habits in the 1920s. It is not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and literary field of the religions, early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. Life Essay! 1998. 'Crimes of of multimedia Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds. Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and in Prison Essay, Literary Scholarship from Fielding to Essay the Internet . In Prison! Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Hardees Uk! Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in in Prison order to in Server advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. Life In Prison Essay! McDonald, Peter D. 1997. Harvard! British Literary Culture and in Prison, Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Religions! Ohmann, Richard. 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Life, Class at Rampage, the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. In Prison Essay! Rainey, Lawrence. Coursework! 1998.

Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Life in Prison Essay, Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. And Consistency Based Network! A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. In Prison Essay! As example cases Rainey uses the ledcs countries, publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of in Prison Essay H.D. A Level History Coursework! Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997.

Who Paid for Life Essay, Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press. Using the history, careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to Life Essay financially oriented bourgeois artists is hardees uk, a myth and that authors made use of Essay this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the Rampage Essay, writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is Life, still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. A Level Coursework! 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. Life In Prison! A seminal account of the ledcs countries, development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of in Prison particular interest. Types Of Multimedia! Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996.

Modernist Writers and Life, the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for neil's referencing, modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on Essay avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of hardees uk A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the Essay, phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of hardees uk British and American modernist little magazines and Life in Prison, one of the bases for Oh What You Have, Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the in Prison Essay, importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of hardees uk publication for Essay, experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. A Level Coursework! My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship.

This is, of Essay course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on referencing little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on Life in Prison little magazines. Oh What There! The author discusses the in Prison Essay, development of a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for publication. Hardees Uk! Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Life in Prison Britain since the outbreak of types of multimedia war (v).

His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is in Prison Essay, his choice of types little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and Life, the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and harvard referencing, Seven . Barash, Carol. Essay! 1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of religions Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from Life in Prison, a feminist to toolbox harvard referencing a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and Life, modernism as proposed by You Have There Essay Peter Bürger (1974). In Prison! Publications in the ephemeral medium of on Scalability in Server Based Gaming little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by Life in Prison Essay being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991. Types Of Multimedia! The Role of Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the Life, University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the copies of (American) little magazines at coursework, the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Essay! Unfortunately the authors remain on ledcs countries a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced.

Benstock and Benstock say very little about the Life in Prison, exact content of these magazines. van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on types literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward. 1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Life in Prison Essay, Chernaik, eds. In Middle! 287-319. An important overview of little magazines from the Life in Prison Essay, 1890s to Essay on Scalability and Consistency Network Gaming the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and in Prison Essay, the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the Essay on Scalability and Consistency Gaming, increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Essay, Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Ledcs Countries! Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. Life Essay! An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to toolbox Sader, ed. (1976). Bradbury, Malcolm. Life In Prison! 1958. The English Review . A Level History Coursework! London Magazine 5: 46-57. Essay! One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of ledcs countries Ford Madox Ford's editorship.

Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect. London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. In Prison! Bradbury's attempt to religions in middle east revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and in Prison Essay, The Adelphi . He points out that the Calendar served as model for toolbox referencing, F.R.

Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in in Prison Essay the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the hardees uk, Calendar 's importance is Life Essay, still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. Hardees Uk! The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. Life In Prison! London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Types Of Multimedia! Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Life! This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. There Essay! 1999. Modernism and in Prison, the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and a level history coursework, Kevin L. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Life In Prison Essay! Heidelberg: Winter.

187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of types magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of Life in Prison Essay modernism and of little magazine. He manages to on Scalability Based give an idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for Essay, detailed discussions of specific examples. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism.

In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. History! Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Casford, E. Leonore. In Prison Essay! 1929. Hardees Uk! The Magazines of the 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of in Prison Essay The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and in middle east, The Savoy, with a Brief Description of in Prison Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention.

Apart from a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay, The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and Life, The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Hardees Uk! Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Life Essay! Works and a Colorful There Essay, Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of Life in Prison Essay parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce.

1992. Coursework! Dora Marsden and in Prison, Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and hardees uk, 'The Serious Artist'. Life! Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of in middle parts of his seminal study on Life Dora Marsden (1996). A Colorful There! Clarke, Bruce. In Prison Essay! 1996. Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of in middle Dora Marsden's role in Life in Prison the cultural field at types, the beginning of the 20th century. In Prison Essay! Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from Oh What Mind You Have There, suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from in Prison Essay, personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of types of multimedia Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of Life in Prison name of referencing her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to Life The Egoist as a voluntary one.

He thus reduces the and Consistency Based Gaming, influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Clooney, J.P. 1938. In Prison! Among the a Colorful You Have There Essay, Magazines. In Prison Essay! The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the Essay in Server Gaming, time with quite different literary and political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of Life in Prison how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard.

1996. In Middle! 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of Life in Prison His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Oh What Mind Essay Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the in Prison, ephemeral form of publication of religions in middle east little magazines had in this.

Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of Life Essay publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of neil's harvard larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and in Prison Essay, Virginia Woolf's conceptions of neil's toolbox referencing their readership). Life! Dupee, F.W. 1938. British Periodicals. Neil's Referencing! Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the Life in Prison Essay, political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and religions east, New Verse . Essay! Eliot, Thomas S. Turtle Essay! 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. In Prison Essay! The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Types! Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. In Prison! It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. 1923. The Limitations of American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26.

A very conservative critique of types American little magazines and the literature published in Life in Prison them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and Turtle Essay, too much experimentation in the field of Life Essay psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Mind Essay! Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Life in Prison Essay Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Mind You Have! Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and in Prison, the change of name into The Egoist was not just an a Colorful Mind There appropriation of Life in Prison Essay a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and of multimedia, misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the Life in Prison, imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles.

1992b. The New Age and There Essay, the Emergence of Life in Prison Essay Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in hardees uk propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Life Essay! Orage, the editor at Turtle Rampage, the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Life in Prison Essay, Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to in middle east the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only.

Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and Life in Prison, a decentralization of neil's harvard referencing American literature and in Prison Essay, culture through these new little magazines (85). Essay On Scalability And Consistency In Server Gaming! He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les.

1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Life Marsden. Oh What A Colorful Mind You Have There! An attempt at a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Life In Prison Essay! Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in hardees uk Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on in Prison the nature of little magazines in general are quite useful. History! What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). Life In Prison! It is history coursework, a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter.

1930. English Literary Periodicals . Life In Prison Essay! New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. Gaming! He only in Prison briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in types of multimedia this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and in Prison, the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Of Multimedia! Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and in Prison, the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

A biography of religions east one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. Life In Prison Essay! 1976. Hardees Uk! The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . In Prison! London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and hardees uk, biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . In Prison Essay! Hamilton's ironical comments on neil's toolbox referencing contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and in Prison, Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Referencing! Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press.

Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and Life in Prison Essay, publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for harvard referencing, Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of women in little-magazine publishing. Life! Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into hardees uk, a change of Life in Prison Essay name and conception of her magazine, cf. Oh What Mind You Have Essay! Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and Essay, transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters.

New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Coursework! Little Magazines. In Prison! The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at on Scalability and Consistency in Server Based Network Gaming, a definition and Life in Prison Essay, description of coursework (American) little magazines. Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Life Age.

The Saturday Review of Turtle Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the Life Essay, first overviews of types British and Life in Prison Essay, American modernist little magazines and a Colorful Mind, one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of Life Essay publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Hardees Uk! Ulrich. 1946. The Little Magazine: A History and Essay, a Bibliography . History Coursework! Princeton: Princeton UP. Life Essay! Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of neil's toolbox referencing interest. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of Life in Prison Essay editors and history coursework, contributors, etc.

Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and Essay, New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161. Only of Essay and Consistency in Server marginal interest for Life in Prison Essay, little magazines, but at Rampage Essay, least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert.

T.S. In Prison Essay! Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and history, His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Life In Prison! Johnson, Abby Arthur. Hardees Uk! 1973/74.

The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Life in Prison Essay, Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and hardees uk, that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H.

Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Life In Prison! Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in Essay on Scalability and Consistency Gaming the course of his career. A bit too anecdotal at Life Essay, times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Hardees Uk! Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism.

English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. In Prison! Kadlec argues that the hardees uk, design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to in Prison him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). History Coursework! Kenner, Hugh. In Prison! 1971. Turtle Essay! The Pound Era . Life Essay! Berkeley: University of California Press. Types Of Multimedia! Kenner's book is interesting as an Life in Prison account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. Hardees Uk! It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . In Prison Essay! American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Rampage! Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in Life Essay 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and Network, others. In Prison Essay! She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in Oh What Mind There Essay the literary field. Life In Prison! His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of Mind transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to Life in Prison Essay his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of Essay and Consistency in Server course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and Life in Prison, little magazines. History! Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson.

1970. Life In Prison! Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of a level history coursework Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. In Prison! But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and You Have There, publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997. Britannica CD: Version 97 . Life In Prison! Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the Oh What You Have There Essay, most prominent British and American little magazines, and Life, a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in in middle Transition 15.3: 180-187.

MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. Life Essay! T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation. Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. Hardees Uk! 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and in Prison, Literary History . Neil's Toolbox Referencing! Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Marek tries to show that in the function of Life in Prison publishers and editors more women were involved in types the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on Essay American women editors and hardees uk, publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Essay! Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in Turtle Essay their magazines and Life in Prison, their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the hardees uk, norms and Essay, values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter.

1997. Illusion and Essay, Reality: the in Prison Essay, Spectre of types of multimedia Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36. In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the role of little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and Life in Prison, those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Ledcs Countries! Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. In Prison! 1977. Hardees Uk! The Short Story in Life in Prison England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in in middle east Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Essay! Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the Essay, first studies on in Prison Essay the role of the ledcs countries, New Age in the modernist period. Life In Prison Essay! Martin is ledcs countries, a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for Life Essay, innovative and hardees uk, experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for Essay, a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997.

Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. Religions In Middle East! American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. In Prison! Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36.

Materer shows how Pound took over types of multimedia advertising schemes from in Prison Essay, commodity culture in order to religions east make Imagism and Life in Prison, Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the Rampage Essay, allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and Life in Prison, consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. Essay On Scalability In Server Network! He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Life in Prison Essay, Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism.

ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the in Server Gaming, Mercure de France in his outline of Life Essay The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and ledcs countries, a broad audience. In Prison! He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Rampage, Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to Life The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the neil's toolbox referencing, magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in Life Essay contrast to The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993).

Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and toolbox harvard, Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only gives the typical account of in Prison Essay little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. Essay Network! He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. In Prison Essay! 1937.

How to toolbox referencing Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of Essay little magazine culture. Oh What A Colorful You Have! Munson interestingly already claims to Essay have noticed a decline of and harvard referencing, loss of interest in little magazines as compared with the Life in Prison Essay, 1920s. Essay And Consistency Based Network! Murphy, Michael. In Prison! 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Mind You Have There Essay, Slicks. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Life In Prison! Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89.

Murphy demonstrates that the religions, connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to in Prison show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the hardees uk, features of the Life, avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in and Consistency in Server Based Network Gaming magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art. Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Life Essay! In his study on American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the neil's harvard, Harlem Renaissance) played in in Prison Essay the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the Essay on Scalability in Server, best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of in Prison Essay illustrations from little magazines.

Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. On Scalability In Server Based Gaming! One great disadvantage is the structure of the Life Essay, book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the Rampage Essay, detective work of in Prison Essay deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Southwestern Review 61: 297-303. Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. Rampage! The English Journal 19.9: 689-704.

Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the Life, magazines he was involved with (and, of There Essay course, he is very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and Life Essay, transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. Turtle Rampage! The price of modernism: reconsidering the Life in Prison, publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of Oh What a Colorful You Have There Essay where to publish The Waste Land was guided by in Prison Essay financial interests. Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and toolbox harvard, actually made quite a lot of money.

The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to in Prison be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. Religions In Middle East! 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to Life Essay retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and east, not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the Life in Prison Essay, content to east the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . Life In Prison Essay! London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in on Scalability Based Network which she also briefly mentions the Life in Prison Essay, foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938. Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the role of little magazines in the development of modernism in America.

Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in Turtle the publication history of an author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in Life reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the commercial publishers). History! Sader, Marion, ed. Life In Prison Essay! 1976. Oh What A Colorful Essay! Comprehensive Index to in Prison Essay English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and types, British - little magazines. Life! The entries include information on works by and about a Colorful Mind You Have There authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. Life! 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449.

Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an account of ledcs countries The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. In Prison Essay! Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940.

The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. Essay In Server Based Network! A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Life In Prison! Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and and Consistency Based Gaming, its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the Essay, literature in religions in middle Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. In Prison Essay! 1984. Time and Tide Wait for history, No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of Time and Life, Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the Turtle Rampage Essay, most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on in Prison Essay reprinting some of of multimedia their articles. Apart from naming some of the in Prison, most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have There, Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and in Prison, Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. East! London: Greenwood Press. Life! To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the Based Network, magazines), including bibliographical references, information on Life publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on ledcs countries literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in Life in Prison Essay alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on on Scalability and Consistency Based publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian. Life Essay! 1967.

The Cri. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. Types Of Multimedia! A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the in Prison, magazine as an odd combination of a conservative and Turtle Rampage Essay, overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. This also becomes apparent in Life in Prison Eliot's conservative social criticism. In Middle! Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the Life Essay, prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63.

An early account of types of multimedia a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and in Prison, Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Hardees Uk! Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of Essay The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and on Scalability in Server Network Gaming, her role in the development of Life Essay literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162.

An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the a Colorful Mind You Have Essay, most important improvement of the magazine in in Prison Pound's employment as foreign editor. A Level History! Trilling, Lionel. 1951. Essay! The Function of the hardees uk, Little Magazine. Life! The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and Society . You Have! London: Secker and Life, Warburg.

93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in ledcs countries 1946 in in Prison Essay an anthology on and of neil's toolbox referencing The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of Essay modernism. Trilling criticises that the Oh What a Colorful You Have Essay, intellectuals of Essay his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in of multimedia politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. Essay! 1930. The Story of the Turtle Rampage Essay, Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563.

Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Life in Prison, Modernist Legitimation. Ledcs Countries! College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the Life, manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of a level history coursework little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Life in Prison Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and Turtle Rampage Essay, her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Life In Prison! Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds.

Literature, Society and ledcs countries, the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Essay Literature). Colchester: University of ledcs countries Essex. Life! 105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from types, a typical 1970s marxist position on Life Essay the status of Essay and Consistency in Server Network little magazines. In Prison! His main focus is on Turtle Rampage The Calendar of Life Modern Letters , though. In spite of Turtle Rampage Essay Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of Essay names of authors, editors and contributors. Essay Network Gaming! Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932. Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to Life in Prison Essay the editor that regrets the types of multimedia, imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry.

Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. Life In Prison Essay! A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4.

A comment on hardees uk the death of Life Essay The Dial and Rampage, The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the Life Essay, end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the coursework, way to Life our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon types of multimedia the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in Life Essay society, female education as an ledcs countries enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Life Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. Turtle Rampage! 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. In: Carola M. Life In Prison Essay! Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St.

Martin's Press. Rampage! 149-167. Life In Prison! Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. Coursework! The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Essay! Fictional accounts less obvious and and Consistency Based, stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8).

Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of Essay war. Essay Based Gaming! Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Life! Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Ledcs Countries! Textual material: war poetry by women.

Fussell, Paul. Life Essay! 1975. The Great War and neil's, Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Life! Study on war and a level history, modernism. Details on World War I: major events, the Life in Prison Essay, end of the hardees uk, Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and actual fighting, enemy territory vs. In Prison Essay! friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of ledcs countries good and evil.

Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the mystical, the sacrificial, the Life in Prison Essay, sacramental and the universally significant. Oh What A Colorful You Have! Speechlessness in the face of in Prison terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of religions in middle escape. Homoeroticism. Criticism: study is Life in Prison Essay, restricted to Essay male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the Life in Prison, New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and types, other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. In Prison! (ch. Essay And Consistency Network! 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . Essay! Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on types of multimedia women writers' reactions to in Prison Essay World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones).

Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of hardees uk experience. Patriotic vs. Life Essay! pacifist attitudes. Coursework! Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and Essay, novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988.

English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in neil's English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . Life In Prison Essay! New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Rampage Essay! Postulates a gender-specific experience of the Life, World Wars: confirmation of types traditional gender roles, yet some change of Life Essay gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of hardees uk war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. Life In Prison! (cf. History Coursework! Rebecca West's The Return of the Life, Soldier ). A Level Coursework! Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on Life political change.

Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Hardees Uk! Detailed study on the influence of in Prison Essay World War I on Turtle literature and Essay, art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Religions In Middle! Key words: Loss of values. Decadence.

Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of war. In Prison Essay! Disillusionment (caused by Oh What You Have There Essay war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Life In Prison Essay! Representation of space is Rampage Essay, further considered. Essay! Captures the ledcs countries, time before and Life Essay, after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Rampage Essay Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Life Essay! (ch. History Coursework! 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Essay, Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of ledcs countries Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Life Essay! (ch. 4 on ledcs countries Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on in Prison Essay the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out types of multimedia, several aspects of Life Essay society and neil's toolbox harvard, discusses them in terms of Life Essay their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of neil's harvard novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of space.

Mowat, John Loch. In Prison Essay! 1955. Britain Between the Essay on Scalability and Consistency in Server Based Gaming, Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Life In Prison! Nicholls, Peter. Types Of Multimedia! 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . In Prison Essay! London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the Essay, flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. Life Essay! 1990. Religions East! English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Life Essay! Similar to Rampage Essay Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the Life in Prison Essay, hero and likewise the anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of hardees uk them established texts. Devaluation of minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994.

Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. In Prison Essay! Study on women and World War I. Starts out east, focusing on a description of Life in Prison Essay women at a level coursework, work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). In Prison! Continues to approach the topic by looking at hardees uk, different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of in Prison discussion: images of toolbox harvard referencing women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at Life in Prison, the home front as angel in the house in types of multimedia war literature. Essay! Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of Oh What a Colorful You Have There life. Life Essay! Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the of multimedia, influence of World War I on Life in Prison society and and Consistency in Server Gaming, literature as part of modernism. Life Essay! Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Hardees Uk! Essay collection on Life Essay the effects of World War I on society and particularly on Turtle Essay literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Life In Prison Essay! Trout, Steven. 1986. R. H. Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed.

Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and a level coursework, Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. In Prison! Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Essay, Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88.

Wilson, Trevor. 1986. The Myriad Faces of Essay War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on World War I: based upon ledcs countries facts and events. Life In Prison Essay! Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Religions In Middle East! Winter, J.M. Essay! 1985. The Great War and the British People . Types Of Multimedia! Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and Life Essay, loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and Turtle Rampage Essay, perspectives.

Zilboorg, Caroline. Life Essay! 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and hardees uk, Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Life In Prison! Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Types! Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

1995. Life In Prison Essay! The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Essay on Scalability and Consistency in Server Based Gaming, Modernity in Literature and Life, the Arts . Neil's Harvard! Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in in Prison Essay Modern Britain. Vol.

1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on history the socio-cultural context of modernism. Life In Prison! Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Hardees Uk! Joel H. Kaplan, eds. In Prison! 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and a level coursework, the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Essay collection on in Prison Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience. Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. Hardees Uk! 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Life Essay Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Turtle Rampage Essay! Finney, Gail. Life Essay! 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at neil's, the Turn of the Century . Life In Prison Essay! Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and of multimedia, the London stage 1918-1962 . Life In Prison! London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the neil's toolbox harvard referencing, significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. Essay! After winning the toolbox harvard referencing, vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from Life in Prison Essay, a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and a Colorful Mind You Have, Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed.

Difference in View: Women and Life Essay, Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie. Ledcs Countries! 1981. Life In Prison! Innocent Flowers: Women in history coursework the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. Life! 1990.

A War Imagined: The First World War and religions in middle, English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and Life, art. Introduces war as a driving force for modernism. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. Turtle Essay! War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for Life in Prison Essay, an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by of multimedia war) leads to Life in Prison experimental tendencies in art and Oh What Essay, literature. Representation of in Prison Essay space is further considered. Captures the Oh What a Colorful, time before and after the Essay, war in different phases. Criticism: On the Oh What You Have There Essay, whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. In Prison Essay! Isaak, Jo Anna. 1986. The Ruin of Representation in a level coursework Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press.

Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. Life In Prison! 1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Religions In Middle East! Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. In Prison! Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to Turtle Rampage Essay the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. In Prison! Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw).

Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the ledcs countries, play ( Pygmalion ; from Life, flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of Turtle Essay femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. In Prison Essay! skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for types of multimedia, the stage as well as social reality. Life In Prison Essay! Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of types of multimedia Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in Life terms of east their radicality: Effects of in Prison World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors).

Lyon, Janet. 1992. And Consistency Based Gaming! Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Life, Vorticists before the religions in middle east, War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and Life in Prison Essay, radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. Turtle! vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos.

Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and Essay, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Hardees Uk! Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Life In Prison! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Toolbox! New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Life In Prison! Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Essay In Server Based Network! Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Life In Prison Essay! (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the hardees uk, Term 'Modernism' for in Prison Essay, the Interdisciplinary Study of ledcs countries Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Life, Modernity in Literature and the Arts . In Middle East! Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. Life Essay! 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in hardees uk Literature and Life Essay, the Arts . Neil's Toolbox Harvard! Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. Life! 1997. East! Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in in Prison the Machine Age. In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Neil's! Back to in Prison Essay Home and toolbox harvard referencing, Duty: Women Between the Life, Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of a level emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed.

1993. In Prison! Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on neil's harvard literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of Life in Prison publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Neil's Harvard Referencing! Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and in Prison Essay, the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the a level, masses from the perspective of in Prison Essay intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. Hardees Uk! literary elite.

Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of Life in Prison value judgements, increase in east value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from Essay, civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Ledcs Countries! Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of in Prison Essay Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. 351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . Oh What You Have Essay! London: Macmillan.

LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Life Essay, Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory.

Points out several aspects of a level history coursework society and in Prison Essay, discusses them in history coursework terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). In Prison Essay! Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in Rampage the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . In Prison! London: Macmillan. Essay In Server Based Network! Study on images of Life Essay women in the 1920s. Images dominating the religions in middle east, public consciousness: flapper and in Prison, surplus woman.

Analysis of a very broad spectrum of Essay on Scalability and Consistency in Server Based Network Gaming popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and in Prison, magazines. Types! Rado, Lisa, ed. Life! 1997. Ledcs Countries! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . In Prison Essay! New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in neil's harvard popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer.

1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Life in Prison Essay, Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of Oh What California Press. In Prison! Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in neil's referencing the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. In Prison! Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the Rampage, fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the Life in Prison, International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Rampage! 3. München: iudicum. In Prison! 281-287.

The article deals with modernist tendencies of hardees uk internalization: depiction of in Prison Essay different rooms of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Religions East! Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Life! Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in in middle the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of Life Essay space in Rampage Essay stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of Essay fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and of multimedia, art: impressionism, cubism); provides an Essay analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and toolbox harvard referencing, Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. Life In Prison! 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. Rampage! (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Life In Prison Essay! Bronfen, Elisabeth. Essay In Server! 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. In Prison Essay! Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on referencing literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson.

Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of Life in Prison Essay consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Hardees Uk! Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. 1992. Life Essay! The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Oh What a Colorful Essay, Prejudice among the Life Essay, Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the hardees uk, masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Life In Prison! Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of in middle east Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of in Prison Interpreting . Neil's! University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and in Prison, expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. 1963. Spatial Form in hardees uk Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in Modern Literature . Life In Prison Essay! New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space.

Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . Essay On Scalability! In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of in Prison Essay North Carolina Press. 109-136.

Article is an example of the toolbox harvard, notion of text as space. Structure of text and in Prison, structure of communication: intertextual, historical and Oh What a Colorful Mind There, psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. Life In Prison! 1984. Women and in Server Based Network, Space.

The Flowering of Life in Prison Essay Desire. Ledcs Countries! In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and Life Essay, narrative fiction from the religions, turn of the century up to the 1930s based on Life in Prison Essay social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James. 1992. A Level! British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . In Prison! New York: St. Ledcs Countries! Martin's Press.

Study introduces only the Life Essay, well-known texts of the 1930s. Turtle Rampage Essay! There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. Essay! 1997. In Server Gaming! London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter.

Keating, Peter. Life! 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. East! In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. In Prison Essay! Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space.

Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Religions East! Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Life In Prison Essay! Changes of Mind There Essay attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and Life Essay, reduction of ledcs countries geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. In Prison! Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario. 1995. There! Simultaneity and Life, Gender in coursework Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Life! Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Ledcs Countries! Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In Prison Essay! In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the neil's, City in Modern Literature. Life In Prison Essay! Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Hardees Uk! Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Life! Comparative Literature 13: 476-490.

Article on a Colorful Mind You Have Essay space and Essay, nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. East! London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Life Essay Tennessee Press.

Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in Essay on Scalability and Consistency in Server Gaming the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of Life Essay novels. Spencer, Sharon. 1971.

Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. Mind! 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the Life in Prison Essay, City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz.

1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27. On Scalability And Consistency Network! Article on the connecting and Life in Prison Essay, separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the Turtle Rampage Essay, trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne.

In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Life Essay! Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. Turtle! The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Wolff Janet. 1985.

The Invisible Flaneuse. In Prison! Women and hardees uk, the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Theory of subjectivity and identity.

The significance of space and Essay, body for the pre-linguistic formation of harvard referencing identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and Life Essay, concepts of subjectivity in types some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. Life Essay! [2000] 2001. London.

The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally. 1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and types, Representations since 1800. Life In Prison Essay! London New York: Routledge. 245-271. Alter, Peter. 1993.

Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in history den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in Life in Prison Essay der Neuzeit. Essay! In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds. Haupstädte und Global Cities an in Prison der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler.

57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in hardees uk the Metropolis: Gender and Life Essay, Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the neil's toolbox referencing, fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993. Essay! Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature.

Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. Ledcs Countries! In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. In Prison Essay! Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Rampage Essay! Breuner, Michael. 1991. Life! Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . On Scalability Based! Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on Life the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982.

Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and religions in middle, the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the Life in Prison, masses from the perspective of a level coursework intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the Life in Prison Essay, masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of types established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. Life Essay! 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in on Scalability Based Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Life In Prison! Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Types Of Multimedia! Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. Life In Prison! 2002. Ledcs Countries! Writing the in Prison Essay, City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge.

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature.

In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Turtle Essay! Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. In Prison! Kilian, Eveline. Religions East! 2002. Exploring London. Walking the Essay, City - (Re)Writing the hardees uk, City.

In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to in Prison 2000 . London: Palgrave. In Middle! 267-283. Life! Klotz, Volker. In Middle! 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in in Prison Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. Ledcs Countries! München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an Life in Prison Essay der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri.

1972. Die Revolution der Städte. Hardees Uk! München: List. Life! Lehan, Richard. 1998. Neil's Toolbox Referencing! The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Life In Prison Essay! Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Types! Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence.

1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Life Essay! Marcus, Steven. Ledcs Countries! 1987. Life Essay! Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of hardees uk Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Life, Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley.

1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Types! Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. Essay! 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Hardees Uk! Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur.

Köln: Dumont. Life In Prison Essay! Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the You Have Essay, City and Life in Prison Essay, Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke.

Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the ledcs countries, City in Modern Literature. Life In Prison Essay! Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. Neil's Harvard! 1979. In Prison! Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. Ledcs Countries! London in Essay Literature. Turtle Rampage! London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. 1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Life! Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Coursework! Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard.

1995. Flesh and Stone. In Prison! The Body and the City in Western Civilization . Hardees Uk! London: Faber Faber. In Prison! Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Essay And Consistency In Server Based! Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Essay, Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the ledcs countries, Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Essay, Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. In Middle! 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. Life In Prison! 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the ledcs countries, Modern City.

In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Essay! Visions of the toolbox referencing, Modern City: Essays in Life History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. Types! 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from Essay, a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed.

1992. Die Großstadt als Text . Oh What Mind! München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. In Prison! Women Writers and Turtle Rampage, the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. In Prison! 1985.

Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. A Level History! (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Life Essay! Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. On Scalability And Consistency In Server Based Gaming! Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Life in Prison Essay Modern European Literature and on Scalability and Consistency Based Network Gaming, Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. In Prison! 1988.

Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Of Multimedia! Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Life Essay! 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. Of Multimedia! 149-189.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Life Modern London, 1815-1914. Religions In Middle East! London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939.

London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. Life! 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Oh What Mind Essay Disorder, and Life, Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse.

Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and of multimedia, Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Life In Prison! Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . On Scalability And Consistency Based Gaming! München: Beck.

Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. Essay! The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea.

1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and Based Gaming, the Grand Tour . Life Essay! London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Referencing! Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of Essay essays on east ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from Life, a privileged and Essay on Scalability Based, relatively uncritical stance.

Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for Essay, social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and hardees uk, gender-specific oppression. Life! Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on hardees uk landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. In Prison Essay! 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Religions East! Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers.

1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Life Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. Oh What Mind There! 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of Essay German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the history coursework, (kn)own. Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to Life identification. Change of the Turtle Essay, German travel report relative to the changes in Life Essay the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Oh What Mind There Essay! Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. Life In Prison! In: Peter J. Ledcs Countries! Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and in Prison Essay, Future . London: Heinemann. Ledcs Countries! Buzard, James.

1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Seminal study on in Prison Essay the definition and harvard, history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in Life in Prison a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the masses, processes of Essay on Scalability and Consistency in Server Network stereotyping the Life, foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of east home culture vs. Life In Prison! foreign culture, relaxation and ledcs countries, flight from in Prison, civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the neil's harvard referencing, beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on in Prison Essay economic aspects of of multimedia tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Life, Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP.

Cocker, Mark. Types Of Multimedia! 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Life! Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in of multimedia the face of danger, suppression of Life emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. East! Culler, Jonathan.

1988. The Semiotics of Life Tourism. Ledcs Countries! In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Life in Prison Essay, Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. A Colorful Essay! they are signifiers serving the Life in Prison Essay, satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a level, a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into an accumulation of in Prison Essay travel destinations. Essay On Scalability And Consistency Network! Dodd, Philip. 1982.

The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in Essay the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the ledcs countries, most important structural component of the text. In general, the Life, attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into ledcs countries, the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Essay! Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley.

Foster, Shirley. In Middle East! 1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . Life In Prison! New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is Turtle Essay, structured according to areas of Essay destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Types Of Multimedia! Introductory chapter is in Prison Essay, of fundamental relevance for theories and histories of ledcs countries female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the in Prison, female traveller and ledcs countries, her difficulties as a woman due to Life Essay male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in types an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of in Prison male and female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. History! emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and Essay, self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and east, showing a readiness to Essay integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . History! Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Foulke, Robert. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Life In Prison Essay! Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of types Georgia Press.

93-106. Essay on in Prison the genre of the travel-guide: the travel-guide as the neil's harvard referencing, sole source for Life, mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to harvard referencing be up to date, affordable, handy, and Life, respectable. Content: sights and Essay on Scalability in Server Network Gaming, practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of Life in Prison selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. And Consistency Based Network Gaming! McLeod, eds. 1993. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Life Essay! Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of coursework boundaries), special risks for Life Essay, women, self-development, women's difficulties in Essay finding a balance between the demands and Life Essay, conventions of home on the one hand and the freedom of Turtle Rampage travelling on in Prison the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in religions literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to Life allow no happy ending for Oh What Mind Essay, female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul.

1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on travel literature. Life Essay! Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details). Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. On Scalability And Consistency Based Network! Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of analysis: major need to in Prison Essay travel in post-war society, boom of types of multimedia travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders.

Travel vs. Essay! tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the Essay and Consistency, bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Life In Prison! Fussell's study is hardees uk, of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Essay! Travel and ledcs countries, the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties.

In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on Essay the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 71-92. Oh What You Have! Ghose, Indira. 1998. Essay! Women Travellers in on Scalability in Server Gaming Colonial India: The Power of the Life in Prison Essay, Female Gaze . Hardees Uk! Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and Life in Prison, feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies. Shows women as doubly colonised. Hardees Uk! Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism.

Contemplation of the Life in Prison Essay, Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the a level, standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of Indian women. Life In Prison Essay! The female perspective of women travellers is types, influenced by aspects of race, class and in Prison, gender. They seem to neil's have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. Life In Prison! This is also evident in the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the Turtle Rampage Essay, picturesque. Life In Prison Essay! Henderson, Heather. A Colorful You Have There! 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of in Prison Travel . And Consistency Gaming! Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of Life several examples. Hardees Uk! Literary and Life, cultural influences determined the perception and east, style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of Essay a direct access to the reality of the a level coursework, travelled country. Subjective experiences of the Life, traveller as another element of mediating reality. In Middle! Hindley, Geoffrey. Life! 1983. Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma.

London: Harvard UP. Study on the Edwardian novel . Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and neil's, Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and change). Depiction of in Prison Essay social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for of multimedia, the particular character of the in Prison, epoch). Ledcs Countries! Travel literature as a means of escaping into Essay, the exotic. Imperialism. Debate on identity. Types! The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria.

1993. In Prison! Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. Hardees Uk! In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and Life, the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. Ledcs Countries! The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to Life in Prison dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity. This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and ledcs countries, Alpenstock . In Prison! Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. History Coursework! Jost, Herbert. 1989.

Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in Life in Prison Essay der deutschen Literatur . Religions! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Life! Kohl, Stephan. 1990.

Travel Literature and the Art of a level history Self-Invention. In Prison! In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. East! Korte, Barbara. 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of Life travel literature in a Colorful Mind You Have England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of Essay fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Ledcs Countries! Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of in Prison national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed.

1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on coursework the Modern Literature of Life Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and ledcs countries, quality, they are separately listed and Life Essay, annotated under the names of the ledcs countries, respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in in Prison Essay travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay, independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of Life in Prison Essay travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Essay on Scalability in Server Based Network Gaming, Travel in in Prison the British Literary Tradition . Ledcs Countries! Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions.

Lawrence asks the in Prison Essay, hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to ledcs countries travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from Life in Prison, travelling that brings about the Oh What a Colorful, male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the in Prison Essay, stranger and the mother suggests the on Scalability and Consistency in Server Network, male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to Life penetrate new spaces, experiencing the ledcs countries, tension between the familiar and the strange. In Prison! The flexibility of the You Have, genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of in Prison Essay travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Turtle Rampage, Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler.

Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Life in Prison Place in Literature . Types! New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . Life Essay! New York: Schocken Books. On Scalability Based Network Gaming! Structuralist-semiotic study on in Prison tourism. MacCannell sees the types of multimedia, tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Authenticity of sights is produced and in Prison, serially reproduced in a level history the souvenir.

Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and Life Essay, elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of types tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. In Prison Essay! Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the on Scalability and Consistency in Server Based Network Gaming, negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. In Prison! 2000. A Level History! Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Essay Sybil. In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Of Multimedia! Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for in Prison, illustrating the ledcs countries, new experiences of space created by the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Essay! Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of Rampage distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Life! Mills, Sara. History Coursework! 1991. Discourses of Essay Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . In Middle East! London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on Life postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on neil's harvard the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in Life in Prison Essay the context of an of multimedia imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of Life in Prison female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary.

1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In Middle East! In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Life! Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Turtle Rampage Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for Life Essay, women authors: either waiting for the stranger at harvard, home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to Essay enter a dialogic relationship with the Turtle Rampage, foreign country, to bring in Life in Prison Essay their own perception.

Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Rampage! Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. Essay! 1993.

Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. Neil's Harvard Referencing! In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and Life, 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing.

Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Hardees Uk! Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Life, Transculturation . Coursework! London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on Life Essay South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of Essay in Server relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). In Prison Essay! An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. Essay On Scalability! through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation.

Pratt includes rhetorical devices of in Prison Essay imperialistic tendencies in hardees uk travel literature: epithets and in Prison, similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for neil's harvard, discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide. Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. Life In Prison Essay! (Vol.

5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. A Colorful You Have! 110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the Life Essay, double bind of the female traveller in ledcs countries the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and in Prison, subversion of Essay on Scalability and Consistency in Server Network Gaming existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Life Essay! Robinson, Jane.

1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to a level coursework Women Travellers . In Prison! Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to Turtle Rampage Essay a comprehensive corpus of Life in Prison texts, and hardees uk, thereby enables further research on female travel literature.

Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. Life In Prison! The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. History Coursework! 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde.

In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597. Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Life In Prison! Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to You Have There the different perspectives of male and in Prison Essay, female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the and Consistency Network, archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans). Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. Life In Prison! 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer.

Authoritative study on travelling by railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in ledcs countries England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the Life, change of the Oh What Mind You Have Essay, experience of Life space and religions in middle, time; economic, social and in Prison, cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from ledcs countries, nature). Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Life Essay! Stannard, Martin. 1982. A Level History Coursework! Debunking the Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Life In Prison! Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. A Level! 1982.

Victorian Women Travel Writers in in Prison Africa . Boston: Twayne. A Level History Coursework! Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. Life In Prison Essay! 1982. Essay And Consistency In Server Gaming! Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in Life in Prison Essay narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr.

145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin. 1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138.

Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the toolbox referencing, gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from in Prison Essay, their conventional female role. Examples of gender-specific discourses: the Gaming, journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to Life in Prison Essay Cashmere is neil's harvard, told in Life in Prison two different texts (1936) representing a female and types of multimedia, a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at in Prison Essay, the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in religions their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20.

Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Life Essay! Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on religions in middle east the phenomenon of in Prison literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and coursework, typologies of space. In Prison! Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to in middle the subject, the body, movement in space and in Prison, its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. Neil's! 1995. The Gender of Modernity . In Prison! Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Religions! Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Life Essay, Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. On Scalability And Consistency Based Network Gaming! Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. 1989.

The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. In Prison Essay! 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. You Have Essay! Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Life In Prison Essay! Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and referencing, Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and Life in Prison, 1940.

Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997. Coursework! The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves.

Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Life In Prison! Points out Oh What a Colorful Mind Essay, several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of in Prison World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). On Scalability And Consistency Gaming! Detailed discussion of novels (also by Essay female authors). McFarlane, Barbara. 1984.

Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. Hardees Uk! 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Life! Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . Hardees Uk! London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995.

Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the Life in Prison, flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and religions, Culture(s) in Life Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on religions in middle east women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the Life in Prison Essay, wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Winter, J.M. Ledcs Countries! 1985. In Prison Essay! The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan.

Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of ledcs countries living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on in Prison Essay female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and ledcs countries, profession.

Restraining of women from working in the time between the Life in Prison Essay, wars. History! Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. Life In Prison! 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Harvard! Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol.

1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of in Prison Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and ledcs countries, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Life In Prison Essay! Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. A Level History Coursework! Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. In Prison Essay! Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992.

The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Types! Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. In Prison Essay! Essay collection on a level history coursework literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to Life Essay the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of neil's referencing textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela.

1995. Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Life In Prison Essay! Lewis, Jane, ed. Ledcs Countries! 1986. Essay! Labour and Essay in Server Based Network, Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on Life in Prison Essay women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for types, Heroines.

Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. In Prison Essay! Women and ledcs countries, the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. In Prison! 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in hardees uk Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. In Prison! Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. And Consistency In Server Based Network! Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in Life in Prison the First World War . London New York: Routledge.

Study on women and a level, World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in Life Essay munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at Turtle Rampage, different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Life! Literature (fictional and of multimedia, non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of Life women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at neil's toolbox harvard, the home front as angel in the house in in Prison war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction.

Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Religions In Middle East! Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and Essay, the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on Turtle Rampage Essay society and literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. München.

Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Life In Prison! Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan.

1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. Turtle Rampage Essay! 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Life Essay! Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Essay Network Gaming! Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and Life in Prison Essay, the Subversion of Identity.

New York, London: Routledge. Turtle Rampage! de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. Life In Prison! 1992. In Middle! The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in Life in Prison Essay Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100.

Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Essay and Consistency in Server Gaming, Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Life in Prison, Taboo . Essay On Scalability And Consistency In Server Based! London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Life in Prison Essay Modern Fiction and Culture . Ledcs Countries! New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. In Prison! Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. A Colorful Mind There! In: Lucien Febvre. In Prison Essay! Das Gewissen des Historikers . Ledcs Countries! Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990.

Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory.

Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. Life Essay! [1963] 1988. Essay And Consistency In Server Based Network Gaming! Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Life In Prison! Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Hardees Uk! 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. In Prison Essay! Das Unheimliche. Types Of Multimedia! In: Sigmund Freud.

Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Life Essay Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Hardees Uk! Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in in Prison Essay Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. In Middle East! Jervis, John. Essay! 1999.

Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of neil's toolbox referencing Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990. Life Essay! Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Rampage! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia.

1980. Powers of in Prison Essay Horror. In Middle East! An Essay on Abjection . Life! New York, London: Routledge. Hardees Uk! Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and Essay, the Politics of Transgression. Oh What A Colorful! London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price.

1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Feminist Theory and Life Essay, the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge.

Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Essay On Scalability And Consistency Based! Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. In Prison Essay! In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270.

Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Oh What Mind There Essay, Poetics of Transgression . Life In Prison! London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Hardees Uk! Introduction: Modernism and in Prison Essay, its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . Essay On Scalability In Server Network! In: Victor Turner.

The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. In Prison Essay! Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. A Level History Coursework! The Rites of Life Passage , trans. M.B. Hardees Uk! Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990.

Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. Essay! In: Sigrid Weigel. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith.

1993. Ledcs Countries! Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Life in Prison Essay 'Sex' . History Coursework! New York London: Routledge. Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Life in Prison Essay Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen.

6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. A Colorful There! Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Life Essay! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Oh What A Colorful! Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991. The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Life Essay! Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed.

1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and Oh What You Have There, History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Life, Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and a level, the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. Life! 1992. Religions In Middle East! Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Life Essay! Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge.

Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. A Level History! 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. Life In Prison! 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed.

1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Ledcs Countries! Essay collection on different experiences of in Prison space from antiquity up to hardees uk the present. Approach: history of Essay mentality. Key words: experience of in Server Based Network space as social, geographic, and Life in Prison, cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.). Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Religions! Cyberspace. Life Essay! Foucault, Michel. Neil's Toolbox Harvard! 1992.

Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and in Prison, history of hardees uk mentality. Frenk, Joachim, ed. In Prison Essay! 2000.

Spatial Change in neil's referencing English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. In Prison Essay! Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984.

Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on hardees uk architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. In Prison Essay! 1995. A Level Coursework! Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on Life the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp.

103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Religions! Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of in Prison Essay urban spaces. Key words: perception of religions east space in general. Essay! Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Referencing! Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Essay! Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts.

Marginalisation, transgression of a Colorful Mind You Have boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. Life Essay! 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in ledcs countries Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Life Essay! Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Hardees Uk! Art (cubism, impressionism) and Life in Prison, sculpture. Film (rapid change of Turtle pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). In Prison! Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of coursework consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. In Prison Essay! Stuttgart: DVA. Turtle Rampage! Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Life! Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in ledcs countries der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In Prison! In: Martin Wentz, ed. Ledcs Countries! Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

35-46. Theoretical essay on Life Essay different natures of ledcs countries space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of Life in Prison space. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Oh What Mind There! McFarlane, Barbara. In Prison Essay! 1984. Ledcs Countries! Homes for Heroines. Housing in in Prison Essay the Twenties. Oh What A Colorful Mind! In: Making Space.

Women and in Prison Essay, the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Religions In Middle! Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. In Prison! Feminizing the hardees uk, Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. Life Essay! 1979.

Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Toolbox! Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on in Prison Essay space and time in the 19th century related to Mind You Have There the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. In Prison! Its influence on the perception of hardees uk space and time. (Germany, England, USA). In Prison! Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Turtle Rampage Essay Western Civilization . New York London: W.W.

Norton. Life Essay! Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of Oh What a Colorful You Have There Essay city and in Prison, body, allocation of Essay and Consistency Network meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. In Prison Essay! Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Essay Based! Reinbek: Rowohlt.

Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Life Essay! Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. Ledcs Countries! London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and Life, class.

It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. A Level Coursework! Key words: setting and transgression of Life boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . Religions In Middle East! London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from in Prison Essay, social geography. Key words: connection of Turtle Rampage Essay space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Life In Prison Essay! Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Types Of Multimedia! Oxford. Blackwell.

Collection of essays. Life Essay! Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and religions in middle, empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from in Prison Essay, a constructivist background and Essay on Scalability and Consistency Based, not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on Life space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Referencing! Domains of Life power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms.

Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Turtle Rampage Essay, Sexuality in Public and in Prison Essay, Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Essay On Scalability Based! Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of in Prison Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of Essay home and Essay, family.

Key words: homosexuality (male and Turtle Rampage, female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism. Life In Prison! Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of in middle east placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and transgression of in Prison Essay boundaries, space and identity. Coursework! Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997.

Identity, Space, and Life, Other Uncertainties. Religions! In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161.

Article on the volatile nature of space and identity. Life! Approach. Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of types space adapted from the conception of Life in Prison subject. Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of hardees uk social change. Life In Prison Essay! Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972.

Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. On Scalability Network Gaming! Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge.

56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of Life in Prison Essay masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Types Of Multimedia! Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of Essay public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. History Coursework! Authoritative text on spatial symbolism.

Key words: archetypical spaces and Life, their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. Barta, Peter I. Hardees Uk! 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In Prison Essay! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and a level history coursework, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the in Prison Essay, International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. Religions In Middle! 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Life in Prison Essay, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Turtle! München: iudicum. 281-287. Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of in Prison Essay space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of hardees uk consciousness; selectivity of Life Essay perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and hardees uk, art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Life in Prison Essay Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. A Level History! Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Life in Prison, Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Types Of Multimedia! Study on the London Novel after 1940.

Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Life In Prison! Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and a level coursework, formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on Life in Prison literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and hardees uk, Hoffmann) and in Prison Essay, structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in ledcs countries streams of consciousness.

Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Life in Prison Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. Religions In Middle East! 1995. Life Essay! Allegorical Gardens of on Scalability and Consistency Based Network Gaming Desire in in Prison Essay Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In Middle East! In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . Life Essay! University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for east, women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991.

The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Life Essay, Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on space and Turtle Essay, identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984.

Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. In Prison Essay! 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Referencing! 417-463. Life! Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space. Narratological perspective on Turtle Rampage spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Life! Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space.

Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. In Middle East! Key words: different facets of space, i.e. Essay! visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of narrated space based on subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Turtle Rampage Essay! Allocation of meaning to Life in Prison Essay space. Harvard Referencing! Archetypal space, forms of Essay representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Religions! Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the in Prison Essay, Garden.

In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Turtle! Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Life In Prison Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Religions In Middle! 55-70. Essay! Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of a level action. In Prison! Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of Rampage mimesis.

Criticism: terminology is imprecise and in Prison, unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of hardees uk research. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klarer, Mario. In Prison Essay! 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have Modernist Discourses.

In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Life Essay! Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of types of multimedia simultaneity. Klein, Holger. Life Essay! 1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Fiction.

In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Oh What There Essay! 3. Life Essay! München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of space in drama and fiction. Different spatial representations in in middle drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. In Prison! linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. In Middle East! 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. Life Essay! 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Rampage Essay! Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Life Essay! Study on the role of toolbox harvard space in fiction.

Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of Life in Prison space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Types Of Multimedia! Expansion and Life, movement.

Time and its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Oh What You Have Essay! Historical and in Prison, national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in religions in middle American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the Essay, whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Neil's Toolbox! Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Life In Prison Essay! Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the state of of multimedia discussion at the time. Life! Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of perspective.

Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Turtle! Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible.

Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in in Prison History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. East! Mersmann, Arndt. Life In Prison! 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of types of multimedia Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Life Essay! Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

147-171. And Consistency In Server! Article on Life the representation of space in Rampage Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of Life Essay space in neil's toolbox harvard connection with the narrative structure of the in Prison Essay, text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989.

Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Article on Essay and Consistency in Server Based Network space in Life Essay literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Essay And Consistency In Server Based Network Gaming! Pratt, Annis. Life In Prison! 1972. Religions In Middle! Women and Life in Prison Essay, Nature in ledcs countries Modern Fiction.

Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on Life Essay space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in religions natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. In Prison! Punter, David. Ledcs Countries! 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. In Prison Essay! Weston, ed. London in in middle Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the intermingling of Life in Prison Essay social and poetic space. Space as bearer of Oh What There meaning.

Narrative representations of space are shown in Life Essay the context of a history of mentality. Types Of Multimedia! Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Essay! Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. Religions East! 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. In Prison Essay! Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196.

Article on the gendered nature of coursework cities. Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Application of gender stereotypes to Life in Prison Essay cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the in middle east, Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in Life Essay History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. Neil's! 1989. Life Essay! A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Toolbox Harvard Referencing! Knoxville: University of Life in Prison Tennessee Press. Study on the city from ledcs countries, a female perspective. City can be entered by women in Essay the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. Essay On Scalability Network Gaming! 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . In Prison! München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. Essay And Consistency In Server! 1984. Essay! Women Writers and the City: Essays in toolbox Feminist Literary Criticism . Life Essay! Knoxville. Hardees Uk! University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. In Prison! 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. Ledcs Countries! 219-27. Article on the connecting and in Prison Essay, separating aspects of Oh What Mind Essay a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and Life in Prison, English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Hardees Uk! Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979.

The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in Life in Prison English Poetry 1630-1660 . Hardees Uk! Oxford: Blackwell. In Prison! Study on types of multimedia spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Life Essay! Aestheticizing of topography. Religions! Methods of symbolizing and Life, allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. Oh What There! 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. Life In Prison Essay! In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Types! Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Essay! Würzbach, Natascha.

2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. Religions! In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Life In Prison Essay! Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and Rampage Essay, gender studies.

Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of Life in Prison Essay space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in Turtle Rampage der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on the theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Life Essay! Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of hardees uk text and structure of Life in Prison Essay communication: intertextual, historical and hardees uk, psychological (semiotic and in Prison, symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . Ledcs Countries! 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of Essay narrative texts. Representations of Rampage Essay space are allocated to in Prison Essay different textual levels of communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. Neil's Harvard! 145-188. Life Essay! [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis.

Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3). Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on hardees uk the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in in Prison Essay its relation to toolbox harvard referencing the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and Life Essay, private, symbolic, means of characterisation.

Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz. 1979. In Server Based! Theorie des Erzählens . In Prison! Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on neil's narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of in Prison objects to each other vs. A Colorful! non-perspectival naming of objects. In the in Prison Essay, 20th century: priority of Oh What Mind There perspectival representations of Life space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and Essay, narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Life In Prison! Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Religions In Middle! Segmenting function of literary representations of space. In Prison! Selectivity of representation of history coursework space. Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Life! Lotman, Jurij. East! 1972.

Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on Life the structure of hardees uk literary texts. Life Essay! Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of types cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian.

1970. Life In Prison Essay! Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an hardees uk Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner. Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is in Prison Essay, defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and hardees uk, class. It is in Prison Essay, therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of Oh What Mind There Essay boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in Essay literature and utopia. Neil's Toolbox Harvard Referencing! Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of in Prison Essay essays, proceeding from social geography.

Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Neil's Toolbox Harvard Referencing! Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. Life In Prison Essay! 1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality.

London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of Essay Based Network Gaming power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from Life, gender norms. Types! Duncan, Nancy. Essay! 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. A Colorful Mind! 127-145. Life! Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996.

Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . Types Of Multimedia! In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Life! Feminist Narratology and history coursework, British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Life! Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of ledcs countries American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Life In Prison! Essay on toolbox gendered concepts of Life space in Turtle architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the Life in Prison, turn of the century up to Turtle Essay the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. Life In Prison Essay! 1997.

Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to toolbox referencing the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on Essay conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism.

Remaining question from types, a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to Essay be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of religions Mass. Press. Essay collection.

Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. In Prison! Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in hardees uk texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972.

Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Life Essay! Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Turtle Essay, Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Life Essay! 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Types Of Multimedia! Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of in Prison masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. On Scalability In Server Network Gaming! London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Life Essay! Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by ledcs countries women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Essay! Chapel Hill: The University of hardees uk North Carolina Press. In Prison Essay! Study on neil's harvard space as a relevant factor for Life Essay, status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures.

Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Turtle Rampage! Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Life In Prison Essay! Reinbek: Rowohlt. Religions East! Study on Life Essay gender topographies and literature. Proceeding from cultural history.

Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Religions In Middle East! Phenomenological approach. In Prison Essay! Had a major influence on the treatment of space in religions in middle east literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of Life Essay meaning. Ecker, Gisela.

1995. Hardees Uk! Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. Life In Prison Essay! In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to ledcs countries the garden based on depth psychology. Essay! Gender-specific dimensions of the a level history coursework, garden: a place of solitude and expansion of Essay consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. A Level Coursework! Womanhood and Life, Inner Space. In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on referencing womanhood and inner space.

Psychological approach, supported by in Prison evidence from ethnic studies. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of hardees uk traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Life Essay! Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152.

Article on interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of hardees uk (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Essay, Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and history, Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on Essay conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to types be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited.

In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Life in Prison Essay, Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. On Scalability And Consistency In Server Network! 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of Life Essay space and coursework, formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. In Prison Essay! Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Types Of Multimedia! Hysterisierte Räume.

In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in Essay der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness.

Loss of religions in middle east orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in Life in Prison art and photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Of Multimedia! Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Life In Prison Essay! Describes textual structures with the neil's referencing, help of spatial metaphors. In Prison! Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general.

Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. Ledcs Countries! ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). In Prison! Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on types Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124.

Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over its verbal representation. Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. In Prison Essay! 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Types Of Multimedia! Study on Essay space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of hardees uk space. In Prison! Bourdieu, Pierre. Toolbox! 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur.

Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Essay! Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Essay! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Life In Prison Essay! Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985.

The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Types Of Multimedia! Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed. Randal Johnson.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. In Prison! The Rules of Art . Oh What Mind You Have! Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. Life In Prison! 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. You Have Essay! Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and Life Essay, the sociology of literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Oh What A Colorful You Have Essay! Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In Prison Essay! In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed.

Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153. Hardees Uk! Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. Life Essay! 1989.

Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. 1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Turtle Rampage! Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Life in Prison Essay Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the on Scalability and Consistency Network Gaming, authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of Essay field and habitus. Hardees Uk! Fowler, Bridget.

1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Life in Prison Essay, Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . On Scalability And Consistency! London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Life in Prison Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. Hardees Uk! She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the Life Essay, fact that Fowler is more interested in a level revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers.

Fowler Bridget, ed. In Prison Essay! 2000. Reading Bourdieu on Based Network Society and Life, Culture . Oh What A Colorful Mind! Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter.

1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. In Prison Essay! Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. In Middle East! 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. In Prison Essay! Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990. An Introduction to Essay in Server the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Life Essay Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Honneth, Axel. A Level! 1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. In Prison! Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

93-134. Jenkins, Richard. History! 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . Life Essay! London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. Ledcs Countries! RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Life In Prison Essay! Darmstadt: WBG. On Scalability In Server Based Network Gaming! Jurt, Joseph. Life! 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes.

Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. A Colorful Mind There! Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Life In Prison! Instead he conceives of the ledcs countries, model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out in Prison Essay, that it enables both a synchronic and ledcs countries, a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and Life in Prison, reception of literature. Oh What Mind There! Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes.

In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Life! Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. Ledcs Countries! McClean, Ian. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. Life! French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251.

Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and types of multimedia, Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Life Culture. Rampage Essay! New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. In Prison Essay! 1997. The Challenge of the of multimedia, Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Life in Prison Essay Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu.

International Journal of on Scalability and Consistency Based Network Gaming Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. In Prison! Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. History! Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. Life In Prison Essay! 1983a. Hardees Uk! Advances in Life in Prison the Empirical Sociology of hardees uk Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Life In Prison Essay! Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the history, Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works. Life In Prison Essay! Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989.

The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of neil's harvard referencing Bourdieu's work in Life chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Essay and Consistency in Server Based, Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture.

London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. Essay! 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in neil's toolbox der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997.

Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. Life In Prison! A useful overview of the central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in how far the concepts of the ledcs countries, field and habitus are the Life in Prison Essay, essential building blocks of an in Server Gaming extensive model not only of the sociology of Life in Prison culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology. Shiagh, Morag. Hardees Uk! 1993. 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. Life In Prison! French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Coursework! Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Life Essay! Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts.

Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. Religions East! 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. Essay! 1971. Harvard! The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bürger, Peter.

1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Life Essay! [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Types Of Multimedia! Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. Life! The Institution of religions in middle east 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature. Life! Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Types Of Multimedia! Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Cultural Studies 4. 1973. Essay! (Special issue on ledcs countries Literature/society: mapping the Life Essay, field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. History Coursework! Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier.

Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. In Prison! SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per.

1977. Oh What A Colorful There! Literature in the Marketplace . In Prison! London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of ledcs countries Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. In Prison! American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. Ledcs Countries! von Hallberg, Robert, ed. In Prison Essay! 1984. Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP.

Lepenies, Wolf. Oh What There Essay! 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . Life Essay! München: Hanser. Of Multimedia! Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.

Rogers, Mary F. Life Essay! 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . And Consistency In Server Based Network Gaming! Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans. 1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Life Essay! Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. A Level History Coursework! Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. Life! 1989.

Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. And Consistency Based Gaming! In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Life in Prison Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573.

Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In Server Based Gaming! In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Life! Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Hardees Uk! Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S. In Prison! Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92.

Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . There Essay! London: Macmillan.

Buy Essay Online - Criminology Essays - Crime, Punishment, and Life in Prison - UK Essays

Life in Prison Essay

Order Your Own Writing Help Now - Criminology Essays - Crime, Punishment, and Life in Prison - UK Essays

Nov 17, 2017 Life in Prison Essay,

Order Essay Paper From #1 Paper Writing Service For Students - Essay on Life in Prison - 1771 Words | Bartleby

ocr rs coursework Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and Life Essay disenchantment. John Major: more of the Rampage Essay same. The Blair decade.

Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the Life revised version currently in preparation. Organisation of this chapter. Brown and Balls. Cameron and Gove. 2008 Education and Skills Act.

2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act. 2009 White Paper. 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill. 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. Other Acts relating to children and young people. 2007 Further Education and Training Act. 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. 2010 Child Poverty Act.

IRPC interim report. CPR curriculum report. CSFC National Curriculum report. IRPC final report. CPR final report. Nuffield 14-19 Review. Building Schools for neil's toolbox harvard the Future. Academies and trust schools. Covert selection by Life faith schools. The National Challenge.

The inspection regime. 2008 NUT Conference. Gove's view of education. Education in of multimedia England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is in Prison Essay my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is Turtle Rampage attached. Life In Prison Essay. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece. If you do so, please acknowledge it thus:

Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to ledcs countries reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of in Prison which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is toolbox harvard referencing available online. © Crown copyright material is Essay reproduced with the permission of the ledcs countries Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for in Prison Essay Scotland. Chapter 11 : 2007-2010.

Brown and Balls: mixed messages. The new administration. Brown and Balls. Tony Blair was replaced as prime minister by former chancellor of the exchequer Gordon Brown ( pictured ). His new administration immediately announced that the in middle east education department would be split in two: the Life in Prison Essay Department for neil's harvard Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) with Ed Balls as secretary of state, and the Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) under John Denham. (Balls's official title was 'Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families', though he was usually referred to as 'the children's secretary'). There was some logic to this division. DCSF brought together all policy relating to children and young people: in addition to overseeing schools, it shared youth justice with the Ministry of Justice, child poverty with the Life in Prison Treasury and the Department for Work and Pensions, children's health with the Department of history Health, and in Prison youth sport with the Department for a level Culture. It also took the 'respect' agenda from the Home Office. DIUS took science and innovation from the Essay Department for neil's harvard referencing Trade and Industry and Essay would be responsible for history coursework the development, funding and performance of higher education, both teaching and research; together with adult learning, including Train to Gain and basic skills.

It would oversee the £4bn adult portion of the Learning and Skills Council budget. One of its main aims was the improvement of graduate skills. But there were complications in the arrangement. Life. DCSF would set education policy for students up to the age of 19, but work with DIUS on 14-19 reforms. School pupils in ledcs countries the 14 to 19 age group and sixth form college students would come under DCSF, but general further education college students and apprentices aged 16 to 19 were the Essay responsibility of DIUS, though they would be funded via local education authorities. The Learning and ledcs countries Skills Council (LSC) thus had half its budget removed, putting its future in doubt ( The Guardian 3 July 2007). In the event, DIUS only lasted two years. In June 2009 it was abolished and its responsibilities subsumed into in Prison, a new Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), led by Rampage Essay Lord (Peter) Mandelson. In his inaugural statement, the new children's secretary Ed Balls ( pictured ) said he would introduce legislation to Essay raise the school leaving age to 18, improve school discipline, remove barriers to further expansion of the in middle academies programme, and give teachers more scope to decide when pupils should be tested.

He announced that Leicester University chancellor Sir Peter Williams, chair of the Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education, would conduct a review of maths teaching in primary schools. An extra £265m over the next three years would be spent ensuring that children from disadvantaged backgrounds could benefit from at least two hours a week of out-of-hours group activities in term time. Secondary teachers would be given an extra training day a year, and a scheme to encourage graduates to teach in Life inner-city schools would be expanded beyond London. He also promised a ten-year youth strategy and a plan to tackle teenage pregnancy. A children's plan for the UK would be prepared and consulted on ledcs countries ( The Guardian 11 July 2007). In October 2007 the new chancellor of the exchequer Alistair Darling announced the three-year settlement for education. A 2.8 per cent real terms annual increase to £74bn in 2010 was higher than other departments but lower than in previous years.

Teachers' leaders pointed out that the Essay budget for of multimedia each pupil would rise from Life Essay £5,500 in history 2007-8 to £6,600 in 2010-11 but that this was still far short of the Life Essay cost of a private school education. Darling also promised £250m to fund the Children's Plan scheme to make sure children arrived at school ready to learn and able to benefit from personalised support ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). In his first major speech on education, Gordon Brown told an audience of a level coursework educationists at Greenwich University that 'failing' schools would have five years to improve their pupils' GCSE results or they would face take-over or closure. He set out wide-ranging plans to Life in Prison Essay expand childcare, eradicate illiteracy and introduce more work-based apprenticeships to religions persuade more 16 year olds to stay on in education. 'This is a determined and systematic agenda to end failure', he said. 'We will see it through. We will not flinch from the task' ( The Guardian 1 November 2007). As we saw in the previous chapter, Lord (Andrew) Adonis had wielded enormous influence over education policy in the Blair administration.

He kept his post as schools minister when Gordon Brown took over, but his influence waned and in October 2008 he was moved from education to Life in Prison the Department of Transport. Cameron and a level Gove. Meanwhile, Conservative party leader David Cameron ( pictured ) announced that the Tories would 'revolutionise' education by supporting the formation of parent-run co-operative schools paid for by local authorities. He said he was setting up a 'Conservative Co-operative Movement' based on Essay the ideals of the religions Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, the Essay world's first successful co-operative. The National Union of Teachers (NUT) warned that the proposals would increase social segregation, and Co-operative Party general secretary Peter Hunt said: 'Co-operative Party policies are . rooted in Labour philosophy. If David Cameron wishes to join us, he will first have to defect to the Labour party' ( The Guardian 9 November 2007). The new shadow education secretary was Michael Gove ( pictured ). At a conference at Brighton College in May 2008, Gove told teachers that a Conservative government would reinstate traditional styles of fact-based lessons. Turtle Essay. Generations of children had been let down by so-called progressive education policies which had taught skills and 'empathy' instead of bodies of knowledge, he said.

He condemned the 'pupil-centred learning' theories which had gained support in the 1960s for Life in Prison 'dethroning' the teacher: It is an approach to history education that has been called progressive, but in fact is anything but. It privileges temporary relevance over a permanent body of Life Essay knowledge which should be passed on from generation to generation . We need to in middle tackle this misplaced ideology wherever it occurs. NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower said: 'Gove's attack on child-centred learning is an absurd caricature of reality . If there has been a dethroning of teachers, it has been because successive politicians have decided that they know better than teachers about how children learn' ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The Children's Plan. In December 2007 the government published its Children's Plan Building brighter futures . This important and ambitious document was based on widespread consultation involving children, young people, parents, teachers and policy makers, and was designed to underpin and Life inform all future government policy relating to children, their families and schools. It aimed to eradicate child poverty and reduce illiteracy and antisocial behaviour by 2020. Coursework. In his Foreword, Ed Balls said he wanted to make Britain 'the best place in Life in Prison the world for our children and young people to grow up'. (DCSF 2007:3)

The plan was based on five principles: government does not bring up children - parents do - so government needs to do more to back parents and families; all children have the Rampage Essay potential to succeed and should go as far as their talents can take them; children and young people need to enjoy their childhood as well as grow up prepared for adult life; services need to be shaped by and responsive to children, young people and in Prison Essay families, not designed around professional boundaries; and it is always better to prevent failure than tackle a crisis later. (DCSF 2007:5-6) It set ten goals to Turtle Rampage Essay be achieved by 2020: enhance children and young people's well-being, particularly at Life in Prison key transition points in their lives; every child ready for success in school, with at least 90 per cent developing well across all areas of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile by age 5; every child ready for secondary school, with at least 90 per cent achieving at or above the expected level in both English and mathematics by age 11; every young person with the skills for adult life and types further study, with at least 90 per cent achieving the equivalent of in Prison five higher level GCSEs by age 19; and at least 70 per cent achieving the equivalent of two A levels by age 19; parents satisfied with the information and types support they receive; all young people participating in positive activities to develop personal and social skills, promote well-being and reduce behaviour that puts them at risk; employers satisfied with young people's readiness for work; child health improved, with the proportion of obese and overweight children reduced to 2000 levels; child poverty halved by 2010 and eradicated by 2020; and in Prison significantly reduce by 2020 the number of history young offenders receiving a conviction, reprimand, or final warning for a recordable offence for the first time, with a goal to be set in the Youth Crime Action Plan. (DCSF 2007:14) The plan attempted to Life in Prison address a series of highly critical reports on British childhood by Turtle Essay Unicef and Life others, and to demonstrate evidence of Gordon Brown's administration's much talked-of 'vision'. There would be new playgrounds and youth centres, personal tutors and one-to-one classes to give struggling pupils a chance to catch up and their parents a contact at school. Ledcs Countries. There would be radical reform of the Essay curriculum and a Colorful testing regimes, and Life a mandatory master's-level qualification for all new teachers. All new schools would be carbon-neutral by 2016 and there would be more 20mph speed limit zones near schools. A dozen strategy reviews - on areas including drugs and alcohol, sex education, bullying and the commercialisation of Turtle Essay childhood - would determine how the targets were to be met. Children's campaigners welcomed the plan. Children's Society chief executive Bob Reitemeier said: 'The responsibility for childhood rests with us all and Essay we are encouraged that the children's plan looks beyond education to address fundamental areas such as parents and play.'

Child Poverty Action Group chief executive Kate Green commented: 'The common thread that will transform the plan's patchwork of measures into a successful whole is an end to child poverty . It is now up to religions in middle the Treasury to in Prison make sure that . the child poverty target is toolbox harvard met so that the children's plan is not undermined.' Teachers were generally supportive of the plan, though some were concerned at Life Essay the scale of the reforms which schools were being asked to lead. Ledcs Countries. John Dunford, general secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL), said the plan would make 'massive demands on schools' which would need the support of the full range of Life in Prison public services. 'If schools are to be placed at the core of of multimedia social reform for Life Essay children, as the breadth of the children's plan suggests, this places tremendous expectations on schools and their leaders', he said ( The Guardian 12 December 2007). Download The Children's Plan (pdf text 640kb). There were three major education acts in this period: 2008 Education and Skills Act; 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act; 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (much reduced in scope because of the impending general election). The Education and types of multimedia Skills Bill was jointly sponsored by DCSF and DIUS. The Act (26 November 2008): raised the education leaving age to 18. Young people would be required to participate in education or training until their 18th birthday through: - full-time education or training, including school, college and home education; - work-based learning, such as an Apprenticeship; or. - part-time education or training, if they were employed, self-employed or volunteering more than 20 hours a week; rationalised the regulation and monitoring regime for independent schools and non-maintained special schools; improved careers education for 11 to Life Essay 16 year olds; transferred responsibility for delivering the Oh What a Colorful There Essay 'Connexions' service (which offered a wide range of support to young people) to Life local authorities; empowered local authorities to in middle arrange learning difficulty assessments in a person's final year of compulsory education and up to the age of 25 for any young person who would benefit from one; placed a duty on Life in Prison the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) to ensure the free provision of basic skills and ledcs countries first full level 2 qualification courses; placed a duty on the LSC to ensure that 19 to 25 year olds who were undertaking their first full level 3 qualification did not have to pay tuition fees; required school governing bodies to invite and consider the views of pupils on policy matters which affected them; gave young people the right to express a school preference for sixth-form education and to appeal against any decision made; required local authorities to produce annual reports on school admission arrangements in their area; and made minor changes to the legislative regime governing the National Curriculum so that, from 2009, Key Stage 3 tests would no longer be compulsory. In Prison Essay. Download the Education and Oh What You Have Skills Act 2008 (pdf text 672kb). 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act.

This Act (12 November 2009): created a statutory framework for Life Essay apprenticeships and a right to an apprenticeship for suitably qualified 16-18 year olds; gave employees the right to request time off for training, and required employers to consider such requests seriously; abolished the Learning and toolbox harvard Skills Council; transferred responsibility for funding education and training for 16-18 year olds to local authorities; made provisions with respect to the education of Life offenders; created the Young Person's Learning Agency, the Skills Funding Agency, the Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), and a level history coursework a new agency to carry out the non-regulatory functions currently performed by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority; strengthened the Essay accountability of ledcs countries children's services; amended intervention powers in respect of schools which were causing concern; established a new parental complaints service; changed the school inspection arrangements; created a new negotiating body for support staff pay and conditions; and made provisions in respect of pupil and student behaviour. The bill gave Ed Balls and in Prison Essay John Denham 153 new powers. 'Is this the neil's referencing most centralising education bill in history?' asked Warwick Mansell. He noted that under the 1944 Education Act the minister of Life education had had just three central duties: 'to promote the education of the people of England and Wales'; 'to promote the in middle progressive development of schools and colleges'; and 'to secure that local authorities execute the national policy for providing a very comprehensive educational service'. But in the last twenty years, he argued, there had been 'a steady growth in the powers of central government, with the introduction of the national curriculum, national teaching strategies, and the targets and league table regime, all overseen and Life directed by ministers and civil servants' (Mansell 2009a). Barry Sheerman, Labour chair of the Commons children, schools and families committee, agreed. 'There does seem to be a general feeling out there, in religions in middle east the evidence the committee has received on Life several inquiries, of people desiring a swing back towards local autonomy', he said. Harvard Referencing. 'Ministers need to understand this before they continue plodding on in the opposite in Prison, direction.' And John Fowler, a consultant for the Local Government Information Unit, added 'If the government was really serious about ledcs countries, devolving power, it would just scrap this bill and Essay start again.

I cannot see that happening.' It didn't. 2009 White Paper: Your child, your schools, our future. Before the types Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act had even received the Royal Assent, the government published its next education white paper, in June 2009. Your child, your schools, our future was to form the basis for the 2009 Children, Schools and Life in Prison Families Bill (which was intended to become the 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act, though most of Turtle Rampage Essay it would be lost in in Prison Essay the run-up to the general election). The white paper signalled the abandonment of Oh What Mind There what many had seen as Blair's most significant education reform - the National Strategies for literacy and numeracy. It also removed central government prescription of Essay teaching methods and dramatically cut the use of the private consultants employed to improve schools. Schools would have more freedom and would be enabled to establish networks of school-to-school support to ledcs countries help drive up standards in a 'new era of Life Essay localism'. Parents of children who regularly behaved badly in class could face court-imposed parenting orders. The white paper's key points were: a pupil guarantee setting out Rampage Essay, new entitlements to personalised support for Life every child, matched by Oh What a parent guarantee for every parent; all schools to have good behaviour, strong discipline, order and Life in Prison safety; all pupils to be taught in a way that meets their needs; all pupils to have opportunities to take part in sport and cultural activities; all schools to promote their pupils' health and well-being; schools to work in in middle partnership with other schools and Life with wider children's services; local consortia to types offer a choice of every one of the new diplomas to in Prison Essay 14-19 year-olds; partnerships of primary schools to share specialist teaching; develop a system for accrediting good education providers who wish to run groups of schools; more academies and Turtle trust schools; develop a system for accrediting good education providers to run groups of Life in Prison Essay schools; strong accountability and rapid intervention when needed to further improve schools; expand the role of 'School Improvement Partners' (SIPs); develop a new School Report Card (SRC); give schools greater flexibility and encourage greater innovation; improve the relationship between central government, local authorities and schools; new Masters degree in religions in middle Teaching and Learning; better development of Life Essay support staff; and governing bodies' fundamental duties to children, young people and Oh What a Colorful There Essay the wider community to be enshrined in law.

Download the White Paper Your child, your schools, our future (pdf text 2.2mb). 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill. These proposals formed the basis of the Children, Schools and Families Bill. One of the bill's provisions, first announced by ministers in October 2008, was that sex education from the Life in Prison age of five would be made a compulsory part of the national curriculum in ledcs countries primary and Essay secondary schools. Schools would not be allowed to opt out, and faith schools would be given guidance on how to provide sex and relationship education - to include contraception, abortion and homosexuality - alongside conflicting religious beliefs ( The Guardian 24 October 2008). But religious groups objected, and the government amended the new regulations, which were due to come into effect in ledcs countries September 2011. Life. While all schools would still be required to teach sex education, it now said that parents could withdraw children under 15 from the Oh What lessons, which would only be compulsory for 15 and 16 year olds ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). This still wasn't enough for the Catholic Education Service, which lobbied the government to make further amendments to Life in Prison Essay the Bill. The government caved in and agreed that sex and relationships education (SRE) could now 'reflect a school's religious character'. Campaigners said the change would allow faith schools to a level discourage the use of contraception and teach that homosexuality was wrong.

The Accord Coalition (a newly-formed group of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations campaigning to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against in Prison students and neil's toolbox harvard teachers on the grounds of religion) accused Balls of implicitly condoning homophobia in schools and in Prison Essay undermining his own attempts to tackle homophobic bullying. Chair of Accord Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain said: It is astonishing that the government plans to types deny young people of their right to accurate, balanced SRE . Children at faith schools have just as much right to information that could help them avoid an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) A DCSF spokesman dismissed the complaints: All maintained schools will be required to teach full programmes of study in line with the Life principles outlined in the bill, including promoting equality and encouraging acceptance of types diversity. Schools with a religious character will be free to Essay express their faith and neil's referencing reflect the ethos of in Prison Essay their school, but what they cannot do is suggest that their views are the only ones. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) In other words, a Catholic school would be required to teach children the facts about contraception, but would be allowed to try to persuade them that its use was immoral. Balls insisted the amendment would not 'water down' the bill: it would still require state schools to teach pupils about the importance of stable relationships, including civil partnerships, and it would forbid the promotion of homophobia. Liberal Democrat schools spokesman David Laws accused ministers of being in a 'terrific muddle' over the issue and said the amendment 'completely undermines the objectives of this part of the bill' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). Despite the concerns, the amendment was passed by 268 votes to 177 without debate (because of a level a lack of time at the report stage). Association of Teachers and Life in Prison Lecturers (ATL) education policy adviser Alison Ryan said: 'We believe this amendment is unhelpful and unnecessary because it upsets the balance of the bill by placing the religious character of the school above the promotion of equality and tolerance of in middle east diversity.' National Secular Society executive director Keith Porteous Wood commented: 'The government have once more bowed to pressure from the Catholic church, betraying the children in faith schools who have a right to objective and Life Essay balanced sex education' ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). And an editorial in The Guardian commented: This looks like a case of the government being led away from the path of neil's toolbox harvard righteousness by in Prison Essay ecclesiastical lobbying, which has happened several times before. There was, for instance, the climbdown over the plan to force faith schools to neil's toolbox harvard referencing take some children from outside their own flock.

There was also section 37 of the 2008 Education Act, which undercut Labour's solid record on discrimination at work by allowing schools to hand-pick staff on the basis of their creed. Many devout people - and many believers in faith schools - are represented by Life the Accord Coalition, which argues that no state-funded institution should be exempted from norms that all other public bodies must follow. Unless all religious schools are required to see the light, the types of multimedia contradictions will become unsustainable. The recurring pattern of church lobbying and Whitehall climbdowns is testing society's faith in church schools as being a force for good. ( The Guardian 24 February 2010) 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. In the in Prison event, with the general election just a month away, all the sex education provisions (and many others) were lost from the Children, Schools and Families Act (8 April 2010). Ledcs Countries. Download the Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 (pdf text 124kb).

Other Acts relating to children and young people. In addition to the three major education acts summarised above, there were three other acts relating to in Prison children and young people during this period: 2007 Further Education and Training Act. The Further Education and Training Act (23 October 2007) made provisions about: the Learning and Skills Council for Rampage Essay England; institutions within the further education sector; industrial training levies; the formation of, and investment in, companies and charitable incorporated organisations by higher education corporations; and the making of in Prison Essay Welsh Assembly Measures in history relation to the field of education. Download the Life Further Education and Training Act 2007 (pdf text 196kb). 2008 Children and religions Young Persons Act. The Children and Young Persons Act (13 November 2008) made provisions about: the Life delivery of local authority social work services for children and young persons; the functions of local authorities and others in relation to children and young persons; the enforcement of care standards in relation to east certain establishments or agencies connected with children; and the independent review of Life in Prison determinations relating to a level adoption. Download the Children and Young Persons Act 2008 (pdf text 228kb). 2010 Child Poverty Act. The Child Poverty Act (25 March 2010): set targets relating to the eradication of child poverty; and made other provisions about child poverty.

Download the Child Poverty Act 2010 (pdf text 140kb). Three major reviews of the curriculum were undertaken in in Prison Essay this period: the government's 'Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum' (IRPC), conducted by a level Sir Jim Rose, published its interim report in in Prison December 2008 and its final report in April 2009; the Cambridge Primary Review, which had begun work in 2006, published Towards a new primary curriculum in February 2009 and its final report Children, their World, their Education in 2010; the House of Commons Children, Schools and religions east Families Committee (CSFC) published its report on the National Curriculum in April 2009. Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum. As the Cambridge Primary Review was getting into its stride, Ed Balls threw a spanner into the works. On 9 January 2008 he wrote to in Prison Sir Jim Rose inviting him to conduct 'an independent review of the primary curriculum' with a view to ledcs countries making 'final recommendations to the Secretary of State by March 2009 so that the new primary curriculum can be introduced from September 2011'. The government's justification for this new review of primary education was presumably that it had already commissioned a review of the secondary curriculum and had introduced an early years 'foundation stage'. As Rose put it, you couldn't 'just extend one backwards, the other forwards, tie a knot in the middle and say that's primary education' (Wilby 2008).

However, given that the Cambridge Review - the biggest investigation of primary education since Plowden - was already under way, many felt that the Rose review was designed as a spoiler. The government was fed up with adverse headlines like 'Poor performance linked to Life in Prison substandard classrooms', 'Government policy has created impersonalised education', and 'Study reveals stressed out 7 to 11 year olds' (Wilby 2008). It was also concerned that the Cambridge Review would condemn England's testing regime - the hated SATs. So it created the IRPC as a diversion, 'with a suspiciously similar email address, a claim that it too is independent, and an identical deadline for its final report of spring 2009' (Wilby 2008). There were other concerns about the IRPC. One was that the Turtle Rampage Qualifications and Curriculum Agency (QCA) was required to Life Essay produce draft programmes of study based on the report's recommendations during the consultation period, effectively rendering redundant most of the responses. Rampage Essay. Another was that the in Prison views of representatives of local authorities and teachers' professional associations who attended meetings during the 'informal' consultations were apparently excluded. A third concern was that consideration of SATs tests was 'specifically excluded from Rose's remit' (Wilby 2008). Introducing the IRPC's interim report on 8 December 2008, Rose urged ministers to review the arrangements for SATs (already abolished in all parts of the UK except England). 'I'm ruled out of making recommendations about testing', he told Polly Curtis. 'That's not to say every school doesn't ask about testing. It's the elephant in the room' ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). IRPC Interim Report.

The report's main recommendations were: there should be a smoother transition between early years and primary education, and between primary and secondary education; subjects should be combined with cross-curricular study; teachers should have more flexibility within a richer curriculum; there should be more and better computer education; the value of neil's toolbox harvard referencing play to Essay children's learning and development should be made explicit in Turtle Rampage Essay any revisions to Life in Prison the primary curriculum; primary schools should focus on teaching only one or two foreign languages; children should acquire a range of personal, social and emotional qualities essential to types their health, well-being and life as a responsible citizen in the 21st century; and summer-born children should start primary school in Life the September after their fourth birthday, with some children starting part-time. The report proposed that the primary curriculum should comprise six 'areas of learning': understanding English, communication and languages; mathematical understanding; scientific and technological understanding; human, social and environmental understanding; understanding physical health and well-being; and understanding the arts and a Colorful Mind There design. The Review found overwhelming support for the National Curriculum and much good practice in in Prison Essay schools. It recommended that the curriculum should be reviewed periodically but stressed that schools and teachers needed stability so as to be able to plan effectively. The Cambridge Primary Review - Towards a new primary curriculum. In order to contribute to the final IRPC report, the Cambridge Review brought forward publication of its material on the curriculum. Towards a New Primary Curriculum was published on types of multimedia 20 February 2009 in two parts: Past and in Prison Essay Present and The Future . Its authors commented: Some readers may become impatient with the history, the account of of multimedia witnesses' concerns and our apparent preoccupation with the problematic. For them, solutions are more important. They are of Essay course welcome to turn straight to Part 2. Ledcs Countries. Yet it is only by understanding the Essay history, recognising the deeply-rooted and often cyclic nature of the problems, and by accepting the inadequacy of some of the surrounding discourse, that we can make progress. That is why the grounding provided by Part 1 is essential. Types. Without it, we shall simply repeat past mistakes. (Alexander and Flutter 2009a:1) It bemoaned the Life in Prison politicisation of the curriculum and warned that children's lives were being impoverished by the government's insistence that schools focus on literacy and numeracy at the expense of creative teaching.

It argued for a broad, balanced and rich curriculum including art, music, drama, history and geography. In the authors' view, a future primary curriculum must: 'confront and attempt to address the problems and challenges in current arrangements; be grounded in explicit principles of neil's design and implementation; and pursue and remain faithful to a clear and defensible statement of educational aims and values.' (Alexander and Flutter 2009b:21) CSFC Report on the National Curriculum. The House of in Prison Essay Commons Children, Schools and neil's toolbox harvard referencing Families Committee published its report on the National Curriculum on 2 April 2009. The key points in its 32 conclusions and recommendations were: the National Curriculum was in in Prison 'urgent need of significant reform': it should prescribe as little as possible, parents should be better informed, the a level history Programmes of Study for the new secondary curriculum were 'overly complex'; the in Prison Early Years Foundation Stage and the Early Learning Goals should be reviewed; the curriculum freedoms that academies enjoyed should be immediately extended to all maintained schools; a system of Single Level Tests linked to targets, and potentially to funding, could further narrow the a Colorful Mind Essay curriculum; the idea that there was one best way to Life in Prison teach was not supported by the research evidence and so should not be the basis for the delivery of the religions east National Curriculum; the Department should cease presenting the National Strategies guidance as a prop for the teaching profession and adopt a more positive understanding of Life in Prison how schools and a level teachers might be empowered in relation to the National Curriculum; the Department should spend less on producing guidance and more on in Prison the dissemination of research findings; the theory and practice of curriculum design should be given a much higher profile within the standards for Qualified Teacher Status; the Department should show how it would support the move to a much less prescriptive curriculum and less centrally-directed approach to its delivery; there should be better continuity and coherence in the current National Curriculum - and a Colorful Mind There across the National Curriculum, Early Years Foundation Stage and 14-19 arrangements; the Department should take more account of the views of children and young people; the Department should put in place a cycle of in Prison around five years for curriculum review and reform and avoid initiating additional change outside that cycle: reviews should scrutinise the of multimedia Early Years Foundation Stage, National Curriculum and 14-19 arrangements as a continuum, not as discrete 'chunks'; the agency with main responsibility for the development of the National Curriculum should be truly independent from the Life Essay Department; like the Office of the Qualifications and types of multimedia Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), the in Prison Qualifications and Turtle Rampage Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) should be independent of Ministers and required to Life report to Parliament through the Select Committee; there should be 'an overarching statement of aims for the National Curriculum' to provide it with 'a stronger sense of purpose, continuity and coherence'; a statement of ledcs countries provision for in Prison Essay learners from 0 to 19 should be introduced; there should be 'an overarching diploma' which would replace all other qualifications for learners aged 14 to 19; and these changes must be accompanied by improved communication and co-ordination between teachers and practitioners across the different phases of education. Neil's Referencing. (CSFC 2009:39-43) The Committee described the Cambridge Review as 'very welcome' but commented that it contained 'extensive analysis of the Life in Prison problems but has not enough to say about what might be done in practice to address them' (CSFC 2009:23). It went on: The Rose Review and the Cambridge Review both recognise that the primary curriculum is overly full, but neither offers a practical basis that appeals to us for reducing the load. As we have indicated, we would see greater merit in stipulating a basic entitlement for literacy and numeracy and offering general guidelines on breadth and balance to be interpreted by schools and a level teachers themselves. In Prison. (CSFC 2009:23) Writing in The Guardian , Robin Alexander described the committee's jibe that the Cambridge Review offered 'a good analysis of the problems but no solutions', as 'bizarre'. Rampage. He continued: Apart from the detailed proposals on Essay curriculum aims, substance, structure, development and Oh What a Colorful Essay implementation, which the committee appears not to have noticed, other ideas from the Cambridge review appear, almost verbatim, in the committee's own recommendations: abandoning the national strategies in their present form; supporting local ownership; reconfiguring the in Prison Essay roles of national agencies, local authorities and schools; making Curriculum Matters central to initial teacher training. More bizarre still, the committee's report includes as an appendix a comparison of the Rose and a level Cambridge curriculum reports, which says enough to contradict its criticisms of Life Essay both of neil's harvard them. (Alexander 2009a) Download the CSFC Report on the National Curriculum (pdf text 1.5mb). IRPC Final report. The IRPC's final report was published on 30 April 2009.

Jim Rose said he had tried to Life Essay 'capture the distinctiveness of the neil's harvard primary phase and to ensure it is Life in Prison Essay recognised as more than a postscript to the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and a prelude to secondary education' (DCSF 2009a:9). The report's key points were: subjects, and the essential knowledge, skills and understanding they represented, were important but were not sufficient - cross-curricular studies were important, too; there should be a stronger focus on curriculum progression; by the age of seven, children should have a secure grasp of the literacy and numeracy skills they needed to make good progress thereafter; the types teaching and learning of information and communication technology (ICT) should be improved; there should be greater emphasis on personal development through a more integrated and simpler framework for Life Essay schools; there should be stronger links between the neil's toolbox harvard referencing EYFS and in Prison Essay Key Stage 1, and neil's toolbox harvard between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3; and 7-11 year olds should be offered 'exciting opportunities' for learning languages. (DCSF 2009a:10-12) Writing in The Guardian , Mike Baker compared the Rose review with the Life in Prison Essay Plowden report of of multimedia 1967. He noted that the Plowden committee had had 25 members, including several heads, and had benefited from having six school inspectors and one local authority inspector seconded to it throughout. It had taken three years and produced 556 pages covering 'the physical development of children, the growth of the brain, parental attitudes, social change, health and Life social services, and the ways schools were organised, designed and equipped'. By contrast, the Rose review 'was made up of one, albeit very experienced, person: Rose himself'.

He had an a level history advisory group of Life Essay leading heads - which met just five times, his report was only 154 pages long and restricted in types scope - his remit didn't even allow him to consider the question of tests. Baker noted that: There is, of course, another inquiry currently under way, which aims to match the thoroughness of Plowden. The Cambridge primary review has been running for two-and-a-half years now. Its remit is broad and it has not been afraid to say things the government does not want to hear. And there is the rub. Life In Prison. In the past, governments set up big independent education inquiries; now they prefer to have their own short, sharp reviews - and types of multimedia seem scarcely interested in anything else. (Baker 2009) A statutory consultation on the IRPC's recommendations followed by publication of revised programmes of study and guidance should have enabled the Life new primary curriculum to Mind You Have be implemented, as planned, in September 2011. But when Labour lost the 2010 general election, Rose's recommendations were lost too.

Cambridge Primary Review - Children, their World, their Education. The Cambridge Primary Review published its final report on 16 October 2009. The Review had been the in Prison most extensive inquiry into primary education since the Oh What You Have There Essay Plowden Report forty years earlier, involving 14 authors, 66 research consultants and a 20-strong advisory committee at Life in Prison Cambridge University, led by Professor Robin Alexander. Its final report was based on 28 research surveys, 1,052 written submissions and reports from dozens of regional meetings. In its 75 recommendations it argued that formal lessons should not start before the age of six, SATs and league tables should be replaced with teacher assessments in a wider range of subjects, and the system of generalist primary teaching should be reviewed. The report was critical of political decision-making processes. It condemned: centralisation, secrecy and the 'quiet authoritarianism' of the new centres of power; the disenfranchising of local voice; the rise of Oh What a Colorful Mind There Essay unelected and unaccountable groups and individuals taking key decisions behind closed doors: the 'empty rituals' of consultation; the replacement of professional dialogue by Life in Prison Essay the monologic discourse of power; the politicisation of the religions east entire educational enterprise so that it becomes impossible to Life Essay debate ideas or evidence which are not deemed to be 'on message', or which are 'not invented here'; and, latterly coming to a level coursework light, financial corruption. (Alexander 2009b:481) It noted that since 1989, and especially since 1997, national government had 'tightened its control over Essay, what goes on in local authorities and schools'; and warned that 'the power of government and a Colorful Mind There its agencies has reached far more deeply into the recesses of Life in Prison professional action and of multimedia thought than is proper in a democracy or good for in Prison schools themselves' (Alexander 2009b:508). It noted a growing 'pervasive anxiety' about a Colorful, children's lives, and emphasised the link between educational underachievement and poverty. 'What is worrying is the persistence of a long tail of Life Essay severely disadvantaged children whose early lives are unhappy, whose potential is history coursework unrealised and whose future is bleak' (Alexander 2009b:71). The Review's conclusions were backed by all the teacher unions. National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT) general secretary Mick Brookes said: This comprehensive study of primary education must be taken seriously by government.

The fact the in Prison Essay work in progress has been completely ignored by the government is a sign of weakness. This report is ledcs countries truly independent, unlike work commissioned and Essay controlled by the DCSF which largely says what it wants to hear. Coursework. There are recommendations in this report that could transform the primary ethos and turn pessimism into hope. Life. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) NUT general secretary Christine Blower said: It is history coursework absolutely extraordinary that the government has decided to ignore the Cambridge Review recommendations. Any government worth its salt, particularly in front of an Life impending general election, would have embraced this immensely rich report as a source of policy ideas. It is not too late for the government to of multimedia recognise that not all good ideas emanate from the minds of civil servants. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And Nansi Ellis, head of Life in Prison education policy and research at the ATL, warned that 'primary education must not become a battlefield in the forthcoming election - children and their learning will be the first casualties' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009). Unsurprisingly, the report was rubbished by the government. Schools minister Vernon Coaker said the Oh What You Have Essay government was already reforming the curriculum and testing, and in Prison accused Alexander's report of suggesting a 'woolly' accountability system: It's disappointing that a review which purports to be so comprehensive is referencing simply not up to speed on many major changes in primaries. Essay. The world has moved on since this review was started. If every child making progress and reaching their potential is what matters, then Professor Alexander's proposals are a backward step.' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And just to rub salt into of multimedia, the wound, Balls announced that every four year old in in Prison Essay England would be offered a place at history school or nursery so that they could start full-time education a year earlier. The Cambridge Primary Review had recommended delaying the start of formal learning until the age of six ( The Guardian 19 October 2009).

Robin Alexander expressed his disappointment at the reaction of politicians and his frustration that the Essay Labour government, with its 'micro-managed' system, had refused to 'listen, engage and Oh What learn' from independent advice. He said it was clear from the inaccuracies in Life in Prison Essay their responses that neither government ministers nor their Conservative shadows had actually read it ( The Guardian 24 October 2009). Peter Mortimore, former director of the University of London Institute of Education (ULIE), also bemoaned the response of politicians. Essay. Writing in The Guardian , he commented: Weep, Cambridge team. Your efforts to produce clear analyses and innovative ideas in the interest of fostering something better than political point-scoring, repetitive myths and ideological rigidity have been strangled at birth. In Prison. Console yourselves, however, for good ideas are seldom so easily dismissed.

He concluded: The pity is that politicians, who pollsters tell us are only trusted by 13% of the population, can so easily make such fools of themselves by endeavouring to Rampage Essay close down all thinking outside their own. How much wiser to welcome new ideas and give civil society, including teachers - who are trusted by 82% of the population - the chance to Life Essay debate how best to improve the education of our youngest learners. (Mortimore 2009) For more on ledcs countries the Cambridge Primary Review see the in Prison Essay Routledge website for details of Children, their World, their Education which is available as a large format paperback priced £35.99; the Cambridge Primary Review Trust website, which now contains probably the ledcs countries largest single compendium of evidence and commentary on English primary education; Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training. In addition to these three major reviews of the curriculum, in Essay February 2008 the Oxford-based Nuffield Foundation published its final report on education and ledcs countries training for 14-19 year olds. Education for All warned that ministers were treating school pupils as if they were business products to be managed rather than children to be educated. The government's aim of boosting the British economy was overshadowing the Life true role of schools in young people's lives. Businesses increasingly ran state schools and even awarded their own A Level-style qualifications. The lead director of the You Have Essay Review, Professor Richard Pring, said: The changes at 14-19 are too often driven by economic goals at the expense of broader educational aims. This is reflected in the rather impoverished language drawn from business and management, rather than from a more generous understanding of the whole person.

We need to Life in Prison give young learners far more than skills for employment alone, even if such skills are key to the country's economy. Inevitably, the DCSF rubbished the report. A spokesman said: 'This depressing view of education is simply not one that we recognise' ( Oxford Times 14 February 2008). Various documents, including a summary of Education for All , can be downloaded from the website of the Nuffield Review of Rampage 14-19 education and training . Testing and assessment. Concerns about the level of testing in English schools - and particularly about the annual SATs tests - intensified during this period.

The QCA urged schools to in Prison Essay stop 'drilling' pupils for types of multimedia the tests. Chief executive Ken Boston warned that 'in many schools too much teaching time is Life taken up with practice tests and preparing for the key stage tests in English, mathematics and science, at the expense of a level coursework actual teaching in these core subjects and in Prison Essay other areas' ( The Guardian 11 August 2007). Three reports for the Cambridge Primary Review highlighted many of the concerns. One found that national tests at 7 and 11 left most children stressed and religions in middle east led to a 'pervasive anxiety' about their lives and the world they were growing up in. Professor Robin Alexander said 'these findings do build up to a sense that important changes are needed within the primary sector' ( The Guardian 12 October 2007). Another noted that English children were among the youngest in the world to in Prison Essay start formal learning and east were the most tested throughout their education. It found that parents were increasingly seeking alternative forms of education such as home schooling or Steiner schools to free their children from the Life state sector's regime of testing and targets ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). And a third showed that higher test results in England's primary schools had been achieved at the expense of the quality of education offered.

Teacher-pupil relationships had been eroded by a focus on whole-class teaching and preparation for 'high stakes' national tests ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). CSFC Report on Testing and Assessment. A further report, this time by Turtle Essay MPs themselves, reached similar conclusions. Essay. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and Assessment , published in Turtle Rampage May 2008, warned the government that SATs tests had distorted the in Prison education of millions of children because schools focused on getting them through the tests rather than improving their knowledge and understanding. Committee chair Barry Sheerman urged the government to conduct 'a root and branch reform of the system'. The report recommended: an referencing inquiry to in Prison Essay find the extent of the problem of schools 'teaching to the test'; a reduction in the number of times children were tested; more use of internal teacher assessment; whole-cohort tests should be replaced with sample testing of a handful of pupils in of multimedia each school; and Life Essay the exams watchdog should conduct 'a full review of assessment standards' as ministers had failed to address concerns about grade inflation.

Download Testing and Turtle Rampage Assessment (pdf text 631kb). Although the Essay government was adamant it would keep the tests in England (they had already been abolished in other parts of the UK), it did at least make some attempt to respond to the worries about Oh What a Colorful Mind There Essay, them by trialling new 'lighter touch' tests. More than 400 schools took part in the two-year 'Making Good Progress' pilot project in which children were tested when their teachers felt they were ready rather than at the end of the key stage. Ministers hoped the Life new tests, which formed part of the Children's Plan, would replace the existing SATs tests from 2010 ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). They also hoped, no doubt, that the new test regime would silence some of the critics. Turtle Rampage Essay. But disaster was about to Life strike.

First, schools reported widespread IT problems with the history summer's SATs tests: markers struggled with the new online marking system and schools were unable to in Prison Essay log on to register students at You Have There Essay the start of this week's tests ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). Then the publication of results for 11 and 14 year olds was delayed. Essay. QCA head Ken Boston said the history coursework government's testing regime was under 'very great stress'. He told an emergency Commons select committee meeting that he was considering legal action against ETS, the American company which had failed to Life in Prison Essay deliver the year's SATs results on time. He told journalists that the pressure in the system - including the government's preference for testing 9.5 million pupils a year in Oh What You Have There order to compile league tables - could have contributed to the problems ( The Guardian 15 July 2008). Then it became clear that the results were not only late, they were also inaccurate. Essay. ASCL general secretary John Dunford called for an overhaul of the entire key stage 3 testing system. He said: The government and Ofsted use the SATs results to make judgements about whether schools will fail their inspections and Oh What Mind Essay heads can lose their jobs as a result. The results need to be accurate and schools will be much angrier at lack of accuracy than delay. Results will be scrutinised this year as never before and the number of appeals is almost certain to rocket. ( The Guardian 18 July 2008) Kathleen Tattersall, head of the newly-created Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) warned that if the results proved to be as inaccurate as reports suggested, the government should annul them.

And two of the three major exam boards confirmed that they were not bidding for the five-year £165m contract to Life run the SATs because they did not believe there was a strong enough educational rationale for them ( The Guardian 19 July 2008). Ministers ordered an inquiry into the fiasco, to toolbox harvard referencing be led by Lord Sutherland. When they did eventually appear, the year's SATs results showed that more than a third of pupils starting secondary school had failed to reach the level expected for their age in reading, writing and arithmetic and that the proportion of children scoring top marks had fallen significantly. Head teachers said it could be because schools were neglecting the brightest pupils so as to focus their effort on Life in Prison getting as many pupils as possible up to types the national targets ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In January 2004 David Miliband, then school standards minister, had announced a new system for judging schools.

Since then, schools had been given a 'contextualised value added' score (CVA), which took into account the in Prison number of students on free school meals and with special educational needs, ethnicity, age, gender and the spread of ability. Miliband had said CVA would be a 'fairer' way to history judge schools. But in August 2008 a study by Ofsted, Using data, improving schools , concluded that ranking schools by their CVA scores was 'meaningless' and could lead to 'inappropriate conclusions'. Its author, David Jesson, professor of education at the University of York, warned the government to use CVA 'with care' and in Prison Essay 'recognise its limitations'. He argued that CVA could lower teachers' expectations of how much certain groups of pupils could achieve. 'Misusing the religions in middle east data to predict future performance could depress expectations of groups of pupils that have performed less well in previous years', he said ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In an extraordinary U-turn, Ed Balls announced that Key Stage 3 SATs tests for 14 year olds would no longer be compulsory. (The change was made in the 2008 Education and Skills Act). But he insisted that the even more controversial Key Stage 2 tests for primary school pupils would continue.

He told parliament that there would be extensive changes to the national testing system which would halve the testing burden on schools, and a new 'report card', based on Life in Prison Essay a New York scheme, which would grade every school in England and give parents more information ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). Teacher unions welcomed the scrapping of the Turtle Rampage Key Stage 3 tests but expressed 'bitter disappointment' at ministers' resolve to preserve those at Key Stage 2. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said: 'We are dismayed at the decision to keep the current test arrangements for Life in Prison 11 year olds. This will mean that England's 10/11-year-olds will be the only children in the UK to be put under this pressure' ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). The government's announcement that Key Stage 3 SATs were effectively to be abolished resulted in a dramatic drop - around fifty per cent - in the number of teachers taking part in courses run by the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Of Multimedia. Jacqui O'Hanlon, the RSC's director of Essay education, said: 'School managers will not release teachers for Turtle Rampage Essay a day's training because Shakespeare is Essay no longer seen as a priority' ( The Guardian 26 November 2008). Balls published further details of how his New York-style 'report card' for schools would work. It would pull together all the ledcs countries information currently available about schools into a single annual document, including test scores, ratings of how quickly children progressed, Ofsted scores and measures of child well-being through parent and Life in Prison pupil surveys.

It would provide a single score for every school with an A-E sliding scale or a traffic light system ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). QCA chief executive Ken Boston resigned three days before the publication of Lord Sutherland's report on the summer's SATs problems, saying he was 'taking responsibility' for the worst exam fiasco to hit schools in recent years. Teaching unions regretted his decision and described him as a great asset to British education ( The Observer 14 December 2008). The acrimonious spat between ministers and neil's toolbox harvard the QCA came to a head in December. The QCA board disbanded the National Assessment Agency (NAA), responsible for the SATs tests, and suspended the agency's chief executive, David Gee. It also suspended Boston, having refused to accept his resignation. Sutherland's inquiry into the summer's SATs fiasco revealed that it was Gee who had recommended that the £156m contract be awarded to ETS. In Prison Essay. Sutherland said the the QCA and NAA collectively failed to check ETS's appalling track record in the US.

The report blamed everyone involved: ETS was 'not fit for purpose', the Rampage Essay QCA had failed to prevent the marking process spiralling into chaos, and DCSF officials had ignored the in Prison Essay warning signs ( The Guardian 17 December 2008). The QCA announced that exam board Edexcel had been awarded a £25m one-year contract to run Key Stage 2 SATs tests and other non-statutory national curriculum tests in 2009. Toolbox Referencing. Edexcel had previously held the SATs contract from 2005 to 2007. But the QCA warned that the Life in Prison rush to appoint Edexcel to run the 2009 tests had left little time to ledcs countries test marking systems to ensure they did not collapse again. Life In Prison Essay. Before he was suspended in toolbox harvard mid-December Ken Boston had written to Balls, warning him that whilst Edexcel was committed to achieving the Life in Prison Essay deadline, there was 'no guarantee that events will not cause them to miss it' ( The Guardian 31 December 2008). At their annual conference in April 2009 NUT members voted to boycott the Key Stage 2 SATs tests. But instead of debating the sound educational reasons for of multimedia doing so, they demanded a ten per cent pay rise and a minimum of a day a week to mark and prepare work. In The Guardian , Jenni Russell commented: What timing.

What judgement. Life In Prison Essay. Here were militant employees with secure jobs and good pensions picking this particular moment in religions in middle our economic history to Essay demand less work for more money. Even the a Colorful Mind You Have There people who - like me - believe in the long-term need for better paid educators were left dumbfounded. Essay. At a stroke, the moral authority behind the unions' claims about SATs had withered, and types teachers once again looked like people who could be portrayed as whingeing professionals, out for themselves. The government - which has always taken the Life line that national tests are an essential check on whether teachers are actually doing their job - must have breathed a tremendous sigh of in middle relief. (Russell 2009) Just days after NUT members voted to boycott SATs, members of the rival NASUWT union did exactly the opposite: they threatened to strike if ministers abolished the Life in Prison Essay tests. In Middle. Ed Balls thus faced the possibility of Essay industrial action whatever he chose to do ( The Guardian 16 April 2009).

The government's proposed new 'lighter touch' testing system - 'single level tests' (SLTs) - had been hit by 'substantial and fundamental' problems. According to The Guardian , unpublished reports of east pilot tests conducted by the NAA and five independent academics revealed that the tests had given wildly unpredictable results and subjected children to higher levels of stress than the SATs they were designed to replace ( The Guardian 22 June 2009). By October 2009 more than a quarter of in Prison Essay a million people had signed a petition organised by a Colorful There Essay the NUT and NAHT urging the government to scrap Key Stage 2 SATs. The two unions began exploring with their members whether there would be widespread support for a boycott of the tests ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). In April 2010 head teacher members of the Life in Prison Essay NUT and NAHT in England voted overwhelmingly for a boycott ( The Guardian 16 April 2010).

Ed Balls consulted lawyers over whether to mount a legal challenge to types of multimedia the decision ( The Guardian 21 April 2010). Heads accused Balls of urging council chiefs to dock their pay and issue them with written warnings if they refused to administer the Life Essay tests ( The Guardian 30 April 2010). NUT general secretary Christine Blower told the NAHT annual conference that the number of religions east teachers who said they would boycott the Life SATs was growing and that at Essay least half of Life in Prison Essay England's 17,000 primary schools would not administer the ledcs countries tests ( The Observer 2 May 2010). The SATs began on Monday 10 May - four days after the general election. Life In Prison. A quarter of all primary schools boycotted them - a significant proportion but disappointing, given the level of support for the boycott expressed by heads and teachers and the hostility to the tests among the wider public. Exams and qualifications. GCSE results in 2007 showed an overall pass rate of 98 per cent with comprehensive schools improving more than independents and religions grammars in performance at the top grades. Fewer students took French or German, but more took separate exams in chemistry, physics and biology and attained better grades. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: GCSE students this year submitted over 26m papers and pieces of coursework.

This bloated exam system is reaching breaking point and must be slimmed down. Especially for exams at 16 and 17, greater trust should be placed in the professional judgement of teachers. ( The Guardian 24 August 2007) The government barred state schools from offering Cambridge University exam board's new elite International GCSE in core subjects, raising fears that the divide between state and Life Essay private schools would grow as independent schools were enthusiastic about the ledcs countries new qualification ( The Guardian 4 November 2009). The QCA said it would - for the first time - intervene in the setting of A Level papers to ensure they were more rigorous. Heads' leaders welcomed the announcement ( The Guardian 24 November 2007). The Office of the Life in Prison Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) was launched on 16 May 2008. Ledcs Countries. Its head, Kathleen Tattersall, promised to investigate the 'reliability' of exams ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). The first five of the government's new diplomas - in construction, media, engineering, IT and society, and health and development - were due to be introduced in Life Essay September 2008 for 40,000 students in 900 schools and colleges. By 2011 14 vocational diplomas would be available, and in types October 2007 Ed Balls announced that three more diplomas, in science, languages and humanities, would be added to these.

A Levels would be reviewed in 2013 and might be scrapped if the diplomas proved successful, he said. NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said the move represented a 'fundamental change of heart' by Essay the government, which, under Tony Blair, had rejected Mike Tomlinson's 2004 proposals to end the historic divide between academic and vocational education ( The Guardian 24 October 2007). In March 2008, Balls announced that an a Colorful Essay extended diploma with more emphasis on academic skills to in Prison Essay prepare students for ledcs countries university would also be introduced in Life 2011. He hoped the new qualification would be backed by the universities. Tomlinson said his original plan had now been fully implemented ( The Guardian 7 March 2008). But the diplomas were not without their critics: the Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and Assessment , published in May 2008, warned that the introduction of diplomas for 14 to history coursework 19 year olds was in in Prison Essay danger of being undermined by insufficient teacher training, and urged ministers to end uncertainty in Turtle Rampage Essay schools by deciding whether to abolish A Levels and GCSEs after the diplomas were introduced; leading independent schools said the diplomas were too complex and Life in Prison Essay decided to opt out; researchers at ULIE warned of a widening gap between vocational and academic education, as private schools increasingly opted for a new range of academically elite qualifications, including the international baccalaureates and Cambridge University's Pre-U ( The Guardian 30 June 2008); and in October 2008 the Commons public accounts committee warned that the ledcs countries government's plan to introduce diplomas to replace A Levels and in Prison GCSEs in England was at Turtle Rampage Essay risk because the new qualification was not seen as credible by Life in Prison parents, employers and universities. Nearly £30,000 had been spent for each of the 20,000 students who had just started diplomas and a level history it was intended that the courses should be available to Life in Prison Essay every 14 to 19 year old within five years. Religions East. But, the MPs said, the government didn't know the future costs of the scheme, many schools and colleges were not ready, and Life students were confused about the purpose of the diplomas.

To deliver the Turtle Rampage Essay full range of qualifications, schools and Life in Prison colleges would have to link up to form complex consortia, with pupils travelling to different centres to of multimedia study different aspects of the curriculum. In Prison. The report commended the aim of ending the neil's toolbox referencing academic-vocational divide but warned that careers guidance was so poor that pupils might be confused by the extra option of diplomas on top of the Essay GCSEs, A Levels and Essay vocational courses already available ( The Guardian 7 October 2008). Qualifications rapidly became a key election issue. As the in Prison 2009 exam results season began, the Conservatives accused the government of encouraging children to give up academic GCSEs in ledcs countries favour of vocational qualifications. The government accused the Tories of presenting 'misleading' figures ( The Guardian 24 August 2009). There was a clear divide between the aims of Ball and Gove. Balls wanted to replace GCSEs and A Levels with diplomas which would span the academic/vocational divide. Gove wanted all children to have a purely academic grounding at least until the age of 16.

Schools and colleges watched anxiously from the sidelines, knowing that they would have the responsibility of implementing the winning policy ( The Guardian 26 August 2009). Andrew Hall took up his post as the new chief executive of the Life Essay Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA), facing the possibility that if the in middle Conservatives won the forthcoming general election he might quickly be out of Life in Prison Essay a job ( The Guardian 3 November 2009). Building Schools for the Future. The Commons education select committee published its report on ledcs countries the early stages of the £45bn Building Schools for the Future (BSF) programme. It said the scheme should be regularly reviewed and questioned the use of the public finance initiative (PFI) for about half the new projects. Under PFI, private companies constructed the Life in Prison buildings and then leased them back to the schools on toolbox harvard referencing long contracts, often 25-30 years.

The committee noted that central government often pressured local authorities into accepting academies as part of the in Prison BSF scheme and it argued that local authorities should have more freedom over the regeneration of schools ( The Guardian 9 August 2007). In October 2007 the new Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced that every local authority would get a new or refurbished primary school. A £200m fund would pay for building work for 75 schools by toolbox harvard referencing 2011, doubling the in Prison planned primary school building programme over the next three years ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). But the BSF programme had been beset with problems over a level history, its four-year history, as local authorities struggled to Life Essay set up the PFI partnerships which provided most of the funding. So in Mind There Essay April 2008 ministers announced that it would be replaced by a programme to build just four new schools in Life Essay every local authority area. A DCSF spokesman said there were still 'ambitions' for every school to have a plan in ledcs countries place, even if building work hadn't started by 2020 ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). And an audit conducted by Life in Prison Essay the government's architecture watchdog, the Commission for Turtle Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), said that eight out of ten designs for secondary schools proposed under the BSF initiative were 'mediocre' or 'not yet good enough' and only one in five were considered to be 'good' or 'excellent'. Problems identified in the forty proposed designs which were reviewed by CABE included bullying hotspots in secluded yards, noisy open plan areas which made teaching difficult, and Essay classrooms which were too dark or prone to overheating on sunny afternoons ( The Guardian 21 July 2008). Academies and trust schools. While Tony Blair had been prime minister, Gordon Brown seemed to have little enthusiasm for academies and trust schools - at least, he had said very little about them until three months before Blair resigned. Then, in religions his first public pronouncement on the subject, he had praised the 'tremendous success of the academy movement' (The Guardian 20 March 2007).

As prime minister, however, he seemed happy enough for Ed Balls to continue - indeed, to expand and intensify - the policy of Essay handing over Turtle Rampage Essay, the education of the nation's children to used car salesmen, carpet manufacturers and, of Life in Prison Essay course, 'faith groups'. But the problems and controversies surrounding academies wouldn't go away. Private schools which were struggling financially decided the academies programme was the toolbox harvard referencing answer: they could carry on Life in Prison Essay doing much as they wanted but with taxpayers' money. When the government announced it would welcome them as academies, they must have thought Christmas had come early. Ledcs Countries. By August 2007 four were already changing status, two more had applied and twenty were thinking about it. Other private schools were considering sponsorship of academies and Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, argued that this would help end Britain's 'educational apartheid' ( The Guardian 4 August 2007). A report from MPs on the Commons public accounts committee noted routine overspending in the building of academies, with 17 of the first 26 projects overrunning by an average of in Prison Essay £3m.

And it warned that academies were still using exclusions to get behaviour under control, breaking laws by types procuring services from Life in Prison their sponsors, and ledcs countries failing to engage with local communities ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). Twenty-one universities had been persuaded by ministers to Life Essay adopt academies, but Oxford and coursework Cambridge rejected the idea, saying they preferred to Life pursue their 'national role' rather than work with individual schools ( The Guardian 3 December 2007). Arms company BAE Systems, which was under criminal investigation in Turtle Britain, the in Prison Essay US and Europe over corruption allegations, offered £400,000 to sponsor an academy in Barrow-in-Furness, where it built nuclear submarines. Unsurprisingly, the proposal attracted hostility from local parents ( The Guardian 11 December 2007). Major changes at the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) saw its forty-strong council replaced with a new board of twelve directors, and Sir Cyril Taylor, who had chaired the Trust for twenty years, replaced by Sir James Hill, chair of governors of harvard referencing a Bradford academy. Taylor had been a favoured adviser to both Tory and Labour governments and his removal from SSAT was seen as reducing the influence of schools minister Lord Adonis. Under Tony Blair, Adonis and Taylor had promoted the academies programme ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). Adonis was subsequently moved from education to the Department of Transport in October 2008.

Desperate to find more sponsors, Ed Balls had already exempted some universities, colleges and schools from raising the £2m fee to sponsor an in Prison Essay academy. Now, the government announced that it would pay successful state schools up to £300,000 to sponsor academies or set up new 'trust schools'. 34 schools had already become trusts and neil's toolbox 307 were working towards trust status ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The Church of England announced plans to Life in Prison Essay convert some existing cathedral schools into academies as part of its target of establishing a hundred of the You Have There schools. The National Secular Society said the Life scheme offered the church 'subsidies on a breathtaking scale' without helping young people from deprived areas.

Already, there were twelve Church of Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay England academies open and 18 more planned, and twenty academies backed by other religious sponsors ( The Guardian 4 February 2008). Adonis said he saw academies as the new generation's grammar schools, offering disadvantaged bright children a 'ladder' out of poverty. He said: My vision is for academies to be in the vanguard of meritocracy for the next generation in the way that grammar schools were for a proportion of the post-war generation - providing a ladder, in particular, for less advantaged children to get on, and Life Essay gain the very best education and qualifications, irrespective of Turtle Rampage Essay wealth and family background, but without unfair selection at Life Essay the age of 11. Anti-academy campaigners said that setting up 'quasi-grammar schools' would lead to a two-tier system of education ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). In a paper published by the Reform think-tank, Richard Tice, chairman of Northampton academy and member of the United Learning Trust (ULT) board, the largest academy sponsor, said the government should make it easier for academies to exclude the worst-behaved pupils (they were already excluding ten times as many pupils as other state schools) and sack poorly performing teachers. Academy staff should be paid as if they worked in business, he said, with bonuses linked to academic improvements ( The Guardian 25 February 2008).

Balls told Labour's spring conference that academies were 'turning round low-performing schools in disadvantaged communities'; that they had 'fair and comprehensive admissions' and 'even more disadvantaged intakes than their catchment areas'; and that they were 'delivering faster-rising results than other schools'. He announced plans for an extra five academies a year, bringing the annual total to 55. Oh What Mind There. Balls believed that the Life Essay changes he had made to neil's toolbox harvard referencing the governance, curriculum requirements and sponsorship regime of academies would remove concerns that they were going to be selective and outside the local authority structure ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). But the programme came under renewed attack from the two largest teacher unions. At their annual conference in Birmingham, members of the NASUWT passed a motion to Life in Prison ballot members on industrial action in schools which were forced to types of multimedia become academies against the wishes of the staff. Life. And the head of the NUT said academies were compelling teachers to choose either to sign legal documents committing them to the 'values' of their new sponsors or to leave their jobs without compensation ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). The government announced 115 new trust schools, including the neil's toolbox referencing first co-operative trust school, in Life Essay Stockport, Greater Manchester, where pupils, parents and teachers were to history be involved in decision-making ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). As part of the Children's Plan, Balls commissioned an inquiry into the impact of the commercial world on children, including the government's own policy of encouraging schools to link up with businesses. It was to be led by David Buckingham, a professor at ULIE and a leading authority on children and Life in Prison Essay the media ( The Guardian 19 May 2008).

Academies were accused of poaching the best head teachers from neighbouring schools by offering them six-figure salaries. Ledcs Countries. Ministers claimed that academies had almost doubled the proportion of in Prison their pupils getting five good GCSEs but teacher unions said this had been at a cost to referencing other state schools, which were helpless to compete against the high salaries paid by academies ( The Guardian 9 June 2008). The academies programme should be extended to 'failing' primary schools, said the Life in Prison Essay liberal think-tank CentreForum in its book Academies . The book's views were supported by all three main political parties and included chapters by Lord Adonis and Conor Ryan, a former education adviser to the Blair government ( The Guardian 16 July 2008). Fifty-one new academies opened in September 2008. Ministers claimed that academies had out-performed other schools in GCSE results but neglected to mention that in nine of the ledcs countries 36 oldest academies GCSE scores had declined ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). According to in Prison Essay research by insurance company Zurich, private schools were rejecting the government's attempts to encourage them to sponsor academies - just six per cent of independent schools had considered doing so ( The Guardian 12 September 2008). Paul Prest, the head of a new academy in Sunderland, suspended forty pupils in the first two weeks of term.

He said the zero-tolerance approach was crucial after pupils had repeatedly breached the rules. Academies' behaviour policies were praised by ministers despite the schools' excessively high rate of ledcs countries exclusions ( The Guardian 19 September 2008). Amey plc, the private sponsor of Life Essay Middlesbrough's Unity City Academy, told the government it no longer wished to sponsor the school ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). The City Academy Bristol, which the government had listed as one of its 'National Challenge' schools because of its poor performance, announced that it was proposing to open fee-charging branches in Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of types of multimedia Congo. The move was promoted by Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, which was also planning to in Prison Essay open a number of foreign branches. Harvard. Ray Priest, the head teacher of the City Academy Bristol, said opening 'branded schools' overseas would help to establish his academy as a 'global educational establishment' ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). An independent inquiry into the academies programme by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC), commissioned by the government, showed that results had improved markedly but that the proportion of pupils the schools took from the in Prison Essay poorest homes had shrunk, supporting claims by critics that more able students were being selected to improve results.

The inquiry raised doubts about the planned expansion of the programme and warned of types shortages of heads and sponsors. Separate figures, obtained by Life the Liberal Democrats through a parliamentary question, revealed the extent of the drop in the number of Turtle pupils on free school meals in Life Essay academies. In 2003, 45 per cent of academy pupils were eligible; by east September 2008 the in Prison figure was just 29 per cent. The 16 per cent drop in academies compared with a 1.7 per cent fall across England as a whole ( The Guardian 14 November 2008). The PWC inquiry also suggested that some academies had used government funds to establish subsidiary companies and that the government was failing to account for the money private sponsors were allocated ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). The government ordered an inquiry into academy sponsor Edutrust Academies Charitable Trust (EACT), a multi-faith charity chaired by the businessman Lord Bhatia, which, it was alleged, had mishandled money awarded to open a string of ledcs countries academies across England. The DCSF launched an inquiry into concerns raised by the charity's former chief executive, whose contract was terminated days after he complained of irregularities in 'governance and financing' at the organisation ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). Lord Bhatia was forced to resign from the board of EACT after the inquiry found it had failed to comply with 'financial management requirements' and had 'inappropriate governance arrangements'. Ministers said that a new board would take over control of the Trust's planned academies and Life Essay would launch a fund-raising campaign to Oh What a Colorful Essay get sponsorship. EACT was due to open eight of the 80 academies being launched in Life September 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009).

One of the government's newest academies, Richard Rose Central Academy in Carlisle, was forced to close for a day when demonstrations by pupils got out of hand. Staff threatened to strike over toolbox harvard referencing, pay cuts, parents demanded an Life in Prison emergency Ofsted inspection, the school failed and was placed in special measures. Chief executive Peter Noble and head teacher Mark Yearsley resigned. Noble had had no experience as a teacher: he had previously been a manager in the National Health Service (NHS) ( The Guardian 29 January 2009). Schools minister Jim Knight confirmed that the ledcs countries government would consider applications for Life in Prison Essay academy status from private schools struggling to Mind Essay stave off closure. Anthony Seldon, head teacher of Wellington College, said becoming an academy would not be the 'move of in Prison choice' for many private schools, but it could be their only option. History. Teachers' leaders said it amounted to a 'bail-out' for failing private schools. Five private schools, including two in Bristol, had already become academies ( The Guardian 31 January 2009).

By 2009, academies were seen by both Labour and Life the Conservatives as the future of education. The Tories announced that a future Conservative government would extend the scheme to allow primary schools to become academies. But there was still opposition from parents and local communities: in Furness parents raised a 6,000-signature petition against the imposition of an ledcs countries academy, four campaigners had been elected to in Prison Essay the district council, and the campaign group Our Schools Are Not for ledcs countries Sale was expected to win seats on the county council; in in Prison Northampton plans to Turtle replace Unity College, a Church of England secondary school, with an academy were shelved for Life Essay a year after parents presented a 1,000-signature petition against Oh What Mind it; in Croydon an in Prison advertisement for the role of principal of one of two academies planned for the borough was published before consultation meetings had taken place; in Durham the county council and a level sponsors planned to open three new academies in 2012: there was strong local opposition and teachers considered industrial action; and there was also strong opposition to academies in in Prison Essay Derby, Dudley, Preston and Tamworth and some sponsors withdrew. ( The Guardian 5 May 2009) The government warned academy sponsors to in middle east expect cuts in in Prison Essay funding but said it was still planning to Rampage expand the number of academies. The controversial schools had received nearly £5bn of public money since they were launched in 2001. 130 academies were already open, 67 were due to open in Life in Prison Essay the autumn term 2009 and a hundred more were planned for religions in middle east September 2010.

But EACT warned that some schools, mainly small rural primary schools, might have to close if spending was reduced ( The Guardian 29 August 2009). In September 2009 Gordon Brown and cabinet ministers celebrated the opening of the 67 new academies. Balls said it was part of the biggest wave of new schools since the Victorian era and insisted that the government would reach its target of 400 academies. In a sign that ministers were desperate to keep the academies programme going, he announced that the government would abandon its policy of charging charities, businesses and Life in Prison Essay individuals a £2m sponsorship fee to Oh What a Colorful run the schools. New sponsors would be vetted in an accreditation system based on their educational record. The scheme, he declared, was now moving into a 'new phase' ( The Guardian 7 September 2009). But, Mary Bousted, general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, warned: The case hasn't been made for academies. We have a target which will mean one in Essay ten secondaries are academies and the jury is still out on whether academies work. Types Of Multimedia. Some academies are excellent, some show very little difference and some have been a disaster.

It can be a dangerous experiment. If an academy goes wrong that can be catastrophic for the pupils, parents, teachers and the whole community. ( The Guardian 7 September 2009) Waltheof School in Sheffield had not been a 'failing' school and had been described by Ofsted as making 'reasonable progress' in 2004. But it had been closed and replaced by Sheffield Park Academy, run by ULT, the largest academy sponsor. In July 2009 school inspectors rated it 'inadequate' in all categories. Essay. It was the third academy to religions east have failed an inspection. ATL general secretary Mary Bousted said the news strengthened the in Prison Essay case for a fresh investigation into academies ( The Guardian 13 September 2009). Sheffield Park wasn't the only ULT academy causing concerns. In November 2009 Balls banned ULT from east taking on any new schools until it had driven up standards in the 17 it was already running.

ULT, an Anglican charity chaired by former Tory education minister Angela Rumbold, also ran ten private schools ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). In December 2009 Warwick Mansell reported that 13 of the 90 academies which were supposed to have been given private sponsorship money for capital building work had yet to see a penny of it. In total, sponsors had so far paid barely two-thirds of the in Prison £145m they were supposed to have paid towards capital costs in the seven years since the first of England's 200 academies had opened, despite the fact that these financial commitments were written into Rampage Essay, the contracts academy sponsors had had to Life in Prison sign 'to gain control of decisions on Rampage Essay the curriculum, staffing and assets of these quasi-independent institutions, funded mainly by taxpayers' (Mansell 2009b). Staff at Crest Boys' Academy in Neasden, north-west London, held a one-day strike in protest at the announcement that the school's sponsor, EACT, intended to sack seven teachers. According to The Guardian , EACT's director general, Sir Bruce Liddington, enjoyed a salary of £265,000 and had claimed £1,436 for two nights in luxury hotel suites ( The Guardian 20 April 2010). Conscious of growing public unease at the increasing number of religious schools, Balls and leaders of the major faiths published Faith in Life Essay the System . In return for state funding of types their schools (ninety per Essay cent of building costs and types of multimedia all running costs), faith groups agreed to 'promote social cohesion'. A further expansion of faith schools was envisaged, despite the fact that they already made up a third of state schools in England - mostly Church of Life in Prison England or Roman Catholic but including 37 Jewish schools, seven Muslim, two Sikh, one Seventh Day Adventist and Turtle Rampage one Greek Orthodox. The ATL warned that too many faith schools discriminated against Essay pupils of Rampage other faiths in in Prison their admission policies and set religious requirements in appointing staff. Ledcs Countries. ATL questioned why schools 'in which the majority of in Prison Essay funding comes from the state, should, as the government proposes, nurture children in a particular faith' ( The Guardian 10 September 2007). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland the Roman Catholic Church was instructing its schools to disband Amnesty International support groups because of the organisation's pro-abortion stance ( The Guardian 18 September 2007).

Worse, Bishop of Lancaster Patrick O'Donoghue issued a 66-page document in which he instructed Catholic schools in neil's toolbox harvard his area to in Prison stop 'safe-sex' education, put a crucifix in every classroom, use science to teach about the 'truths of the harvard referencing faith', only mention sex within the 'sacrament of marriage', insist that contraception was wrong and prohibit support for charities 'that promote or fund anti-life policies, such as Red Nose Day and Life in Prison Essay Amnesty International, which now advocates abortion'. The Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee summoned Catholic bishops to appear before them to answer charges that they were promoting religious fundamentalism in their schools ( The Observer 30 December 2007). JFS, a Jewish state school in north London, was cleared of racial discrimination against types of multimedia an 11 year old boy who was denied a place on the grounds that his mother's conversion to Judaism was invalid. Life In Prison Essay. High court judge Mr Justice Munby said 'The core aim of JFS is to educate those whom it, in common with the OCR [Office of the Chief Rabbi], considers to be Jews, irrespective of their practice or observance, and in an ethos which is avowedly Orthodox Jewish. That is JFS's aim and that, in my judgement, is in principle an entirely legitimate aim meeting a real need' ( The Guardian 4 July 2008).

In September 2008 it became legal for state-funded faith schools to of multimedia include religion as a selection criterion for teaching and non-teaching posts. In response, a coalition of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations launched the 'Accord' campaign to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against in Prison students and teachers on the grounds of religion. Accord's supporters included the scientist professor Colin Blakemore, the former education secretary Tessa Blackstone, novelist Philip Pullman, the philosopher AC Grayling and rabbis David Goldberg and Jonathan Romain. Goldberg said faith schools caused people 'to live parallel lives' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). Krishna-Avanti primary school in Harrow opened as Europe's first state-funded school for Hindus amid continued concern about the divisive nature of faith schools. It had thirty pupils in its temporary base at Little Stanmore primary school, but would eventually have 236 pupils in a £10m building which would include a meditation garden. Jonathan Romain, commented: 'Some parents will feel reassured by a school that shares their faith and cultural background, but everybody should also be aware of the impact this may have - limiting their children's knowledge of and interaction with children from other cultures, and also depriving other community schools of Hindu participation' ( The Guardian 15 September 2008).

Year eight pupils at St Monica's Roman Catholic High School in Prestwich, Greater Manchester, were to have been vaccinated against cervical cancer as part of the government's £100m programme to vaccinate all 14 to 18 year old girls. But the school's governors banned the girls from having the vaccination at school, against the advice of the Catholic Education Service, which backed the government's campaign against toolbox referencing the human papilloma virus ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). The Runnymede Trust, a charity set up to promote good race relations, published a report on the way faith schools operated in England. It said the schools should stop selecting pupils according to their religion and in Prison Essay do more to serve the most disadvantaged children. Rob Berkeley, the trust's deputy director and author of the report, said: Given the importance of issues around cohesion, it's time for a shift, so that schools that are funded by taxpayers are responsive and reflect the needs of all pupils and not just those of a particular religion. It's clear from Rampage looking at the data on free school meals that faith schools educate a disproportionately small number of pupils with lower socio-economic status. ( The Guardian 4 December 2008) Ed Balls asked Ofsted to carry out a survey of the 'moral values' of Life independent faith schools after concerns were raised about Muslim schools. Inspectors were to toolbox look at the schools' curricula, extra-curricular activities and links with external organisations. Since 2003, independent schools had been required to enable pupils to develop their self-knowledge, self-esteem and self-confidence, to distinguish right from wrong, to respect the law, to have a broad general knowledge of England's public institutions and services and to Life Essay appreciate and respect their own and of multimedia other cultures in a way that promoted 'tolerance and harmony between different cultural traditions' ( The Guardian 9 March 2009). In November 2009 the TES reported that booster classes for primary and GCSE pupils were being held in four Muslim supplementary schools (madrassas) in Bradford. Life Essay. The pilot scheme, funded with £550,000 of Essay public money over three years, was said to be making a difference to Life in Prison pupils' exam results, but the scheme was controversial.

National Secular Society president Terry Sanderson said: These institutions are devoted almost entirely to pumping Islam into of multimedia, the heads of their pupils. Life In Prison Essay. We need to know who will keep tabs on these indoctrination centres to ensure taxpayers' money is properly spent. Although there is no suggestion that the Yorkshire scheme is suspect, if this kind of idea rolls out, who knows what will happen? ( TES 6 November 2009) Covert selection by faith schools. Schools minister Jim Knight warned schools he would crack down on any breaches of the ledcs countries new admissions code, which had been in operation for Life in Prison Essay twelve months and was designed to prevent selection and social segregation, after it emerged that nearly eighty schools - mainly faith schools - had been reported to the admissions watchdog and accused of Turtle covertly selecting more able students ( The Guardian 18 January 2008). Research by ULIE academic Rebecca Allen offered damning new evidence that faith schools were indeed siphoning off middle-class pupils and in Prison failing to Essay take children from the Essay poorest backgrounds. In deprived inner-city areas, religious schools admitted ten per cent fewer poor pupils than was representative of the local area, whereas local authority secondary schools accepted thirty per cent more and therefore had a disproportionately deprived intake. The result was a school system deeply divided by social class ( The Observer 2 March 2008). Allen's research also showed that faith schools admitted over fifty per cent more pupils in the top quarter of the ability range ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). The chief schools adjudicator, Philip Hunter, said more than half of all school authorities - local councils and faith schools - were breaching the new admissions code, which aimed to prevent the covert selection of Essay pupils.

There had been 'widespread' failure by Life in Prison schools to remove discriminatory questions about parents' marital and employment status from coursework application forms and to make clearer the Essay definitions in their admissions rules. Religions East. He confirmed Balls's view, expressed earlier in Life the year, that the bulk of the problems were in faith schools ( The Guardian 4 November 2008). A revised version of the toolbox harvard School Admissions Code was published in December 2008. It banned schools from Life Essay holding interviews or asking parents to make financial contributions or offer practical support. All admissions authorities - including faith schools - were to types consult with parents and the local community and Life in Prison improve the information parents received on the admissions process ( The Guardian 4 December 2008). In June 2008 Balls launched a concerted attack on selective education and the 164 remaining grammar schools. In a speech to the NCSL's annual conference in Birmingham, he said: 'Let me make it clear that I don't like selection. I accept though that selection is a local decision for types parents and Life in Prison local authorities.

But I do not accept that children in secondary moderns should be left to fall behind.' He promised £1m for every struggling secondary modern to Rampage Essay enable them to set up partnerships with other schools ( The Guardian 20 June 2008). Former chief schools adjudicator Peter Newsam suggested that England's grammar schools could be turned into sixth-form colleges ( The Guardian 17 November 2009). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland Sinn Fein education minister Catriona Ruane had abolished the official 11 plus test but Roman Catholic grammar schools in the province - along with 34 state grammar schools whose pupils were mostly Protestant - were determined to fight the decision. In September 2009 the Catholic schools set their own private entrance exams, against Life the advice of their bishop. Turtle Rampage. Parents who couldn't get their children into the grammar schools without taking the tests were expected to mount a legal challenge ( The Guardian 8 September 2009). Ulster Unionists refused to support the transfer of Life policing and ledcs countries justice powers to in Prison Essay the Stormont assembly on 7 March - the 'Hillsborough' deal which was vital to keep the assembly in operation - unless an agreement could be reached on testing primary school children ( The Guardian 12 February 2010). The Charity Commission issued new guidance warning private schools that they could be stripped of their charitable status - along with £100m a year in tax concessions - if they were found to be operating as 'exclusive clubs' for types of multimedia the rich. It suggested that the schools should share their facilities and teachers with state schools or offer bursaries.

Independent school leaders welcomed the guidance, but some MPs said it did not go far enough ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The new head of the Independent Schools Council, former rear admiral Chris Parry, caused intense controversy when he described some state school pupils as 'unteachable' and their parents as 'ignorant'. Life In Prison. He resigned after less than seven weeks in the job ( The Guardian 13 June 2008). 'Failing' schools: The National Challenge. In February 2008 Balls told The Guardian that he was planning to send teams of expert leaders into 638 'failing' state secondary schools.

Local authorities had until the summer to neil's harvard referencing develop individual 'action plans' for the schools and Life in Prison Essay if they didn't improve they would have to become academies or trust schools, or close altogether ( The Guardian 25 February 2008). A fortnight later, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling warned that the deadline for the 638 schools to improve or face closure would be brought forward to a level history coursework 2011. He announced a £200m plan to give the schools intensive support ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). Balls launched the 'National Challenge' on in Prison Essay 10 June 2008, with funding of £400m. Its target was that at types of multimedia least thirty per cent of pupils in each secondary school should achieve a minimum of five A*-C grade GCSEs including English and maths by 2011.

It aimed to tackle 'the link between deprivation and attainment' and offered 'targeted help for teaching and learning', support to develop strong leadership, the flexibility to design 'local bespoke solutions' and 'more radical changes' such as the in Prison Essay setting up of academies and National Challenge Trusts 'where this would benefit the school'. Each school was to have a dedicated adviser working closely with the head, supporting the school directly and brokering additional support, tailored to of multimedia the school's needs. The formation of partnerships between schools would be encouraged. But the Essay language was not all positive. Referencing. Local authorities were told (yet again) to produce within fifty days detailed 'action plans' for each of the Life 638 secondary schools which the government deemed to be 'failing'. The schools would be given three years to types improve or face being closed down, merged or turned into Life in Prison Essay, academies ( The Observer 8 June 2008). The last option would surely have been problematic in the case of of multimedia several of the schools, which were already academies . ASCL general secretary John Dunford warned that 'The constantly increasing target for the number of academies is not helpful and will create turmoil where consistent, steady improvement is the proper aim of school leaders and governors.' While the £400m injection was welcome, schools would 'not be helped by the threat of closure or academy status which will hang over many of these schools for the next three years', he said ( The Guardian 11 June 2008). The NUT challenged ministers' claims that there were 638 'failing' schools. An analysis of Ofsted reports had shown that a quarter of the schools were among the best in the country and a third were in the top forty per cent. Half were considered to be satisfactory and Life in Prison meeting pupils' needs.

NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower wrote to the heads of the 638 schools offering support in Turtle Rampage Essay fighting against the 'arbitrary target' and threat of closure. Schools minister Jim Knight agreed that some of the in Prison schools were doing 'an incredibly good job' but he said they would need further support 'to hit our target' ( The Guardian 21 June 2008). Balls announced that schools which were achieving satisfactory results but were failing to improve were to be labelled 'coasting' and given targeted support to improve or face intervention from their local authorities. Councils would be asked to nominate schools which had average or better GCSE results but were resting on their laurels because of 'complacent' head teachers. Oh What Mind You Have. Hundreds of schools were expected to be identified, including some grammar schools. Teacher unions warned against putting 'crude' labels on schools ( The Guardian 13 November 2008). The DCSF added eighty more schools to the National Challenge list of in Prison 'failing' schools, bringing the total to 440.

However, data in the annual school league tables showed that more than 200 of Oh What You Have There Essay these schools had done well enough to Life in Prison move above the government's threshold of neil's harvard thirty per cent of pupils getting five good GCSEs including English and maths. 17 of the Life Essay 63 academies reporting GCSE results were among the worst performing 200 schools in England ( The Guardian 15 January 2009). In June 2009 Balls wrote to all local authorities in toolbox referencing England with National Challenge schools. He told them the schools must dramatically improve their results, merge with more successful schools, become academies, or close ( The Guardian 16 June 2009). The QCA published plans for a reduced curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds in England, to in Prison Essay be introduced from September 2008.

A quarter of the school timetable would be set aside for students to improve their basic skills or develop their strengths. The new regime would include cookery (though unions feared many schools no longer had the a level facilities for Life in Prison this), citizenship (to include work on 'British values' and Turtle Rampage 'national identity'), and an optional 'economic well-being and Essay financial capability' strand in PSHE, which was now said to refer to 'personal, social, health and economic well-being' ( The Guardian 13 July 2007). In September 2007, Balls announced a catch-up programme for Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay writing skills in primary schools, and Life the establishment of an a Colorful You Have There Essay independent exam standards body reporting directly to Essay parliament. Some educationists feared that, with its watchdog powers removed, the weakened QCA might be subject to more interference from ministers. Balls also announced that a new national body would decide pay for teaching assistants and other support staff ( The Guardian 27 September 2007). Leading authors complained that publishers were putting pressure on Turtle Rampage Essay them to in Prison write more simplistic texts to win multi-million pound contracts with exam boards. Elizabeth Haylett, secretary of the Society of Authors educational writers group, said: 'The textbooks that are being used are being reduced to Oh What a Colorful Mind Essay answer books for the exams. Life. There's no opportunity for ledcs countries children to read beyond the test. They are learning parrot-fashion.' One science textbook author had even been told to in Prison write a factually incorrect answer because there was an error in the curriculum and the book had to match ( The Guardian 1 December 2007).

The Children's Plan promised that by 2010 learning a foreign language would be compulsory for all primary pupils. Coursework. But there were problems at secondary level. In 2007 the number of candidates taking GCSE French was eight per cent lower than in the previous year, German more than ten per cent lower. Research for Life in Prison the National Centre for east Languages showed that more than half of in Prison England's secondary schools were now teaching languages to less than half their GCSE pupils. To attempt to Mind revive language teaching in schools, ministers announced that a £53m package (£5m more than in the previous year): pupils would be offered intensive language classes and university students would be sent into schools as 'ambassadors' for languages ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). In 2007 Richard Caborn, then sports minister, had sought to promote gun sports.

In the in Prison Essay year following his remarks, gun groups claimed that the number of schools providing rifle ranges for pupils had 'surged'. Religions. One local authority was planning to introduce shooting at 16 of its schools, and an academy due to Essay open in neil's September 2008 in Life Essay a deprived area of south Bristol was to have a shooting range. Meanwhile, the Home Office reported a four per cent rise in gun crime during the third quarter of 2007. Lyn Costello, co-founder of Mothers Against Murder and Aggression said: There is no reason why children should play with toy guns at ledcs countries five let alone real ones at 15. In the in Prison Essay present climate we should not be encouraging children to use guns. History Coursework. We have to stop this . It's disgusting that on a weekly basis young people are being killed and then we're spending taxpayers' money on teaching them to shoot. ( The Guardian 26 January 2008) The government committed £775m over three years to in Prison Essay increase the minimum amount of a level history school sport from two to five hours a week by 2012. Specialists said that without major changes to the system, particularly in in Prison specialist teacher training, the five-hour target might not be achievable ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the religions in middle ATL heckled schools minister Jim Knight when he suggested it was 'perfectly acceptable' to teach maths to pupils in classes of up to Life in Prison 70 ( The Guardian 20 March 2008). A study of the progress of 500 children by researchers from ULIE into the Every Child a Reader project showed that individual tuition helped to harvard reduce the gender gap ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The government was determined that young children should be taught to read using basic phonics, to write short sentences and to Life in Prison Essay use punctuation. It commissioned academics at ULIE to look into the effectiveness of these policies.

Unfortunately for the government, the research showed that teaching phonics, sentences and punctuation to young children had little effect on their literacy skills later on, and that encouraging them to talk and communicate was more effective. Types. So the government suppressed the report, which was released under a Freedom of Information Act request by the Liberal Democrats ( The Guardian 14 July 2008). As the in Prison new school year began, heads warned that pupils and teachers faced some of the biggest education reforms in twenty years, including: a new early years foundation stage with nurseries having to assess pupils as young as three; a new secondary curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds; new requirements for of multimedia GCSEs ('functional' maths and English tests); changes in A Level syllabuses; new diploma qualifications; and the raising of the Life school leaving age to 17 by 2013 and to harvard 18 by 2015. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: 'There's never in my experience been so many changes in Life in Prison Essay such a short time. You Have There Essay. Add to that the ambitions of the Children's Plan and it is a massive agenda for every school in the country. Life In Prison. It's too much at once. You Have There. Each of Life these changes has merit but the problem is the numbers that are coming at one time' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). An Ofsted report on the teaching of maths suggested that more pupils were getting qualifications but they often lacked understanding of mathematical concepts because they were being drilled to pass exams ( The Guardian 19 September 2008).

Schools minister Lord Adonis criticised schools for religions in middle neglecting their brightest pupils. In Prison. Speaking at Turtle Rampage a conference at Brunel University, he said a quarter of primary schools had failed to take part in the compulsory 'Gifted and Talented' programme, and he urged parents to demand more attention from teachers if they felt their children had a particular talent. Life Essay. He also revealed plans for six private schools in London to share their cadet facilities with state school pupils as a way of breaking down barriers between the independent and state sectors ( The Guardian 20 September 2008). A report by the National Council of Education Excellence, a body set up by religions in middle Gordon Brown, suggested that schools in England should be rated according to the proportion of their pupils who went on to top universities ( The Guardian 3 October 2008). A report from the National Audit Office said the Labour government's drive to improve the nation's mathematical skills had levelled off, with nearly a quarter of in Prison 11 year olds failing to reach the expected level at ledcs countries the end of primary school.

Girls were falling behind boys and needed particular attention. The report suggested that teachers were failing to Life Essay spot children who were falling behind because they were not doing enough high-quality testing ( The Guardian 19 November 2008). A House of of multimedia Lords committee report, The Cumulative Impact of Statutory Instruments on Life Essay Schools , urged Ed Balls to toolbox referencing stop deluging schools with new regulations. Life Essay. Members were told that in 2006-7 the DCSF and its national agencies produced over referencing, 760 documents aimed at schools. 'No single part of the department was aware of the Life in Prison totality of religions what was being offered', the report said. Head teachers welcomed the report. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said a 'juggernaut of policies, laws and regulations hurtles at Life ever increasing speed towards us, seemingly out of of multimedia control'. Schools in England had been besieged by Life in Prison Essay 79 policy consultations and at least 300 announcements from the DCSF in 2008 and expected an even greater number in 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009). Dunford was also concerned that the religions in middle east government was promoting what he described as the 'Tesco model' of schools.

He told the ASCL's annual conference in Birmingham that Ed Balls saw Whitehall as the company headquarters and Life heads and teachers as 'branch managers and shelf-fillers'. He went on: This Tesco management model of England Schools plc . is all summed up in that dreadful word 'compliance'. Oh What Mind. Compliance, I used to read in management books, is the Life in Prison lowest form of commitment, to be encouraged in those who have no job flexibility, no initiative and limited intelligence. Is this what ministers really want of their school leaders? I sincerely hope not. Yet that is how it sometimes feels.

He said 'delivery' was the toolbox referencing job of postal workers and midwives, not teachers and head teachers ( The Guardian 15 March 2009). Ofsted inspectors visited 37 schools to assess how well they had implemented the new secondary curriculum introduced in September 2008. Four of the schools were judged to have done so 'outstandingly', 21 were deemed 'good', eight were 'satisfactory' and one was 'inadequate' ( The Guardian 25 June 2009). In 2007 the Life government had announced plans to introduce a single funding mechanism for Turtle Essay all nurseries, in the state and private sectors, for the free 12.5 hours of childcare it had promised to provide for Life in Prison Essay all three and four year olds in England. It now asked local authorities to confirm by April 2010 how they would meet that pledge for September, when the entitlement would rise to of multimedia 15 hours. State nurseries had historically received far more funding than private ones, and head teachers warned that, with no extra money on Life offer, the result would be a large transfer of government funding from state nurseries to private ones run for profit ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). Ofsted visited 54 schools to types of multimedia evaluate the effectiveness of the national literacy and numeracy strategies. It found that in more than half the in Prison secondary schools and Oh What a Colorful Mind Essay a third of primary schools, the programme had not rooted out 'weaknesses in basic teaching skills'. The concentration on Life in Prison English, maths and science had 'risked the neglect of other subjects' and teachers and a level history local authority officers felt burdened by the deluge of in Prison Essay initiatives which accompanied the strategies.

Ed Balls had already announced that the in middle east national strategies would be scrapped as part of a move to end centralised control and in Prison promote more collaboration between schools ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). Summerhill, the religions in middle famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Suffolk independent boarding school where children decide how to spend their time, swearing is allowed and, weather permitting, staff and students can sunbathe in the nude, had had a long battle with the government. It had even been threatened with closure in 1999, when Ofsted gave it a scathing report. Life In Prison Essay. The pupils were 'foul-mouthed' and the school had been guilty of 'mistaking idleness for personal liberty', inspectors said. But Ofsted's 2007 report on the school was glowing. 'Pupils' personal development, including their spiritual, moral, social and cultural development, is outstanding', the inspectors concluded. Students were 'courteous, polite and considerate', made 'good progress' and Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay were 'well-rounded, confident and mature' when they left ( The Guardian 1 December 2007). In December 2007 Ofsted announced plans to in Prison Essay improve the system for Essay monitoring classroom standards. From 2009 its inspectors would conduct 'snap visits' to schools without giving the normal 48 hours' notice and would make greater use of 'local intelligence' - complaints from parents - to investigate schools where standards were feared to be slipping ( The Guardian 13 December 2007). Chief inspector Christine Gilbert announced another shake-up of the inspection regime in Life in Prison Essay February 2008.

She told the National Academies Conference in London that the best schools would only be visited once every six years while those which were satisfactory or worse could face annual inspections until they improved. She added that Ofsted would focus more on the 'shocking' number of pupils who left primary schools without mastering the three Rs ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). ULIE researchers said schools were manipulating the system of 'lighter touch' Ofsted inspections to exaggerate their success. Self-evaluation forms, introduced in 2005, allowed head teachers to give rosy judgements of their success which inspectors then failed to investigate, they said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). In May 2008 Gilbert announced two further changes in the Ofsted inspection regime. First, she told the Commons education select committee that there would be more lesson observation, following criticism that Ofsted reports focused too much on schools' test results and not enough on what was happening in the classroom. Types. She also raised new concerns about Life, poorly performing teachers, saying that it often took too long to neil's toolbox 'get rid of Life Essay them' ( The Guardian 15 May 2008). Then she unveiled reforms to Ofsted inspections designed to intensify pressure on the lowest-performing and 'coasting' schools which were failing to improve. Standards had 'stalled', she said, and 'the gap between outcomes for neil's toolbox harvard referencing specific groups of children and young people and the majority remains too large' ( The Guardian 20 May 2008).

In August 2008 it was revealed that Ofsted was sending out letters to children as young as four setting out complaints about their schools. In some cases the letters had warned the children that their teachers were not preparing them properly for their 'future adult lives'. NASUWT general secretary Chris Keates said the Life in Prison letters were 'ill-conceived' and Turtle Essay called for them to be scrapped. 'These letters often over-simplify the in Prison outcomes of inspections and in types of multimedia doing so misrepresent the findings,' she said. 'The letters in effect give licence to Life in Prison pupils to neil's harvard referencing question the professionalism of the school and its staff.' An Ofsted spokeswoman said the letters were 'a valuable tool in engaging pupils in Life both the ledcs countries inspection and Life subsequent school improvement' ( The Guardian 16 August 2008). In January 2009 Gilbert announced that Ofsted was to launch a crackdown on neil's toolbox harvard 'boring' teaching in Life Essay response to concerns that children's behaviour was deteriorating because they were not being stimulated enough in class. Inspectors would be told to advise struggling schools on what was going wrong in their lessons and why pupils were not paying attention, she said ( The Guardian 5 January 2009). Ofsted came under attack from children's services chiefs, head teachers' leaders and MPs.

It was accused of being 'flawed, wasteful and harvard referencing failing'. Its new inspection regime was forcing social work departments to focus on passing inspections instead of looking after children, good schools were rated as mediocre on Essay routine technical matters and in middle some sub-contracted inspectors were not fit for the job. Former chief inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson suggested that Ofsted had been struggling to cope since its responsibilities had been expanded to Life include inspecting children's services as well as schools and childcare ( The Guardian 23 November 2009). Ofsted's annual report said there had been a sustained four-year increase in the number of schools rated good or outstanding, but that some schools were being held back by a 'stubborn core' of bad teachers who were failing to inspire their classes ( The Guardian 24 November 2009). The new head of the General Teaching Council (GTC), Keith Bartley, said around 17,000 'substandard' teachers were struggling in classrooms and failing to inspire their pupils. Middle-aged male teachers were a particular worry.

Teachers needed retraining throughout their careers to prevent them becoming disaffected, he said ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). NUT Conference March 2008. At their annual conference in Manchester NUT members threatened to strike if the government did not promise to cut classes to There Essay no more than twenty pupils by 2020. Essay. They said large classes were putting some schools under intolerable pressures ( The Guardian 22 March 2008). The conference heard evidence of a crisis in children's happiness and mental health and debated calls to ledcs countries scrap the most restrictive elements of the national curriculum and reverse a government order that literacy be taught through phonics.

NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said teachers wanted a system which was 'liberal and flexible' and not imposed by government. 'We want a return to a time when there was a potential for magic moments in the classroom', he said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). NUT members expressed concern about research which showed that faith schools were fuelling social, ethnic and religious segregation and Essay flouting admissions laws. Types. Extraordinarily, their solution was to prevent the establishment of more single-faith schools but to provide religious facilities - faith-based instruction, prayer rooms and visits by imams, rabbis and priests - in all schools. Secularists were not impressed. National Secular Society director Keith Porteous Wood pointed out that a large majority of secondary school pupils said they were not religious. 'It's outrageous that a teaching union should be proposing to introduce religious instruction in schools', he said. 'If parents feel that strongly about religious instruction it should happen in the home or place of worship' ( The Guardian 25 March 2008). Members also voted to in Prison launch a campaign against military recruitment campaigns in schools.

The union said it had complained to Ed Balls that 'misleading propaganda' in some lesson materials prepared with Ministry of religions east Defence (MoD) backing undermined schools' legal duty to Life in Prison present controversial issues in a balanced way. One worksheet supplied by the MoD said the British army was 'helping the Iraqis to rebuild their country after the Turtle Rampage Essay conflict and years of neglect'. It did not mention the Life in Prison Essay US-led invasion, the countless Iraqi civilian deaths or the fact that not a single weapon of mass destruction had ever been found ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). NUT members staged a one-day strike on referencing 24 April 2008 and warned that there would be more if the government did not improve its pay offer ( The Guardian 25 April 2008). It was the in Prison Essay first national NUT walk-out since 1987, when Margaret Thatcher was prime minister. The shortage of head teachers became an increasing concern during this period. In September 2008 one thousand schools started the new school year without a permanent head teacher. Teachers' leaders, already alarmed at the growing number of vacancies in both primary and secondary schools, were furious when it was revealed that the ledcs countries DCSF had drawn up a secret list of heads and senior teachers who could be poached to run academies when positions arose ( The Observer 14 September 2008).

The annual survey of in Prison Essay headship vacancies by Education Data Surveys (EDS) showed that England and neil's toolbox referencing Wales faced a chronic shortage of heads, despite £100,000 salaries being offered for Life Essay some posts ( The Guardian 9 January 2009). Ed Balls told the School Teachers' Pay and Review Body (STRB) that he wanted schools to be free to decide what to pay head teachers who agreed to help lead struggling schools. Mind You Have Essay. He told parliament: To recognise the greater responsibility associated with running a number of schools, I will be encouraging governing bodies to make responsible use of the flexibilities that they already have to determine an Life Essay appropriate level of pay for these heads in a way that is not constrained by religions east the maximum of the leadership pay range but is appropriate, fair and transparent. These are interim arrangements while the STRB look in Life greater depth in the coming year at new pay arrangements for school leaders that will recognise and reward the vital contribution that they will make to the delivery of our vision of the of multimedia twenty-first century school. In Prison Essay. ( The Guardian 23 June 2009) In January 2010 EDS reported that some secondary schools were now offering six-figure salaries, relocation packages and private health insurance, but were still finding it increasingly hard to recruit head teachers. Scores of posts were being filled by temporary and acting heads and one school in London had had to Mind Essay advertise six times. More than forty per cent of all secondary headships and 35 per cent of primary headships had had to be readvertised in 2009. John Howson, the former government adviser who conducted the study, said the shortage was deeply worrying. Essay. 'The ease with which schools can recruit a head teacher is a key measure of the health of the profession,' he said ( The Guardian 28 January 2010). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heard the results of a survey of behaviour in UK schools. Of the ledcs countries 800 teachers questioned, one in ten said they had been attacked and injured by violent pupils; three out of ten said they had experienced 'physical aggression'; three quarters said they had been threatened or insulted by a pupil. Almost all reported problems with low-level disruption.

ATL general secretary Mary Bousted told the conference: 'No teacher should have to Life Essay tolerate these unacceptable levels of poor pupil behaviour and types of multimedia certainly no one should be attacked in school' ( The Guardian 17 March 2008). Ed Balls announced that heads were to be granted new powers to search pupils for alcohol, drugs and stolen goods. In Prison Essay. He had asked Sir Alan Steer, who was carrying out a review of behaviour in schools, to draw up proposals to extend teachers' 'stop-and-search' rights. Heads already had the right to search pupils suspected of carrying knives and had been given guidance on how to use airport-style metal detectors to a level coursework screen young people ( The Guardian 27 March 2008). The government published a white paper setting out plans to reform the system of pupil referral units (PRUs) for disruptive pupils. £26.5m would be spent trialling new specialist centres which would be run by Life in Prison private companies, charities and academies, who would be allowed to make a profit. Every child would have a tailored plan for improving their behaviour and school results, league tables for PRUs would be published, and all schools would be expected to take their 'fair share' of excluded pupils ( The Guardian 21 May 2008). The government announced that secondary schools and colleges in England would receive £720,000 over two years to train 'pupil mentors', who would learn how to Rampage Essay defuse arguments through discussion and listen sensitively to classmates with family problems. Ministers said a pilot project of 3,600 pupils in 180 schools over the previous two years had been a success ( The Guardian 30 December 2008). Steer Report: Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned.

Commissioned by Ed Balls and published in April 2009, this was a follow-up to the Steer committee's first report Learning Behaviour which had been published in 2005. Steer said good teaching was a prerequisite for good behaviour: 'The need for consistent good quality teaching, as the basis for in Prison Essay raising standards and reducing low level disruption, has been highlighted both by Ofsted and fellow practitioners' (DCSF 2009b:3). The report stressed: the importance of Essay early intervention and of disseminating good practice advice to schools; appropriate engagement of and support for Life in Prison Essay pupils, withdrawal from classes where appropriate; the engagement of parents should be supported and strengthened, with more consistent use of parenting contracts; the role of Mind You Have local authorities in prioritising support for schools and Life Essay making provision for excluded pupils; and the roles of local authorities and children's trusts in relation to behaviour and attendance partnerships. Download the 2009 Steer Report Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned (pdf text 2.1mb). Ed Balls launched a £3m scheme to train teenagers to counsel their younger schoolmates and offer 'conflict resolution' to tackle bullying ( The Guardian 15 November 2007). A British Council survey found that almost half of UK secondary school pupils regarded bullying as a problem in their school - a higher proportion than in religions in middle east the rest of Europe. Essay. There was considerable variation between parts of the UK: the figure for England was 48 per cent, Scotland 43 per in middle east cent and Wales 32 per in Prison Essay cent.

However, 42 per cent of UK students said they were happy in school most of the time compared with 33 per cent on average in the rest of Europe ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). A Stonewall survey of gay school students found that 41 per cent reported physical attacks and half said teachers themselves had made homophobic remarks. The DCSF issued new guidance to schools on religions preventing and dealing with homophobic bullying. Ed Balls said: 'We wanted to make sure that within the overall anti-bullying guidance there was specific guidance on homophobic bullying' ( The Guardian 29 January 2008). An ATL survey showed that homophobic abuse was endemic in schools, with 'gay' the Essay most commonly used insult in the classroom. There was a 'conspiracy of silence' in schools and colleges so that homophobia was seen as normal. Some teachers even feared becoming targets of abuse themselves if they challenged students' behaviour ( The Guardian 11 March 2008). Parents who withdrew their children from Gay History Month lessons at George Tomlinson primary school in Rampage Waltham Forest were told that their absences would be regarded as truanting. A local council spokesperson said it was right that schools were tackling homophobia: Waltham Forest council wants to promote tolerance in our schools by teaching children everyone in our society is of equal value.

This is a core part of the national curriculum for all schools in the country. We are supporting teachers and schools in taking positive and innovative steps to develop children's ability to respect people's differences. A group of rabid homophobes from a Baptist church in Kansas threatened to picket George Tomlinson school but their leader, Fred Phelps, was barred from entering Britain to stop him spreading 'extremism and hatred' ( The Guardian 20 March 2009). In March 2009 Stonewall published its Teachers' Report Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools as part of its Education for All campaign. Its key findings were that: nine in ten secondary school teachers and more than two in five primary school teachers said children and in Prison Essay young people, regardless of their sexual orientation, experienced homophobic bullying, name calling or harassment in their schools; secondary school teachers said that homophobic bullying was the second most frequent form of neil's toolbox harvard referencing bullying after bullying because of weight and was three times more prevalent than bullying due to religion or ethnicity; 95 per Life cent of secondary school teachers and three quarters of primary school teachers reported hearing the phrases 'you're so gay' or 'that's so gay' in their schools; eight in ten secondary school teachers and two in five primary school teachers reported hearing other insulting homophobic remarks such as 'poof', 'dyke', 'queer' and 'faggot'; nine in ten teachers and non-teaching staff at in middle secondary and primary schools had never received any specific training on Life in Prison Essay how to prevent or respond to homophobic bullying; more than a quarter of secondary school staff said they would not feel confident in supporting a pupil who decided to come out to them as lesbian, gay or bisexual; and half of secondary school teachers who were aware of homophobic bullying in their schools said the vast majority of incidents went unreported. Download Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools from the Stonewall website.

In 2007 Ofsted's annual report warned that social, economic and racial factors still determined how well children performed at school ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). A report by religions in middle Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin for the Sutton Trust, Recent Changes in Intergenerational Mobility in Britain , published in December 2007, showed that by Life Essay the age of seven the most able children in Britain's poorest homes were outperformed by the least gifted children from wealthy homes. It concluded that social class was still the biggest predictor of school achievement, the likelihood of getting a degree and even a child's behaviour; and suggested that the advantages of being born in Rampage a privileged home had not changed in thirty years. Research conducted at Bath University by Harry Daniels and Jill Porter for Life Essay the Cambridge Primary Review showed that a child's chances of receiving extra help for a special educational need was dictated by geography, class, race and gender, rather than the nature of the learning difficulty. Middle class children received better support more quickly, and powerful lobby groups, such as those for dyslexia and autism, received disproportionate levels of funding. The system of 'statementing' children and allocating resources allowed for wide variations ( The Guardian 14 December 2007). A government-backed study by Dr Steve Strand at Warwick University found that white working-class teenagers performed worse than their black and Asian classmates in harvard GCSE exams ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Thursday's Child , a report by in Prison the Institute for of multimedia Public Policy Research (IPPR), a think-tank close to the government, recommended that the long summer holiday should be shortened. It said children from the poorest backgrounds suffered most from 'summer learning loss' and that youth offending rose during the summer when children had less access to structured activities ( The Observer 25 May 2008).

A study on social mobility, funded by the American Carnegie Corporation and presented at Life Essay a private conference in New York hosted by the Sutton Trust, was attended by leading UK education figures and politicians including Cabinet Office minister Ed Miliband. The research used data from 10,000 children in the US and 19,000 children in the UK born in 2000 and 2001. It found that children's vocabulary, cognitive abilities and behaviour were closely linked to Turtle Essay family income, with children from the poorest homes much less well equipped to deal with starting school. The effects of being from a low-income home were more pronounced in the UK than the US because of the UK's wider difference in incomes ( The Guardian 7 June 2008). Meanwhile, politicians traded statistics. Life In Prison. A Tory party publication, A Failed Generation , claimed that the education gap between rich and poor had widened under Labour. Schools minister Jim Knight presented an alternative analysis of the achievement gap which showed it had narrowed since 1997 ( The Guardian 8 August 2008). A report published by the Cabinet Office's strategy unit, Getting On, Getting Ahead , suggested that initiatives introduced over the past ten years - predominantly in Turtle Rampage Essay early years and Life in Prison Essay primary education - were beginning to Oh What a Colorful Mind There Essay pay off. Life In Prison. Family background, it said, was now less important to the academic success of 15 year olds than it had been for the same age group born in 1970.

In particular, Bangladeshi pupils had risen from being the lowest performers to being above average. Tory shadow work and pensions secretary Chris Grayling dismissed the report. 'This has all the hallmarks of types of multimedia a government propaganda exercise', he said. 'The reality in Britain today is that we have some of the in Prison Essay lowest social mobility in toolbox the industrialised world.' Writing in The Guardian , John Crace argued that 'the truth lies between the two': There have been significant improvements in raising attainment levels in some areas, particularly among minority ethnic groups, but one large section of the population has missed out on the decade of rising standards - the white working class. (Crace 2008) He noted the findings of a report commissioned by the NUT and the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) and written by Denis Mongon and Chris Chapman at Manchester University's school of education. Successful Leadership for Promoting the Achievement of White Working Class Pupils argued that the cycle of underachievement had been endemic in Essay this group since mass education was introduced in Victorian times. Mongon said: After more than a century of free, compulsory education and sixty years of the welfare state, family income and of multimedia status are by far the in Prison most significant correlates of success in the school system. Although gender is also an Turtle independent and significant factor, the social class attainment gap at Life in Prison Essay 16 is three times as wide as the types of multimedia gender gap. (quoted in Crace 2008) The government's aim to close the Essay social gap in exam results was certainly proving difficult to Turtle Essay achieve. In 2008, just 16 per cent of white boys on Life in Prison Essay free school meals reached the target of five good GCSEs including English and maths, compared with the national average of 48 per cent ( The Guardian 12 December 2008). Figures released in parliament showed that a million children living below the poverty line were not receiving free school meals because the income threshold to of multimedia qualify was lower than the current level used to define poverty. Life In Prison. A family of two adults and neil's toolbox harvard two children with an in Prison income of £18,000 a year had to pay for school dinners at an average cost of £1.70 a day per child. Liberal Democrat education spokesman David Laws said: 'For the ledcs countries most disadvantaged children, a school dinner can be the only hot meal they get.

As times get tough, paying for school lunches is going to be a real struggle for more and more families' ( The Guardian 16 December 2008). Since 1988, parents in England had had the right to express a school preference. Life In Prison Essay. Successive governments believed this would force under-performing schools to improve. But in Turtle Rampage Parental choice of primary school in England: What type of Life schools do parents choose? , academics at Turtle Essay Bristol University and ULIE argued that parental choice had fuelled class segregation ( The Guardian 20 November 2009). Rose Hill Primary School in Life in Prison Oxford abandoned its policy of using only halal meat in its school meals after complaints from parents ( The Oxford Times 20 February 2008). A survey by of multimedia the School Food Trust, set up by ministers in Essay 2005 to encourage children to eat healthier food, found that secondary schools had, on ledcs countries average, 23 fast-food outlets within a mile of their buildings.

The Trust suggested that, to prevent pupils from buying junk food, schools should not allow them to leave the premises at Life Essay lunchtime. School leaders said the Oh What Essay proposal was unworkable ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Health secretary Alan Johnson announced plans for a £20m pilot scheme to provide every child with free school meals in two local authorities. Life. If the two-year trial improved health, school standards, pupils' behaviour and take-up of Rampage school meals, it could be expanded to every local authority, he said ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). Catering firms belonging to the Local Authority Caterers Association warned the government that new rules on in Prison Essay schools meals due to come into force in secondary schools in September 2009 would lead to even more pupils deserting canteens for fast-food outlets and could make the a Colorful school meals service no longer viable ( The Guardian 23 March 2009). Five years after the outcry over 'Turkey Twizzlers', led by TV chef Jamie Oliver, the Food for Life in Prison Life Partnership warned that progress towards healthier school meals would stall if budgets for ingredients were cut ( The Guardian 15 December 2009). The global recession, which began in 2008, forced governments around the world to ledcs countries review their spending.

Britain was no exception. In a sign of things to come, Ed Balls urged schools to Life in Prison save £750m a year by turning off lights, cutting back on heating and sharing cleaners. Savings needed to be made now, he said, to safeguard front-line services in the future ( The Guardian 26 November 2009). The message was reiterated three months later at a conference run by the NCSL, only this time heads were asked to toolbox referencing make 'efficiency' savings of £1bn without reducing front-line staff. The government was promising a 0.7 per cent real-terms increase in funding for schools, but because of Essay a rise in pupil numbers, a further 0.9 per cent would be needed to maintain the status quo. Ledcs Countries. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said it would be difficult for Life in Prison heads to find £1bn without threatening front-line staff: teaching assistants could be particularly vulnerable ( The Observer 7 February 2010). In October 2007 the government published new guidelines on school uniforms. Schools minister Jim Knight said: I strongly support school uniforms and would like all schools to adopt them. Neil's. They can instil pride and unity, support a strong school ethos and prevent the jealousy, rivalry and conflict that can arise when children wear different clothes.

But the cost of Life Essay uniforms must never be a barrier for poorer families. ( The Guardian 5 October 2007) The only dedicated university course for Steiner school teachers had struggled to recruit new students since the government cut funding for second degrees. In November 2009 Plymouth University announced it would not be admitting any more students to the three-year course ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). Within a week of becoming prime minister in 2007 Gordon Brown had surprised universities by promising to increase the neil's referencing number of students eligible for grants. The pledge had been welcomed by students as a sign that the new prime minister was serious about Labour's target of Life getting half of young people into university by 2010. But by December 2008 ministers had been forced to introduce a cap on places after discovering a £200m black hole in their finances. Types. This meant that for autumn 2009 there would be 3,000 extra full-time university places - the largest number in history, but not enough to keep up with the surge in demand ( The Guardian 20 August 2009). In November 2009 Lord Mandelson (whose Department of Business, Innovation and Skills had assumed responsibility for higher education in in Prison Essay June) launched A New Framework for toolbox referencing Higher Education which set out a ten to fifteen year strategy for universities, designed to aid the country's economic recovery and pave the way for an overhaul of student tuition fees. Its key points were: a 'consumer revolution' to in Prison Essay give students more information about courses and referencing future earnings potential; a drive to make universities work more closely with industry in designing courses and funding them; and a new focus on universities as engines of Life in Prison social mobility, encouraging the use of 'contextual data' in Turtle Rampage selection processes to identify hidden talent among pupils from low-performing schools. ( The Guardian 3 November 2009) The election campaign.

In the summer of 2009 the date of the forthcoming general election had not yet been announced but most commentators assumed (rightly) that it would be in May 2010. As far as education was concerned, however, the first skirmishes in the battle were already under way. The Centre for Policy Studies, a right-wing think-tank, recommended that a Conservative government should abolish at least eight quangos, including the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, the exams regulator Ofqual, the Training and Development Agency for Schools and the National College for School Leadership. Ofsted should remain, but would be limited to inspecting only schools seriously below the standard expected of them ( The Guardian 13 August 2009; BBC News 13 August 2009). Shadow schools secretary Michael Gove announced that he would build technical schools in Life every city to train a new generation of builders, technicians and engineers - a plan developed by former Conservative education secretary Lord (Kenneth) Baker.

Labour pointed out that it was already doing just that: the ledcs countries DCSF had approved a technical school in Birmingham, to be sponsored by Aston University, and Life in Prison Essay had provided officials to Oh What a Colorful There work with Baker on expanding the Life in Prison scheme ( The Guardian 5 October 2009). Gove's view of You Have There Essay education. Gove's technical schools policy was a throwback to the 1950s, but there was worse to come. Life. He upset the teaching unions - and just about everybody else involved in ledcs countries education - by promising to Life in Prison destroy the 'educational establishment' he claimed was responsible for religions in middle 'dumbing down' schools. He told the in Prison Essay Conservative Party conference that he would sideline local authorities, scrap the curriculum agency, sack the worst head teachers, have fewer Ofsted inspections for good schools, encourage competitive sports, and Oh What You Have Essay insist on traditional values in the classroom, with former soldiers imposing discipline and pupils expected to wear ties. The state monopoly over schools would be abolished by allowing every school the Life in Prison chance to become an independent academy with greater control over the curriculum, the pay of teachers and ledcs countries the organisation of the school day ( The Guardian 7 October 2009).

The following day, Tory leader David Cameron backed Gove's plans and added that a Conservative government would encourage companies to run state schools for profit, and promote 'discipline, setting by ability and regular sport' ( The Guardian 8 October 2009). Gove's accusation that a culture of 'defeatism and political correctness' had dumbed down education cost him support throughout England's schools. In a letter to The Guardian , the head of the ASCL and 26 leading head teachers wrote: As leaders of state secondary schools, and therefore presumably fully paid-up members of the Life in Prison 'educational establishment' to which Michael Gove referred in his speech to the Conservative party conference, we would like to challenge the image of the state education sector portrayed in ledcs countries that speech. 'Faddy ideologies' have been resisted by schools. Recent years have seen a strong focus on raising the quality of teaching and learning, increasing the number of Life in Prison young people who achieve well, improving their behaviour and broadening their opportunities and life chances. Toolbox. This is what we understand as progressive education, in contrast to the pejorative way in which that term is sometimes used. ( The Guardian 12 October 2009) John White, emeritus professor of the Life in Prison philosophy of ledcs countries education at ULIE, took Gove to Life Essay task over the curriculum proposals in ledcs countries the Tory draft education manifesto. Writing in in Prison Essay the TES he said: 'For him, there is only one vehicle to get us to these destinations: the traditional school subject. He sets his face against religions in middle east everything else. Cross-curricular teaching is out. Projects and themes are anathemas.' Under a Tory government, there would be no regrouping of subjects into wider 'areas of in Prison Essay learning' as recommended in the Rose review of the neil's primary curriculum. Subjects like maths, science and history were the only way forward. 'It's a pity that the schooling on which Mr Gove so dotes did not free him from the Life in Prison fetters of black-and-white thinking', White argued.

And he concluded: Since 1997 we have broken away from the coursework rigidities of Ken Baker's original national curriculum. Not fast enough for many of us, perhaps, but in the right direction. Mr Gove would wind the clock back to Essay the 1988 curriculum, itself a virtual copy of the a level curriculum for the new state secondary schools introduced in 1904. This is conservatism indeed.

But is this creation of Life a horse-drawn, narrowly franchised, imperial age the beacon we should be following a century and Essay more later? (White 2010) Professor Michael Bassey was equally dismissive of Gove's view of education. In a letter to Life Essay The Guardian (30 March 2010) he noted that Gove wanted to see children 'sitting in rows and rote learning'. Gove had told one newspaper that 'the best training of the history mind' would be 'learning the kings and queens of England, the great works of literature, proper mental arithmetic, algebra by the age of 11, modern foreign languages'. Yet he'd also said that 'A Conservative government would . Life Essay. free teachers and leaders in schools from bureaucracy to give them more space to innovate, to excel, and by excelling, to inspire others.' Bassey commented: 'The freedom that the Conservatives offer seems to Oh What Essay be the Life freedom to spend the next ten years teaching the chronology of the monarchy to children sitting in straight lines'. Meanwhile, David Cameron accused 'failing' schools of pandering to a culture of toolbox harvard defeatism and Essay 'dumbing down to the lowest common denominator'. He said a Tory government would sack the heads of the of multimedia worst-performing schools within a hundred days ( The Guardian 25 April 2010). Gove's other big idea was to establish up to 2,000 Swedish-style 'free schools' - independent schools run by or for parents but paid for by the state. In Prison. He had first proposed these in September 2008. 'We have seen the future in Sweden and it works', he declared. 'Standards have been driven up. If it can work there, it can work here.' He had gone on to make the policy a key feature of the Tory election campaign, but it was widely criticised.

Per Thulberg, director general of the Swedish National Agency for Education, said the free schools had 'not led to better results' in Sweden. He told the BBC's Newsnight programme that where the free schools had improved results, it was because the pupils they admitted had 'better backgrounds' than those who attended the schools they had replaced. Furthermore, recent international studies had shown that England was ranked higher than Sweden for pupils' maths and science knowledge and in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Sweden's ranking for science had fallen further than any other country's ( The Guardian 9 February 2010). Stephen Ball, professor of the sociology of education at ULIE, said Tory plans for more academies and free schools amounted to the breaking up of the model of state education which had operated in ledcs countries England since 1902: It's a process of the dissolution of state schooling. It was Labour that introduced legislation under which people could set up their own schools. This is taking it a step further and opening it up to in Prison Essay more diverse providers being able to set up schools.

This is the Oh What Mind beginning of the end of state schools as we know them. Life. ( The Guardian 2 March 2010) Two local authority leaders joined in the criticism. Kent County Council leader Paul Carter said giving parents and Oh What You Have There Essay other groups the funds to start free schools would threaten local education budgets, and Hampshire's cabinet member responsible for schools, David Kirk, insisted that local authorities should be allowed to improve existing schools rather than being forced to give parents the power to set up new ones. Leading education lawyer Graham Burns, who was acting for Essay three parent groups trying to set up schools in a Colorful Mind anticipation of a Conservative administration, told The Guardian that parents from from poor neighbourhoods would be unable to set up their own schools because they lacked money and influential friends ( The Guardian 26 April 2010). And finally, just four days before the election, it was revealed that one of the first state schools to Life in Prison take on a private partner had had to be 'rescued' by harvard its local council after it was deemed inadequate by inspectors. This was an embarrassment for Gove because Kings International College, run by 3Es Enterprises, was in his Camberley constituency and Life because it highlighted potential problems with his free schools plan.

Local Liberal Democrat councillor David Whitcroft commented: 'Michael Gove has been talking about what is a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay going on in Sweden; it might be more useful if he looked at what is going on in his own constituency' ( The Observer 2 May 2010). Determined to show that he could come up with equally loony ideas, Gordon Brown announced that parents would be allowed to vote on whether to get rid of the leadership of their child's school and have it converted into an academy run by a university, a business or another state school. These 'sponsors' - the first to be named was carpet shop owner Lord Harris - would be allowed to Essay run chains of neil's toolbox harvard referencing poorly performing primary schools. Teachers dismissed the idea as 'an impractical and unworkable election gimmick' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). As the general election approached, Robin Alexander noted that there was 'a great deal of unfinished business' in Life Essay relation to primary education: The Rose proposals for the primary curriculum have disappeared in history the pre-election legislative wash-up, leaving schools confused and frustrated. The long-running SATs conflict is heading for its high noon. Rumblings continue about inspection. The national strategies have come and are about to go, leaving an uncertain legacy. Life Essay. A growing appetite for genuine and lasting reform competes with teachers' understandable longing for a period of types of multimedia stability after 13 years of constant change. (Alexander 2010) With the Labour government having rejected the recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review, and Essay the Tories highly unlikely to adopt them, he appealed directly to teachers to take forward the Review's agenda and announced the launch of a network supporting those who were keen to of multimedia build on the report 'and in Essay many cases have begun to do so': Many of the ledcs countries priorities we nominate will be advanced only if teachers, and the communities they serve, seize the opportunity and the evidence provided by initiatives such as the Cambridge Primary Review, and use them to debate the central educational questions which too often go by default: what primary education is for; what constitutes an enabling and in Prison balanced curriculum; how research on Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have learning and teaching can be translated into classroom practice that fully engages every child; in what kinds of Life decisions about their lives and learning young children can or should be involved; how educational quality and standards should be defined and assessed; and how - individually and in partnership - schools should be organised. In Middle. (Alexander 2010)

The general election was held on Thursday 6 May 2010. There was no overall winner, and after several days of anxious negotiations between the parties, Gordon Brown resigned on 11 May and the Queen invited David Cameron to in Prison form a coalition government of a level Tories and Liberal Democrats. For an analysis of the Life in Prison party manifestos and the policies of the new coalition government, see my article Hobson's Choice: education policies in the 2010 general election (2010). Summary of the period. What are we to make of education in England under Ed Balls? It's a very mixed picture.

On the positive side, he is to be commended for his undoubted commitment to improving the lot of the nation's children, particularly those from poorer families. The Children's Plan was, as we have seen, an ambitious attempt to take a holistic view of the lives and neil's toolbox referencing prospects of children and to bring some much-needed coherence to policy-making by drawing together all the government departments and Life in Prison agencies which impinged upon them. History. This approach was refreshingly new. He was very opposed to selection for secondary education and took steps to prevent schools - especially faith schools - from covertly selecting pupils from more affluent backgrounds. In Prison Essay. He was also determined to crack down on homophobic bullying in neil's referencing schools. On the Life in Prison negative side, it is to be regretted that he was so adamantly committed to maintaining the indefensible testing and league tables regime in England's schools, in the face of widespread hostility from a level parents, teachers and governors, and despite clear evidence of the Life in Prison damage it was causing, not least to the children themselves. It is also regrettable that he was content to ignore the wishes of parents and teachers by continuing to Essay increase the number of academies and trust schools, and that, despite his obvious concerns about faith schools, he was apparently happy to see their numbers grow too. His decision to Life force faith schools to teach sex education properly was welcome. His capitulation in the face of religious lobbying was not. And finally, like many politicians he talked much about returning decision-making to schools and local communities. So it's odd that he still insisted on, for example, compelling schools to use a particular method of teaching reading - 'synthetic phonics' - against ledcs countries the advice of the in Prison Essay world's experts in history coursework the teaching of reading.

But then politicians - of whatever party - never allow the evidence to cloud their judgement. Alexander RJ (ed) (2009b) Children, their World, their Education Final Report and Recommendations of the Essay Cambridge Primary Review London: Routledge. Crace J (2008) 'Long division' The Guardian 11 November. CSFC (2009) National Curriculum: Fourth Report of in middle east Session 2008-09 Volume 1 HC 344-I House of Essay Commons Children Schools and Families Committee London: TSO. DCSF (2007) The Children's Plan Building brighter futures Cm 7280 London: HMSO.

DCSF (2009b) Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned A review of behaviour standards and practices in history our schools Nottingham: DCSF. Mansell W (2009a) 'Big brothers' The Guardian 2 June. Wilby P (2008) 'Jim'll fix it' The Guardian 5 August.

Write My Paper - Essay on Life in Prison - 1771 Words | Bartleby

Nov 17, 2017 Life in Prison Essay,

Best Essay Writers Here - Essay on Life in Prison - 1771 Words | Bartleby

30 Free Printable Resume Templates 2017 to Get a Dream Job. Job search is Essay a time-consuming and nerve-racking process that exhausts all candidates. Ledcs Countries? And I wasn’t an exception. When I was looking for the job of my dreams, I focused mainly on preparing for an interview and neglected to create a professional resume. Essay? I simply opened a Word doc and toolbox referencing, listed my skills, education, and previous part-time jobs I took as a student. The outcome was like someone shut the Life, door in my face. I sent my CV to about 20 companies, and NONE of them got in touch with me. I didn’t expect prompt replies from recruiters, but in a week I understood there was no point to types of multimedia keep on waiting. I even thought something went wrong with my mailbox.

To test it, I sent my CV to my close friend, and he got it. So, the problem wasn’t in my mailbox. It was my CV that failed. Today, I want to share free goodies with you and other desperate job seekers who don’t want to screw up their resumes like I did. How To Make The Perfect Resume [Ultimate Tutorial] Instead of sweating over your CV, you can use a ready-made solution that looks professional, stylish, and eye-catching.

Check out my exclusive set of in Prison Essay 30+ free printable resume templates 2017 . Ledcs Countries? Your CV is the in Prison Essay, only chance to make a favorable first impression on recruiters before the interview, so it’s crucial to polish it from all angles. While the first and foremost thing to focus on is definitely content, you can’t neglect the importance of its structure and history, look. If your CV doesn’t appeal to employers visually, they won’t expect that from you either and will probably throw it off without reading a single line of Life Essay text. You may be the perfect candidate for a vacancy, but no one will ever know it if your resume doesn’t accentuate this fact. According to the estimates revealed at inc.com , every job opening attracts around 250 applicants. So, how can your candidacy stand out among other 249 CVs? In fact, it’s not that hard as it may seem to be. Simply follow a few tips to represent yourself to potential employers as effectively as possible. 1. Choose the toolbox harvard referencing, resume format . Your choice will depend on the priorities you want to in Prison Essay spotlight, i.e. skills, experience, background, etc. A Colorful There Essay? If you need to put emphasis on your experience, previous job titles and companies you worked for, the best option for you is a chronological format of CV.

Those of you who want underline the Life in Prison, skills are advised to use a functional format of CV. What’s cool about types of multimedia this type is a possibility to list the skills you acquired not only at work, but also at Life in Prison Essay, university, voluntary or any other out-of-school organizations. The functional format is Oh What a Colorful Essay especially advantageous for candidates eager to Essay enter a new career field. Furthermore, you can optionally combine two formats to highlight your expertise and skills the same well. 2. Focus on the resume design . History Coursework? Your CV must be attention-getting and memorable, but you shouldn’t achieve such a wow effect by making it content-heavy, excessively colorful or, say, cluttered with multiple unnecessary elements. Try to keep its layout clean, titles clear, information concise, typography readable, and palette eye-friendly. Don’t impose yourself on HR managers. Instead, do your best to deliver your merits to them in a somewhat reserved yet inviting manner.

Compiling this set of free CV templates, we took into account all the mentioned key points. As a result, we picked 30 unique printable resume designs that can keep your content well-structured, consistent and Life in Prison Essay, easy-to-read. You can leave each of coursework them as is or customize a little bit in Life, order to add a personal touch to the presentation of religions in middle your candidacy. Using one of these ready-made templates, you will have an opportunity to get a professional CV at in Prison, no cost and as quick as a flash. In such a way, there will be much more time for types working on the resume content and searching for vacant positions. When choosing the right template for yourself, follow one more tip , please. In Prison Essay? 3. Consider the types of multimedia, industry , in which you’re involved. If you need a job in a traditional sphere, keep your CV a little conservative, but it doesn’t mean plain and dull. Combine streamlined fonts with bold colors to give prominence to the most important details, e.g. headings, dates, etc. Applicants for photography and art-related jobs must show more creativity on the pages of their CVs. They are free to step aside from traditional layouts and use richer visual aesthetics.

Now that you know the key points of choosing the CV design, proceed to Essay 30 free printable resume templates 2017 featured in our hand-picked selection. Simple Snapshot – The Freebie Photo Resume Template. This free resume template is composed of blocks that highlight contact details, work experience, education, skills, and profile. You can also attach a photo to Oh What a Colorful Essay the top of its layout. Light blue is used to accentuate headings for in Prison Essay better content hierarchy. Classy Emerald – A Fancy Word Resume Template Freebie. If you need a classy design for your CV, try this Word template. Its content-packed layout is perfect for engaging employers with various facts, from history coursework experience to education.

An emerald green palette will make your resume easy on the eye. Life In Prison Essay? Subtle Resume Freebie – The Intelligent Applicant. This creative resume template will capture attention of any HR manager. Types? Gray shades can add a formal tone to your CV, while calligraphy fonts will present your content with style. Check out Life Essay a fully scalable and perfectly aligned template for in middle your CV. It features a clean layouts with multiple color options and free fonts. You can edit this print-ready template in Life in Prison Essay, all the CS versions. Religions? For easier use, a help file comes packed into Essay the freebie.

Here is a two-page resume template that you can edit in MS Word. Its text-rich, well-organized layout will help you reveal all your strong points to potential employers. As a bonus, you can also find a template for a cover letter in this package. This print-ready resume template is available in Ms Word, Ai, and neil's referencing, PSD formats. Its parameters include 210 x 297-mm size, 3-mm bleed, 300-dpi resolution and in Prison, CMYK color model.

The template utilizes Open Sans and Oh What You Have There Essay, Font Awesome. For ease of use, there is also a PDF help file in the package. This free package comes with 2 printable CV versions in the AI format and a web CV version in in Prison Essay, PSD , and a business card in AI as a bonus. Check a minimalist PSD solution with an elegant black and Turtle Rampage, white palette, smart content organization, and icons for easier comprehension of the info. Essay? Here is a well-crafted resume template designed in the Infographic style and available in ledcs countries, the PSD format for easy customization. 6 Professional Resume CV Templates. Life Essay? This package contains 6 professionally designed CV templates. Each of them includes a two-page resume and one cover letter. To customize the Rampage Essay, templates, simply insert your photo and replace the Life Essay, default text with yours.

Curriculum Vitae for a Graphic Designer. This free curriculum vitae template in the AI format boasts well-structured blocks and neil's harvard referencing, mild colors for a pleasant view. Graphic Designer Resume Template PSD. Get your dream job with the help of this free professional PSD freebie. Edit it the way you like in the shortest possible time. This freebie is packed with 3 fully layered and editable PSD files of A4 size, 300-dpi resolution, 0.25 bleed, and in Prison, CMYK . The files are designed for creating a resume, portfolio and coursework, cover letter. Each of Life in Prison Essay them boasts a clean look, yellow accents, and Roboto font, which will give a modern look to a level coursework your documents. Freebie 2015 | Graphic Blue Resume. Here is one of the best free CV templates to print.

All the elements of this PSD file are editable, which means you can experiment with its design without any limits. Consider this ready-to-print design if you need a simple yet elegant CV. Life In Prison Essay? This AI vector file features 8.5” x 11” dimensions, 300-dpi resolution, and CMYK color profile. Oh What Mind There? Free PSD Resume Cover Letter Template. Photographers, designers, or any other artistic individuals are advised to Life Essay consider this PSD package. It gives a free access to both a resume and cover letter. The freebie is notable for 3 color options, minimalist icons, and transparent background where you can add your photo or any other image.

Take a look at ledcs countries, another CV template to Life in Prison Essay impress potential employers. East? Available in the AI format, it features ample white space spiced up with green accents and geometric shapes for an edgy look. Here is a contemporary, print-ready and 100% editable PSD design for A4 resumes. This free package is composed of resume, cover letter and business card templates. Free Minimalist Clean Resume Template. This free resume template can be used in both Photoshop and Illustrator . Its major characteristics include A4 size, 300-dpi resolution, 3-mm bleed, Montserrat font, and smart object header. A cover letter is also accessible in this free package. The next free resume template is designed in the form of a brochure.

This PSD file with a thought-out layout can be easily adapted to your preferences. Give a try to in Prison Essay this PSD resume template of 300 dpi with fully editable text and artwork. It makes use of modern tricks including Lato font, Flat Icon and Font Awesome . This tastefully simple PSD template features colorful elements, which will let you attract recruiters’ attention to the most important details instantly. Neil's Toolbox Referencing? Here is an A4 resume template with well-grouped PSD layers and dark layout. The fonts used in its design include Arial, Roboto , and Segoe UI Symbol . In Prison? Let your resume look creative with this ultramodern freebie. It comes with PSD folio pages of a resume and cover letter.

You can also choose from light and dark versions of these designs. Boost your chances to get a desirable job with this professional CV freebie. The template comes in the AI format and 11” x 8” resolution. Oswald from the Google Fonts API was chosen for its typography. Here is a freebie with a two-column layout, star rankings, icons and small yet catchy labels. The template is made is the AI format. This is an in middle exclusive freebie packed with a clean CV and cover letter.

The templates are available in EPS, AI and PSD formats. A logo is also included to the package. This modest PSD -layered template features all the essential resume sections, from education and work experience to awards and personal skills. Its design catches an eye with progress bars and circular pre-loaders. Essay? If you want to give a detailed overview of types your merits in an easy-to-perceive manner, use this well-structured template of A4 size. Its high-quality PSD file is fully customizable. Free Elegant Resume Cover Letter PSD Template.

Here are free layered PSD files to design a successful resume and Life in Prison, cover letter. They come in 2550 x 3284 px , 300 dpi , and of multimedia, 3 color variations. 2 of them boast a white background with colored borders, while the third one has a black and white palette. To edit the files, you are required to use Adobe Photoshop CS4+ . In Prison Essay? Free Professional Resume (CV) Template for Graphic Designers. This free CV design provides an opportunity to express your best qualities with a minimum amount of toolbox harvard words. Made in the AI format, this editable template features an elegant and legible font dubbed Champagne Limousines . Free Simple Professional Resume Template. The austere look of this template makes it perfect for job seekers involved in business, finance, industrial, politics, education and many other fields. This AI file with Larke Sans font can be altered in line with your requirements. Take advantage of a smart information architecture and clean look of this resume template.

Built in the PSD format, the freebie is easy to edit in in Prison Essay, Photoshop . Readability, minimalism, and uncluttered layout are the a level history, main characteristics of this freebie. It can be easily edited in Adobe Illustrator . This three-page resume template in PSD is designed to put emphasis on all the Life, major details, namely the personal info, skills, experience, and hobbies. Look at a free CV template ready to print. Its main properties are as follows: AI format, 300 dpi, CMYK , unlimited resolution as well as editable colors, fonts and icons. Neil's Toolbox Harvard Referencing? To make the Life in Prison Essay, most of this freebie, use a step-by-step PDF guide available in its package. A Level History Coursework? Smart Freebie Word Resume Template – The Minimalist. Life Essay? The next resume freebie has a minimalist yet content-rich design. It will help you reveal your candidacy in You Have There, full to employees. The template is available in Life in Prison, the .doc format, which means you’ll find it easy to customize it. Check out a bundle packed with 12 resume templates, 12 cover letters, and Oh What Mind Essay, a creative portfolio template.

There are also 30 hobbies icons, 50+ social media icons, and vector world maps. You can choose from Word and Indesign file versions. Which one of Essay these 30 free printable resume templates 2017 is toolbox worth a try, in your opinion? Do you know any other noteworthy CV freebies that could be a perfect complement to this set? Feel free to share them in Life Essay, the section of comments to this article.

Those are life saver #128578; Thanks for this nice collection.

Buy Essay Online at Professional Writing Service - Life In Prison Free Essays - StudyMode

Nov 17, 2017 Life in Prison Essay,

Write my essay - Life In Prison Free Essays - StudyMode

frank essay The diary of Life Anne Frank began before Anne’s thirteenth birthday. Anne had seen the types of multimedia book, which was really an autograph book, in a shop window and asked for it for her birthday. Life! She turned it into coursework, her diary and began writing. In July 1942, Margot received a letter from the German authorities demanding that she reported to a working camp in the next few weeks. Life Essay! The family were in a panic and so they moved to the secret annexe. The annexe was a secret floor behind Otto Frank’s business office. They. Nazis inflicted upon the Jews, is the major theme of the diary.

Anne Frank, the young teenage girl who writes the Turtle Rampage diary, experiences the pain of war first-hand. In order to try and escape the Nazi extermination of Jewish people, her family and the Van Daans go into hiding in Amsterdam, Holland. In spite of their efforts to save themselves, all of the Franks and Van Daans are captured and sent to a concentration camp. Only Otto Frank survives the Life ordeal. The pain of adolescence is a second important. door the Achterhuis was covered by a bookcase to ensure that it remained hidden. Anne and her family lived there with 8 other people.

6. Frank described that her relationship with all of the members of her family where so different. She was the closet with her father, as that Margot was more attached to their mother. She had a very difficult relationship with her mother; they had a lot of misunderstandings. Both Anne and Margot hoped that they would be able to return to ledcs countries, school as soon as they where. When Anne started packing getting ready to quickly abandon the trappings of her privileged childhood, to react under pressure in a crisis situation it shows she has a strong survival instinct. Her thoughts are fixed on her family's safety. She also comprehends complicated reasoning about how to avoid capture--such as the fact that she should not pack clothes in her bag, because if they were stopped, the clothes would give them away. There is an obvious struggle shown in in Prison Essay, Anne’s personality, between. Essay on Anne Frank Child of the Holocaust. within a year later they had their first child Margot Betti (Anne‘s sister). Their second daughter Annelies Marie (Anne, for short) was born on ledcs countries 19 June 1929.

In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party came into power in Germany. Life In Prison Essay! As soon as the Nazis were in power they began to treat Jews like enemies. Many Jews decided to leave Germany before they lost more than their jobs. Otto Frank was fortunate to still have a job and a nice house in Turtle Rampage, a bright, modern suburb. Even so, he decided to leave his. The Early Life of Anne Frank Essays.

They moved to a small apartment with Anne being only three years old. They became unwelcome there as well and moved to Alice Frank’s home. Life Essay! A Nazi law was passed that Jewish children could not choose what school to go to, upsetting the Frank family deeply. Soon after, they proposed all schools be cleansed. Many Jewish, homosexual, and communist written books were burned and books bashing Jewish people replaced them. A Colorful You Have There Essay! Otto Frank was offered to be manager for his brother-in-law’s Dutch branch. Thematic Essay on Diary of in Prison Anne Frank.

Her mom constantly does this and it makes Anne furious causing her to ledcs countries, hate her mother at an unbelievable level. In Prison Essay! Later on in Anne’s diary though the theme adolescence is developed when Anne reads through her diary and types of multimedia, is shocked at how negatively she wrote of her mother in past entries. On Page 155 in her entry of December 24, 1943 she wrote “Do you know what I’ve come up with? In order to give me the feeling of calling my mother something that sounds like “Mom,” I often call her “Momsy.” Sometimes. Essay on The Diary of Life in Prison Anne Frank vs. the ledcs countries Hiding Place. alike there are also many things that say they are different. One large difference was how in The Diary of Anne Frank most all of the main characters were Jewish when in the hiding place they were both Christian and Jews. In Prison! There are other reasons too like how or how they both took place in cities hundreds of miles away from each other, but one of the other ones were how in The Diary of Anne Frank there were kids and in The Hiding Place there were no kids. These stories were filled with mayhem and.

The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank Essay. contains accounts of everyday life before and while in types, hiding along with the Life Essay fears, hopes, and ambitions of a young Jewish teenage girl. Anne Frank’s birth took place on June 12, 1929 in Frankfurt, Germany. At the age of Rampage Essay four, Anne’s father, mother, and sister moved to Amsterdam and Anne joined them when she reached the age of five. She lived here and enrolled in Essay, school. Anne loved school and missed it dearly while she lived in hiding. Her outstanding academics resulted in her acceptance into religions east, the Jewish. Essay about Diary Entries from in Prison, Anne Frank. then, apart from getting to a destination safely. I remember packing all my personal belongings and essentials I would need, and obviously Kitty, my most prized possession which is my dear diary, I don’t know what I would do without you.

More later, Anne. Ledcs Countries! Friday, 9th October 1942 Dearest Kitty, I only have traumatising news for you today, many of in Prison my Jewish friends and toolbox referencing, acquaintances are being herded like animals into cattle-trucks. I’ve heard lots of awful rumours, for instance how they supposedly. Essay The Diary of Anne Frank: A Movie Everyone Should Watch. said that she wanted to show who Anne Frank really is. Life In Prison! During the period she was writing her diary, she was “a typical adolescent girl” rather than a good girl. So there would be a lot of a level history coursework conflict between Anne and her mother, she was attracted by boys and she was not easy to get along with. Moggach said that they focused on making the film accurate and real, so in Life Essay, the film audience can see that adults become thin, and kids’ clothes are worn-out. The actress of Anne Frank is Ellie Kendrick, and You Have There, according.

Anne was never a friendly child from the beginning of the Diary and thus, she suffers a rough moment living with Adults with whom she faces numerous differences. In Prison! She therefore, had to endure the frequent confrontations and criticisms, pertaining to her personal conduct but considering her personality, she opted to Oh What Mind There, keep all to herself. Anne is also seen not to get along with her mother, who as compared to his Dad, she says that her mother seems not to understand her and keeps comparing her with her. Comparative Essay on Patty and Anne. troubles of hiding someone else (Anton), Anne had to in Prison, go through the experience of being hidden herself. Another difference is that while Anne was hiding for fear of death, Patty was hiding Anton out of love, and to keep Anton alive. Also, both characters’ experiences involved hiding above a designated room n a secret hideaway; but Patty’s experience was above her garage and Anne’s above an old spice shop (Greene) (Diary of Anne Frank).

Both Patty and Anne dealt with the risk of hiding, and both suffered. Essay Behind the Publication of Anne Frank’s Diary. retrieved the Anne Frank’s diary after the families were arrested and kept the papers safe until Otto Frank returned from Auschwitz. One day Otto Frank knew about Anne and Margot were dead. He told Miep, who then pulled out the packet of papers that Anne had written. No one, even Miep, had read them or even touched them.

How she knew that she could not return the papers to Anne, Miep gave them to ledcs countries, Otto Franks with the words, “This is the legacy of your daughter Anne.” Otto Frank read the diary. Frank never actually flew a plane, but he was given many opportunities to do so, all of which he politely declined or automatically set the plane in auto-pilot. Abagnale took advantage of the fact that his uniform alone came with an image that threw him into the glamour that he craved. Life Essay! He went on expensive spending sprees, all at the expense of Pan Am. He treated many female stewardesses to a Colorful, dinner, and entertainment. He cashed hundreds of cheques which appeared to be written by Pan Am but in reality.

Essay on Anne Hutchinson Biography. He believed that people were saved and sent to heaven by complete faith in Essay, God, and not by holy actions. This later became known as the Covenant of Grace. This was the Covenant that Anne strongly believed in, especially after the death of her two daughters, this was the only thing that consoled her, she was convinced that God's love was more important than good works. But the more she and others believed in harvard referencing, it, the more the Church of England wanted to stop it.

After John Cotton's. jobs so that he could save up money to become a published writer. He traveled near and far trying to Life in Prison, find a steady job. Herbert’s wife, Beverly, even gave up on toolbox harvard her own writing aspirations so that Herbert could have enough money to in Prison, keep his going. (Frank Herbert Dune). While he was struggling with poverty, Herbert found science fiction as an escape from his worries. Herbert was not always fascinated by science fiction, but he discovered it later in his life, and it ended up being the a level genre he mostly. eaves; the endless tatami mats; the fusuma and shoji panels used to reshape rooms; the union of interior and exterior spaces. In these traditional structures, he found confirmation of the organic design principles he had been developing for a decade” (Frank Lloyd Wright's Westcott House) . Wright’s design philosophy centered on. the federal government. This adequate traditional subsistence resulted in the greater maintenance of tribal sovereignty and cultural autonomy (e.g., ceremonies, songs, dances) by the Nisqually. As a people and a culture they were “in tact.” (Billy Frank interview video) By the end of the nineteenth century, state governments like Washington had responded to growing numbers of sports hunters and outlawed the sale of Life in Prison Essay almost all game meat, so that hunting was reserved for recreational purposes.

Frank McCourt in Angela#x27;s Ashes Essay. Although Frank hated his father for religions many things, he still loved him for he was his dad. Malachy would get up in the morning with Frank and Essay, tell him stories about Cuchulain, and then they would have their tea and a cut of bread together. Frank loved his mornings with his father as it was just the two of them and he had him all to himself. In Middle East! When Frank thought about Life in Prison Essay, having a different father, he would think about their morning together and would decide he was happy with him as. Frank Mccourt Angelas Ashes Essay. when she was well, she would go to the dispensary to beg for money for food or cloths for Oh What Mind You Have the kids. That was a really difficult time for the children. Living on bread and tea was their daily routine and Essay, they were lucky if they even had that much. Frank the oldest of the ledcs countries McCourt’s kids was trying to find a way to feed his hungry brothers Malachy, Michael and Alphie and the sick mother.

I can’t even imagine what those kids had to experience. That was just too sad and Essay, too devastating. Ledcs Countries! Even the mother’s. The Influence of Frank Lloyd Wright on Frank Gehry in in Prison Essay, the Design of his Own House. (Friedman M. In Middle! , 2003, p. 54) Through his work, Frank Gehry can be considered as an artist rather than an Life architect. His own house is one of the best works of art he has ever produced. In many of Gehry’s early works such as the neil's toolbox referencing Danziger building , we learn about in Prison Essay, his worry of “the translation of ideas through the many people involved in ledcs countries, the process of making a bulding” (Friedman M. , 2003, p. Essay! 44), which according to him “drain the harvard strength and power out of an idea” (Friedman M. , 2003, p. 44); but in. The Threat of Life in Prison Anne Hutchinson Essay.

of men and women married under the Puritan religion were clearly defined. Although looked at as equals in the eyes of God, the wives were expected to types, help with and supplement their husband's public activities (D, p. 33). This is where I feel Anne Hutchinson found herself out of favor with Colonial Governor John Winthrop. Winthrop, who would oversee the trial of Life in Prison Essay Hutchinson, seemed to be an ledcs countries extremist of Life sorts when it came to the role of women under the Puritan religion. He believed women. is the interruption of the regular flow of rhythm, which creates the types influence of the uneven centre of the Life Essay artwork. With this influence it creates two contrasting elements; rich colour, caged in by a highly- disciplined and complicated structure. Frank Stella preferred himself to be more of an innovator, more so than following the innovation of others artists and coursework, artworks. He was a very independent and unique artist, and that’s why I find him so fascinating and inspiring. Stella grew up with a generation. Virgin and Child with Saint Anne Essay.

research indicates the rocks, mountain streams, and Life in Prison Essay, escarpments of his childhood made up his private landscape in his paintings (Bramly 86). Leonardo depicts the women as sister like in religions in middle, age even though they are indeed mother and daughter. Saint Anne, the mother of in Prison Virgin and Child, sits with her daughter on her lap. The Virgin is types of multimedia, half rising from her sitting position and she appears to want to restrain her daughter from Life in Prison Essay, separating the Child and lamb (Kemp 273). It is religions, unusual for Mary to be portrayed. Essay about compare franks victims in the wasp factory. Frank has mentioned in Essay, the book that he greatly despises his mother so because Paul is related to types, her Frank sees his death inevitable. Frank was eight years old when he killed five year old Paul. Frank found a bomb and said that it was a bell and told Paul to hit it when he gives the signal ultimately leading to Life, Paul’s demise. What makes the reader feel sympathy for Paul and completely change their views of is that Paul is illustrated to religions in middle, be completely innocent a naive. ‘The noise jus after sumday.

Child Abuse: Frank and Ileana Fuster Essay. evidence against Life the Fusters' was that of Frank and Ileana's own son, Noel. Noel was the only child that physically showed signs of abuse. Religions East! The other children than had come forth showed no signs of sexual abuse. Noel, however, when tested, tested positiv for Life in Prison gonorrhea of the throat. The test has been questioned, because the evidence was destroyed three days after the test and the ability to retest the evidence was now unable to occur (A Summary of the Frank Fuster. NP).

Noel told Dr. Joseph Braga. Anne Bronte#x27;s Agnes Grey and the Critics Essay. Anne began to make revisions of Oh What You Have There Essay Agnes Grey in hopes that a second edition would be published. However, Anne was unable to finish her revisions and died in Life in Prison Essay, 1848. Charlotte Bronte began to finish the coursework revisions of Agnes Grey and had a second edition published in 1850. Within this edition and publication, Charlotte chose to write an Essay introduction and helped to greatly influence the literary reputation of her sister. To have a better understanding of Agnes Grey and ledcs countries, its critics, one.

Economic Discrimination in Life, Frank McCourt#x27;s Angela’s Ashes Essay. in it” (McCourt 184). Types! Angela recognizes the class distinction and Life in Prison Essay, is depressed by it because if the church will not accept their poverty, who else will? The second time that Frank is a Colorful Mind You Have, turned down by the church, he is attempting to study for Life Essay the priesthood. Both his teachers and types, a librarian have told Frank’s parents that Frank is destined for Life in Prison Essay the priesthood so they decide that he will study to become a priest. Coursework! He is Life Essay, turned down once again and once again Angela is ledcs countries, infuriated and declares, “That’s the. The Dodd-Frank Act and Proxy Access Essay. In this proposal, the Dodd-Frank Act would mandate that the Essay SEC requires an investor or group of investors to own at least 5% of a firm's shares for at least two years before obtaining the access to the firm's proxy.

Before the proposal announcement, the SEC had proposed a tiered system, with minimum holdings of 1%, 3%, and history coursework, 5% for firms with market capitalizations greater than $700 million (“large firm”), between $75 and $700 million (“medium firm”), and less than $75 million (“small firm”), respectively. Essay on Anne Carson#x27;s Manipulation of Fragments of Sappho. In this scene, two women who are flirting casually bring up Anne Carson and how her books have “practically changed my [her] life” (“The L Word” Season 1 Episode 1). In Prison Essay! Within the next few minutes these two characters were engaging in sexual acts in types, a nearby bathroom. In Prison! Here, Carson’s literature was the motivation for these women to engage in erotic behaviors. Due to the popularity of her texts, which depict the “extremes of passion and eroticism,” Carson has developed a large following that look to Oh What a Colorful Mind There, ancient.

Dodd-Frank and in Prison, Sarbanes-Oxley Acts Essay. SOXs relationship to the financial market is its attempt to protect communities, investors, and markets from illegitimate financial practices and a Colorful Mind You Have There Essay, their effects. Similarities between the Acts: As previously mentioned, Sarbanes-Oxley Act and Dodd-Frank Act has certain similarities because of Essay their focus in promoting the Oh What a Colorful Mind There health and vitality of financial markets. One of the similarities in these regulations is their basic focus on dealing with fraud, which significantly affects an organization’s revenues. Emotional Conflict of Puritan Belief - Anne Bradstreet Essay. grandchildren went to a peaceful place to rest referring to heaven. Puritans believed that women were to take care of Life Essay their husband and children. They were not believed to be able to write and needed to toolbox harvard, be attending to their household chores.

Anne Bradstreet commonly brought her frustration towards the way women were treated in Life in Prison Essay, her poetry particularly “The Prologue”. It becomes apparent in Anne’s poetry that she is bothered by cultural bias in her time: I am obnoxious to Turtle, each carping tongue. Essay about Roger Williams and Life, Anne Hutchinson. from the Church of England, but repent that they had ever served it. Religions! Fourth the civil state should not be involved in matters of in Prison Essay religion. It should focus on protecting public peace and the protection of its people and their property. (NAAL 174) Anne Hutchinson, after being put on trial for defaming the ministers and being deemed unfit for society, was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

She believed that people are responsible directly to God, not the coursework church, for their actions and that. Anne Bradstreet: Thoughts Towards of Her Husband Essay. of conversation than other writing as the Author Huger Jervey says. From his writings “distance how far” is really not issue for the poet. However, he also says, this types of letter may contain fullness of warmth and wild softness. I believe that, Anne Bradstreet wrote same pattern poem to her husband which addresses by her spoken word seem in bad taste and chilled in Essay, general and Mind Essay, sex appeal in particular. The author also claims, sometime “nature sentiment” could be able to wet into sentimentally. Analysis of Anne Moody#x27;s Coming of Age in Mississippi Essay. mother gets upset with her and asks her to never mention it around any white person. Life In Prison Essay! Moody felt frustrated that all these years that she had been sheltered from the truth and she felt dumb for never having opened her eyes to all the horror. Anne Moody joined her first NAACP chapter while attending one of the best African American colleges in types, the state, Tugaloo College.

She became so engrossed in the movement that her grades began to Essay, drop. This did not seem to bother her much, though, for she. Coming of Oh What a Colorful You Have Essay Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody Essay. The living conditions for colored people meant, live in poverty or die because of starvation. In the beginning of the novel Anne Moody’s life is Life, made real by showing, how African American’s lived in the south.

Most African Americans were left jobless after world war two demoted from their middle class positions to janitorial staff or less. Anne Moody made it apparent, “White businesses in town employed Negroes as janitors only, and there was never more than one janitor in any single business” (Moody. Compare and contrast Anne Hathaway and types of multimedia, Frau Freud in Duffy’s. Another reason why ‘Anne Hathaway’ is written in sonnet form is that sonnets are often love poems which it obviously is. ‘Frau Freud’ is not a love poem so there must be a different reason why it is Life, written in sonnet form, it could have been used ironically, it does not contain romance and Oh What a Colorful, feeling so could be seen as ironic using a form to express these two outlets of human emotion in a bitter, contemptuous poem. A second argument for the strange use of in Prison sonnet form could be that a sonnet. Frank McCourt’s Childhood: A Tale of Desperation, Heartache, and Dreams of a Better Life.

Deprived of a proper male role model one must wonder if Frank will abandon his father’s destructive way of life and learn from Malachy’s mistakes or will Frank develop the in middle east same need for liquor. Frank notes that when his father comes home singing Roddy McCorley, he has generally had that taste of a pint or two. However if Malachy comes home singing Kevin Barry he is generally “falling down drunk and ready to get us out of bed, line us up and make us promise to die for Ireland” (McCourt 95). Malachy’s. Essay Computers Taking over Books Response to Anne Prolux. In her essay, Anne Proulx says, “No one is going to read a novel on a twitchy little screen”. If this is true, why are there millions of e-book sales? According Latest Wholesale eBook Sales Figures Released by Andrew Savikas, last year, the in Prison Essay e-book market increased.

The Art of Diction in Anne Sexton#x27;s Music Swims Back to Me Essay. Anne Sexton also accomplishes her goal of in middle laying down a tone and setting with her diction. By using carefully selected phrases to the effect of, strangled cold, stars were strapped in the sky / and that moon to Life in Prison, bright / forking through the bars to stick me / with a singing in the head / I have forgotten all the rest. Sexton conveys darkness and an eerie sense and style of imagery. The darkness that is conveyed helps set the Oh What Mind Essay strange mood that is of a dark and black humor. Essay! When Anne Sexton. Interpersonal Conflict Between Noah, Allie and Anne Hamilton in #x27;The Notebook#x27; to late, and later went on to say how she did not like that she was spending all her time with Noah. After Noah was instructed to have a seat outside the room; what was first a discussion later turned into Turtle Essay, an argument between Allie and her parents. Anne starts off by Life, calling Noah malicious names such as trash, and insisted that Noah was not the man for her. Her mother said that Allie should give up her summer romance, because she could become pregnant or heartbroken. This scene relates to chapter.

Women Empowerment: The Construction of Female Gender in Anne of Green Gables Little Women. According to Victor Watson point out, Anne is “uneasily situated between two worlds: the traditional nineteenth-century female domain of house and family, and the more modern sphere shaped by the claims of Turtle Rampage individualism” (39). In her work Montgomery clearly shows the difficulties for Life Essay a young girl to find a balance between personal development and devotion to social duties. Ledcs Countries! Louisa May Alcott also struggled with the ideal image of the “true woman”, as in Life Essay, her eyes it limited a woman’s personal development. Otto Frank had earlier toyed with the idea of emigrating, and in 1933 the family fled from Frankfurt to the Netherlands, where Otto Frank continued his career as a businessman. Otto Frank tenia anteriormente jugo con la idea de emigrar, y en 1933 la familia huyo de Francia a los Paises Bajos, donde Otto Frank continuo su carrera como empresario. Neil's Toolbox! In 1938 Anne Frank's two uncles escaped to the United States. En 1938, dos tios de Ana Frank huyo a los Estados Unidos. After the Nazi occupation of The. supplies. “On September 15, 1918, Capra graduated from Throop with his bachelor's degree” (Jon C. Hopwood).

Frank Capra was sent to Life, Presidio at San Francisco since he was inducted in the U.S. Army. Ledcs Countries! At Presidio, Capra caught the Spanish influenza and Life, was sent back home. He lived with his mother and would work manual labor jobs. Ledcs Countries! Capra had trouble finding a decent job, even though he . While Frank Capra visited San Francisco, he had “answered a newspaper advertisement placed by an actor who was looking. Essay Theories Behind Frank Lucas. Frank Lucas (born September 9, 1930) was a heroin dealer and organized crime boss in Harlem during the late 1960s and early 1970s. In Prison! He was mostly known for his direct drug trade by buying heroin directly from types of multimedia, his source in Life in Prison Essay, Southeast Asia. He organized the smuggling of heroin by using the coffins of dead American servicemen (AE television Network, 2008). Frank Lucas’ life of history coursework crime began when he was six years old, what triggered his deviants was the death of his thirteen year old cousin when five.

She recalls, “Thousands of people just took off, leaving most of their leaders at the podium. It was kind of funny to watch the in Prison leaders run to overtake the march. The way some of them had been leading the of multimedia people in the past, perhaps the people were better off leading themselves” (Moody, 334). Moody had begun to realize that passive strategies were not an effective and practical way to change laws. She had begun to realize that Negroes might have to Life Essay, meet violence with violence if they ever wanted. When it comes to delivering a piece of literature that has been a part of our culture for centuries, one does not ruin that “sacred sect” if you will, where audiences go to be belittled and Turtle Essay, shown ideals for a life that many times does not deliver. When the in Prison Essay reader starts off the story, they can’t help but wonder what maze they are being driven through when they find that there are modern descriptions to Turtle Rampage Essay, a dated tale. In Prison! When Sexton uses the ending, “That story.” she is Oh What a Colorful Mind You Have, demonstrating sarcasm and Life, relating. The Real Monster, Victor Frank Essays. (75)'; This statement made by Victor Frankenstein shows how selfish he is. Oh What A Colorful! Near the Essay end of the novel, the creature says: 'I shall be with you on your wedding night. (164)'; Victor Frankenstein never even thinks that it will kill his wife; he just thinks that it will kill him, which is another sign of selfishness.

Another trait that makes Victor Frankenstein the real monster is his animosity and rejection of the creation. From the beginning, Frankenstein abhorred the monster, this is visible. Salome and Anne Hathaway in Carol Anne Duffy#x27;s Poems Essay. There are two views to this story. The first being that Salome fancied John but knew she couldn't have him alive so decided to have him dead.

The other view, which I personally believe, is Oh What a Colorful Mind Essay, that, as John didn't like Salome's mother's sinful relationship with King Herod, Salome was following orders to have John dead. Essay! I thought before reading the in middle poem that Salome was a cruel, callous, mad individual. My view didn't change once I had read the poem either. In the Essay poem Salome.